nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2015‒09‒26
fifty-four papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Transboundary Haze Polluters and Accountability: The Legal Landscape in Indonesia and Malaysia By HANIM KAMARUDDIN; CECEP AMINUDDIN
  2. Climate damages on production or on growth: what impact on the social cost of carbon By Céline Guivarch; Antonin Pottier
  3. An Alternative Reference Scenario for Global CO2Emissions from Fuel Consumption: An ARFIMA Approach By José M. Belbute; Alfredo Marvão Pereira
  4. Sustainability and food & nutrition security: A vulnerability assessment framework for the Mediterranean region By Paolo Prosperi; Thomas Allen; Martine Padilla; Luri Peri; Bruce Cogill
  5. REDD+ Impacts: Evidence from Nepal By Bishnu Prasad Sharma; Subhrendu Pattanayak; Mani Nepal; Priya Shyamsundar; Bhaskar S. Karky
  6. Is Environmental Policy by Public Procurement Effective? By Lundberg, Sofia; Marklund, Per-Olov; Strömbäck, Elon
  7. Can Land Use Regulations and Taxes Help Mitigate Vehicular CO2 emissions?: An Empirical Study of Japanese Cities By Iwata, Kazuyuki; Managi, Shunsuke
  8. The consumption-based carbon footprint of households in Sulawesi, Jambi and Indonesia as a whole in 2013 By Mohammad Iqbal Irfany; Stephan Klasen; Rezky Syahrezal Yusuf
  9. The long-run relationship between CO2 emissions and economic activity in a small open economy: Uruguay 1882 - 2010. By Matias Piaggio; Emilio Padilla; Carolina Roman
  10. Do we care about sustainability? An analysis of time sensitivity of social preferences under environmental time-persistent effects. By Michela Faccioli; Nick Hanley; Catalina M. Torres Figuerola; Antoni Riera Font
  11. Smart hedging against carbon leakage By Böhringer, Christoph; Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Briseid Storrøsten, Halvor
  12. From Ambition to Execution: Policies in Support of Sustainable Development Goals By Stefania Fabrizio; Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu; Catherine A. Pattillo; Adrian Peralta-Alva; Andrea Presbitero; Baoping Shang; Geneviève Verdier; Marie-Thérèse Camilleri; Kazuaki Washimi; Lisa Kolovich; Monique Newiak; Martin Cihak; Inci Otker-Robe; Luis-Felipe Zanna; Carol L. Baker
  13. Can French environmental taxes really turn into green taxes ? By Mireille Chiroleu-Assouline
  14. The antecedents of corporate sustainability performance By Salina Daud
  15. Green Management Indicators & Environmental Sustainability: hAn ISM based approach By SAAD BIN AZHAR; PARVAIZ TALIB
  16. The Cost of Greening Stimulus: A Dynamic Discrete Choice Analysis of Vehicle Scrappage Programs By Chao Wei; Shanjun Li
  17. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions from Electricity: The Influence of The North Atlantic Oscillation By Di Cosmo, Valeria
  18. Public Economics and Sustainable Developments Policy By U.Sankar
  20. Implementing Bioremediation Technologies to Degrade Chemical Warfare Agents and Explosives from War Affected Regions in Sri Lanka By Elackiya Sithamparanathan
  21. Policy by Public Procurement: Opportunities and Pitfalls By Strömbäck, Elon
  22. Procedural Environmental Rights and Environmental Justice: Assessing the Impact of Environmental Constitutionalism By Joshua C. Gellers; Christopher Jeffords
  23. Energy Security of Resource-poor Countries: a New Paradigm of Conceptual Framework By Lixia YAO
  24. Ökobilanz-Daten für holzbasierte Möbel By Wenker, Jan L.; Rüter, Sebastian
  25. Using public procurement to implement environmental policy: an empirical analysis By Lundberg, Sofia; Marklund, Per-Olov; Strömbäck, Elon; Sundström, David
  26. Market pull instruments and the development of wind power in Europe: a counterfactual analysis By Marc Baudry
  27. Testing the Relationships between Energy Consumption, CO2 emissions and Economic Growth in 24 African Countries: a Panel ARDL Approach By Simplice Asongu; Ghassen El Montasser; Hassen Toumi
  28. Game Theory of Green and Non-green Oriented Productions: Dried Longan Enterprises By CHANITA PANMANEE; ROENGCHAI TANSUCHAT; AREE CHEAMUANGPHAN; KASEM KUNASRI; NISACHON LEERATTANAKORN
  29. Multinational firms and the internationalization of green R&D: A review of the evidence and policy implications By Joëlle Noailly; David Ryfisch
  30. Biofuel Feedstock Cultivation in India: Implications for Food Security and Rural Livelihoods By K.S. Kavi Kumar; R.S. Soundar Rajan; R. Manivasagan
  31. Green consumer behavior: Chiang Mai Thailand By Nisachon Leerattanakorn
  32. Transient and Persistent Energy Efficiency in the US Residential Sector: Evidence from Household-level Data By Massimo Anna Alberini; Massimo Filippini
  33. Attitude to the National Leader Through the Lenses of Investment Climate Assessment: The Case of Russia By Andrei Yakovlev; Irina Levina; Anastasia Kazun
  34. Service innovation for sustainability: paths for greening through service innovation By Faridah Djellal; Faïz Gallouj
  35. The Role of Buyer Power in Public Procurement Auctions: An Empirical Analysis By Strömbäck, Elon
  36. Time Series Analysis of Global Temperature Distributions: Identifying and Estimating Persistent Features in Temperature Anomalies By Yoosoon Chang; Chang Sik Kim; J. Isaac Miller; Joon Y. Park; Sungkeun Park
  37. Discovering user recreational values for local public services: Attitudes and perspectives regarding a country park’s facilities By Michael Brock; Charles Lester
  40. An Exit Strategy to Resolve Waste Water Pollution from Batik Industry along the Watershed of Pekalongan River, Indonesia By Mayanggita Kirana; Indah Susilowati
  41. Does EMAS foster innovation in European firms? An empirical investigation By Fabio Montobbio; Ilaria Solito
  42. The European Cultural Routes as engine for sustainable development. The case of Via Francigena in Tuscany By Enrico Conti; Sabrina Iommi; Stefano Rosignoli; Leonardo Piccini
  43. Willingness to pay for a differentiated potato applying a choice modelling experiment by socioeconomics levels of Argentinean consumers By Rodríguez, Elsa Mirta M.; Lupín, Beatriz; González, Julia
  44. Dezvoltarea durabila a agro-turismului in Uniunea European si in Romania By Daniela, Antonescu; Raluca-Mirela, Antonescu
  45. The role of crop diversity in household production and food security in Uganda: A gender-differentiated analysis. FOODSECURE Working Paper No 32. By Katia Alejandra Covarrubias
  46. Is Government Debt a Vamp? Public Finance in a Transylvanian Growth Model By Maxime Menuet; Patrick Villieu
  47. Migration and Deforestation in Indonesia By Rivayani Darmawan; Stephan Klasen; Nunung Nuryantono
  48. As the Wind Blows: The Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution on Mortality By Michael L. Anderson
  49. Unpacking investment decisions in biorefineries By Hansen, Teis; Coenen, Lars
  50. Renewable Energy Policies and the Solar Home System in Cambodia By Han Phoumin
  51. Critical Minerals Today and in 2030: An Analysis for OECD Countries By Renaud Coulomb; Simon Dietz; Maria Godunova; Thomas Bligaard Nielsen
  52. Action levers for a sustainable farmland management in Niger By Tankari, Mahamadou Roufahi
  53. A Study of Green Marketing Practices in the Food Processing Industry of India By Farheen Khan; SHAMIM AHMAD
  54. Klima- und Energiepolitik in Deutschland: Dissens und Konsens By Andor, Mark A.; Frondel, Manuel; Schmidt, Christoph M.; Simora, Michael; Sommer, Stephan

    Abstract: In the second last quarter of 1997, the haze experience affected many countries in South East Asia (SEA) particularly Indonesia and Malaysia. These countries became unwilling victims of slash and burn or burning activities for land clearing purposes carried out in their own forestlands, mostly by foreign vested agricultural companies and local farmers. The impacts of severe haze caused by manmade burning activities in these neighbouring countries at that particular time transcended both borders into other parts of SEA and resulted into economic losses and damages, loss of biodiversity and impacts on human health. It was alleged that agricultural companies that were mostly oil palm concessionaires had used fire as a tool to clear forests including peatland areas to transform the areas into readily planted areas despite the fact that Indonesia and Malaysia were well aware of the need for strict law enforcement. Implementation and changes in domestic laws of Indonesia and Malaysia since the 1997 haze occurrence had proved to be quite challenging in dealing with issues of local burning and prevention thereof. The enforcement to penalise foreign based companies in Indonesia and Malaysia is slow and plagued with issues related to alleged cronyism and corruption, lack of awareness and education, weaknesses in institutional framework and lack of political will. In addition, the penalties imposed are too low that it is insufficient to deter further acts of environmental pollution by these companies. Whilst these limitations hinders effective enforcement in both countries, incidences of forest fires leading to transboundary haze pollution becomes more imminent particularly between March to October each year. Hence, it is suffice to conclude that domestic laws have been insufficient to control and prevent transboundary haze from activities by foreign vested agricultural companies in Indonesia or Malaysia. As these companies have Indonesian or Malaysian interests that carry out agricultural activities in either countries, an external regulation should be explored to complement and support internal regulation in each country to ensure that the activities of these transnational companies are undertaken within the confines of environmental standards and ASEAN notion of cooperation. Thus, a legitimate legislative framework to impose and enforce internationally environmental standards recognised under human rights obligations upon the overseas activities of the plantation corporations incorporate within the host state’s territory may be feasible to imposing accountability to haze polluters in Indonesia and Malaysia.
    Keywords: haze, polluters, Malaysia, Indonesia, accountability, companies.
    JEL: K32 Q53 K33
  2. By: Céline Guivarch (CIRED); Antonin Pottier (Mines ParisTech)
    Abstract: Recent papers have investigated with Integrated Assessment Models the possibility that climate damages bear on productivity growth and not on production, the traditional route that follows Nordhaus's work. According to these papers, damages on growth lead to a higher social cost of carbon (SCC). Here, we reconsider the evidence with the introduction of a measure of the amount of damages, to allow the comparison between alternative representations of damages. We build a simple climate-economy model and compare three damages specifications: quadratic damages on production, linear damages on growth and quadratic damages on growth. We show that when total damages are the same, the ranking of SCC between a model with damages on production and a model with damages on growth is not unequivocal. It depends on welfare parameters such as the utility discount rate or the elasticity of marginal social utility of consumption. The difference in SCC comes both from when damages occur and from their total amount.
    Keywords: Climate change, damages, social cost of carbon, growth
    JEL: Q54 Q51
    Date: 2015–09
  3. By: José M. Belbute (Department of Economics, University of Évora, Portugal); Alfredo Marvão Pereira (Department of Economics, The College of William and Mary)
    Abstract: We provide alternative reference forecasts for global CO2 emissions based on an ARFIMA model estimated with annual data from 1750 to 2013. These forecasts are free from additional assumptions on demographic and economic variables that are commonly used in reference forecasts, as they only rely on the properties of the underlying stochastic process for CO2emissions, as well as on all the observed information it incorporates. In this sense, these forecasts are more based on fundamentals. Our reference forecast suggests that in 2030, 2040 and 2050, in the absence of any structural changes of any type, CO2 would likely be at about 25%, 34% and 39.9% above 2010 emission levels, respectively. These values are clearly below the levels proposed by other reference scenarios available in the literature. This is important, as it suggests that the ongoing policy goals are actually within much closer reach than what is implied by the standard CO2reference emission scenarios. Having lower and more realistic reference emissions projections not only gives a truer assessment of the policy efforts that are needed, but also highlights the lower costs involved in mitigation efforts, thereby maximizing the likelihood of more widespread energy and environmental policy efforts.
    Keywords: Forecasting, reference scenario, CO2 emissions, long memory, ARFIMA
    JEL: C22 C53 O13 Q47 Q54
    Date: 2015–08–31
  4. By: Paolo Prosperi (MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement - IAMM, IAMM - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier, UniCT - Università degli Studi di Catania); Thomas Allen (Bioversity International); Martine Padilla (IAMM - Institut Agronomique Méditerranéen de Montpellier); Luri Peri (UniCT - Università degli Studi di Catania); Bruce Cogill (Bioversity International)
    Abstract: Recurrent food crises and climate change, along with habitat loss and micronutrient deficiencies, are global issues of critical importance that have pushed food security and environmental sustainability to the top of the political agenda. Analyses of the dynamic linkages between food consumption patterns and environmental concerns have recently received considerable attention from the international and scientific community. Using the lens of a broad sustainability approach, this conceptual article aims at developing a multidimensional framework to evaluate the sustainability of food systems and diets, applicable to countries of the Mediterranean region. Derived from natural disaster and sustainability sciences, a vulnerability approach, enhanced by inputs from the resilience literature, has been adapted to analyze the main issues related to food and nutrition security. Through causal factor analysis, the resulting conceptual framework improves the design of information systems or metrics assessing the interrelated environmental, economic, social, and health dynamics of food systems.
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Bishnu Prasad Sharma; Subhrendu Pattanayak; Mani Nepal; Priya Shyamsundar; Bhaskar S. Karky
    Abstract: Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD and REDD+) is an international mechanism for mitigating climate change impacts. The ambitiously designed architecture that makes REDD+ win-win for high emitting developed countries and forest rich developing countries has led to high hopes and expectations as well as a fear of failure. However, we do not as yet know if and whether REDD+ would succeed. This paper discusses the findings from one of the first rigorous quasi-experimental studies using a 'before-after-control-intervention' design that encompass all major aspects of REDD+: forest carbon and bio-physical, ecological, livelihood and welfare. The analysis of the outcome indicators from two years of REDD+ incentive payments indicate that there are positive signs of improved forest condition for carbon additionality and livelihood improvements, while no harm has been done to local livelihoods, which is generally feared in REDD+ literature. Although there is no change in forest carbon components in REDD+ communities compared to controls, important changes are observed in ecological indicators such as reduction in forest fires, timber extraction and encroachments that could contribute to carbon enhancement in the future. We find a decline in the share of firewood in household cooking that is consistent with the observed increase in biogas, a cleaner and convenient renewable energy source. These findings support the broader sense that REDD+ initiatives must and can work in tandem with other global initiatives (e.g., ENERGY + and the Sustainable Development Goals), in this case, indicating that a shift to biogas fuel could improve livelihoods and ensure REDD+ success in Nepal.
    Keywords: Sustainable forest management, forest carbon, livelihood, REDD+ impact
  6. By: Lundberg, Sofia (Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics); Marklund, Per-Olov (Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics); Strömbäck, Elon (Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: Advocates of green public procurement (GPP) argue that the public sector can use its purchasing power to influence producers and consumers to reduce their negative impact on the environment. Our aim is to assess GPP as an environmental policy instrument and its ability to lead to the achievement of environmental objectives. Central to our analysis is the extent to which polluting firms choose to adapt to the public sector’s environmental requirements and to invest in greener technologies. Our theoretical finding is that the potential of GPP to function as an objective effective instrument of environmental policy is limited and can actually be counterproductive. From an environmental policy point of view, it is crucial that the GPP aims for an environmental standard beyond the technology of the polluting firms and is designed with reference to defined environmental objectives.
    Keywords: auctions; compliance cost; environmental policy; endogenous entry; sustainability
    JEL: D44 H57 Q01 Q28
    Date: 2015–09–15
  7. By: Iwata, Kazuyuki; Managi, Shunsuke
    Abstract: This study advocates a multi-dimensional urban planning strategy to help combat climate change under local—and not national—policies. However, the literature does not provide adequate guidance to local governments seeking to enhance urbanization and in turn reduce vehicular carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Therefore, this study sheds light on the effects of the following four urban planning instruments on vehicular CO2 emissions: urbanization promoting areas, urbanization control areas, urban planning taxes and property taxes. Using Japanese city-level data from 1990 to 2010, we find that the two urbanization area planning instruments and the urban planning taxes help lower emissions by increasing population density in low-density cities and that property taxes help reduce emissions in high-density cities. However, the increased population density associated with these instruments can lead to other negative outcomes, including increased traffic accidents, increased crime and a decrease in the facility condition index. City governments should consider complementary policies to mitigate such negative outcomes when employing planning instruments aiming to increase population density.
    Keywords: urbanization, population density, land use taxes, land use regulations, carbon dioxide emissions, multiple outcome
    JEL: Q58 R52 R58
    Date: 2015–08
  8. By: Mohammad Iqbal Irfany (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Stephan Klasen (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Rezky Syahrezal Yusuf (Georg-August-University Göttingen)
    Abstract: This study analyzes the consumption-based carbon footprint of households in Sulawesi, Jambi and Indonesia as a whole. Combining the use of the GTAP data for emission intensities, of input-output tables for inter-industry linkages with household expenditure categories, we then estimate and calculate the carbon footprint from household consumption, including its drivers, pattern and decomposition of increasing household emission intensities. We find that the main driver of carbon footprint is overall household income, but that differentials in fuel, light and transportation expenditures are key drivers of the household carbon footprint. These expenditures also ensure that the carbon footprint of household in Jambi is higher than in Indonesia as a whole, despite lower per capita incomes. At the same time, substantially lower income inequality in Jambi ensures that the inequality in the carbon footprint is much lower in Jambi than in Indonesia as a whole; particularly noteworthy is the poorer quintiles in Jambi have substantially higher emissions than average Indonesian households in the same quintiles. In Sulawesi, average emissions are much lower and also not as unequal than in Indonesia as a whole. Overall expenditures are by far the most important driver of household carbon emissions, but in Jambi, emissions are higher at all expenditure levels, suggesting particularly carbon-intensive consumption patterns.
    Keywords: Development economics; carbon footprint; household emissions; comparison of Sulawesi, Jambi, and National SUSENAS
    JEL: Q54 D12 O13
    Date: 2015–09–19
  9. By: Matias Piaggio (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía); Emilio Padilla (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona (España). Department of Applied Economics); Carolina Roman (Universidad de la República (Uruguay). Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y de Administración. Instituto de Economía)
    Abstract: The long-run relationship between carbon dioxide emissions from energy use and economic activity level is estimated for Uruguay between 1882 and 2010. We apply cointegration techniques and estimate a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) for testing whether these variables are endogenous over the long-rung while also considering the short-run dynamics. The economic productive structure, the degree of openness, and the share of clean sources on total energy supply are also considered as explanatory variables. The results show that there exists a linear relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and per capita economic activity level. Moreover, emissions increase jointly with the industrial sector participation in total output, as a consequence of the intensity of this activity in the consumption of energy from fossil fuels sources. The degree of openness is inversely related with carbon dioxide emissions. This is so because the periods of major opening were based on primary inputs exports, lower in energy intensity than industrial products. The changes in carbon dioxide emission are inversely related to the variation in the share of clean sources on total energy supply. Finally, all the variables included in the cointegration vector are endogenous, adjusting together to the deviations from the long-run relationship. As a consequence of the above, economic growth appears to be not enough for diminishing Uruguayan emissions in the long-run. Changes in the energy matrix should be encouraged, and emissions reduction should come not by energy constraints but by the development of clean sources or energy use efficiency improvements, given the impact of energy on economic activity level.
    Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions, cointegration techniques, Uruguay, Environmental Kuznets Curve
    JEL: Q43 C32 Q56
    Date: 2015–09
  10. By: Michela Faccioli (Department of Applied Economics at the University of the Balearic Islands.); Nick Hanley (Department of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St. Andrews); Catalina M. Torres Figuerola (Department of Applied Economics at the University of the Balearic Islands.); Antoni Riera Font (Department of Applied Economics at the University of the Balearic Islands.)
    Abstract: Environmental cost-benefit analysis has traditionally assumed that environmental policies’ social benefits are sensitive to the timing of the improvement. Indeed, it has relied on the idea that policies’ outcomes, taking place at different moments in the future depending on the intervention’s performance or on environmental dynamics, are preferred if occurring earlier. However, this assumption needs to be verified as it may lead to consider as socially desirable policies being less so. This is especially important when interventions aim at counteracting time-persistent environmental problems, whose impacts occur in the long-and very long-term, respectively involving the present and future generations. In this framework, with the objective to identify the role of sustainability concerns, this study analyzes the time sensitivity of social preferences for preservation policies of adaptation to time-persistent climate change stresses. Results have shown that preferences are time insensitive due to sustainability issues, as current generations equally care about nature preservation in the long-term, when they will enjoy it, and in the very long-term, when future generations will. These outcomes are relevant to better inform decision-making in the design of policies in the face of time-persistent environmental problems, by pointing out that, to be welfare-maximizing, interventions also need to be sustainable.
    Keywords: Time-persistent environmental problems, sustainability, preference analysis, choice experiment, time sensitivity, climate change
    JEL: D6 D90 Q51 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2015–08
  11. By: Böhringer, Christoph (University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg / Germany); Rosendahl, Knut Einar (School of Economics and Business, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Briseid Storrøsten, Halvor (Statistics Norway, Oslo / Norway)
    Abstract: Unilateral climate policy induces carbon leakage through the relocation of emission-intensive and trade-exposed industries to regions with no or more lenient emission regulation. Both analytical and numerical studies suggest that emission pricing combined with border carbon adjustment is a secondbest instrument, and more cost-effective than output-based rebating, in which case domestic output is indirectly subsidized. No country has so far imposed border carbon adjustment, while variants of output-based rebating have been implemented. In this paper we show that combining output-based rebating for emission-intensive and trade-exposed goods with a consumption tax on the same goods can be equivalent with border carbon adjustment. Moreover, we demonstrate that it is welfare improving for a region which has already implemented emission pricing along with output-based rebating to also introduce such a consumption tax. We conclude that supplementing output-based rebating with a consumption tax constitutes smart hedging against carbon leakage: Compared to output-based rebating stand-alone it constitutes a robust strategy for improving cost-effectiveness of unilateral climate policy; compared to border carbon adjustment it limits the risks of potentially detrimental trade disputes.
    Keywords: Carbon leakage; output-based rebating; border carbon adjustment; consumption tax
    JEL: D61 H23 Q54
    Date: 2015–09–18
  12. By: Stefania Fabrizio; Rodrigo Garcia-Verdu; Catherine A. Pattillo; Adrian Peralta-Alva; Andrea Presbitero; Baoping Shang; Geneviève Verdier; Marie-Thérèse Camilleri; Kazuaki Washimi; Lisa Kolovich; Monique Newiak; Martin Cihak; Inci Otker-Robe; Luis-Felipe Zanna; Carol L. Baker
    Abstract: The formal launch of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) sets the global development agenda through 2030, placing significant emphasis on promoting social and environmental sustainability alongside economic growth and poverty reduction. Meeting the SDGs will require actions across a wide range of areas by both national governments and the international community. This paper examines the types of policies that developing countries will need to implement to foster economic transformation, to promote economic and social inclusion, and to meet key environmental objectives. Reducing inequality, achieving gender equity, and pricing energy and water resources appropriately receive particular attention.
    Keywords: Sustainable development;Developing countries;Inclusive growth;Income inequality;Gender;Fiscal policy;Environmental sustainability;Sustainable Development Goals, Growth, structural transformation, Inclusion, Income inequality, financial inclusion, gender inclusion, environmental sustainability, energy pricing, water pricing.
    Date: 2015–09–22
  13. By: Mireille Chiroleu-Assouline (Axe Macroéconomie Axe Economie ouverte Axe Environnement - CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: French environmental taxes are not really ecologically oriented. Their main aim is to raise revenues. Clear signs of this inappropriate direction are given by the large share of the energy taxes and by the low level of most tax rates, which for the most part, are only implicit tax rates on the polluting goods. An ecological tax reform would imply a global green tax shift with tax rates proportionate to the marginal damages. The success and the acceptation of such a reform by the taxpayers rely on the chosen recycling mechanism for the tax revenues, on government’s efforts in information and pedagogy, on transparency about the policy choices but also, somehow paradoxically, on audacity of actions.
    Abstract: Actuellement, la fiscalité environnementale française répond moins à une finalité écologique qu’à un objectif plus traditionnel de fiscalité de rendement. Les signes manifestes de cette inadéquation sont la très grande part prise par la fiscalité de l’énergie et le faible niveau de la plupart des taux de taxe, qui souvent ne frappent qu’implicitement les produits polluants. Réformer la fiscalité française supposerait de la « verdir » dans son ensemble en appliquant des taux de taxes en relation avec les dommages marginaux. La réussite de la réforme et son acceptation par les contribuables sont conditionnées par le mécanisme de redistribution associé, les efforts de pédagogie et d’information, la transparence mais aussi, paradoxalement, par l’audace des mesures prises.
    Keywords: environmental tax,double dividend,tax progressivity,fiscalité,écotaxe,contribution climat-énergie,double dividende,progressivité de l’impôt
    Date: 2015–06
  14. By: Salina Daud (Universiti Tenaga Nasional)
    Abstract: Climate change and global warming are major challenges for Malaysia as well as for companies. Companies are fronting growing pressure to become greener or more environmentally friendly. Due to pressure from consumers and government, companies need to review their production processes. Consequently, they have to apply the concept of sustainable development in their policies and plans. The objective of this study is to examine three dimensions, mainly, knowledge management, eco-innovation and corporate sustainability performance to support sustainability environment. Creating sustainability environment is one of the main agendas in Malaysia Plan. The study focuses on examining the effect of knowledge management strategy on eco-innovation; the effect of knowledge management strategy on corporate sustainability performance; the effect of eco-innovation on corporate sustainability performance; and the mediating effect of eco-innovation on knowledge management strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Halal pharmaceutical companies were chosen as a sample in the study. Data were collected using survey questions and were analysed using Smart PLS. Results show that strategic KM contributes significantly to eco-innovation but does not contribute significantly to corporate sustainability performance. Eco-innovation significantly affects corporate sustainability performance and it mediates the relationship between strategic knowledge management and corporate sustainability performance. It is suggested that pharmaceutical companies in the study need to enhance the creating, sharing and utilizing of implicit and explicit knowledge in order to enhance companies’ corporate sustainability performance.
    Keywords: Knowledge management, codification, personalization, eco-innovation, corporate sustainability performance.
    JEL: M20
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify indicators (Barriers and Enablers) for green management practices in manufacturing organizations and to understand their relationship with environmental sustainability. By using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM) approach, the paper presents a hierarchy based model and the contextual relationships among these indicators. The research shows that there exists a group of indicators having low dependence and high driving power and are of strategic importance for the companies. The proposed model provides a useful tool for companies. By focusing on specific green indicators, environmental performance can be significantly improved leading to environmental sustainability. This study further augments the academic literature on green management.
    Keywords: Green Management; Indicators; Environmental Sustainability; Interpretive Structural Modeling
    JEL: Q56
  16. By: Chao Wei (George Washington University); Shanjun Li (Cornell University)
    Abstract: During the recent economic crisis, many countries have adopted stimulus programs designed to achieve two goals: to stimulate economic activity in lagging durable goods sectors and to protect or even enhance environmental quality. The environmental benefits are often viewed and much advocated as co-benefits of economic stimulus. This paper investigates the potential tradeoff between the stimulus and environmental objectives in the context of the popular U.S. Cash-for-Clunkers (CFC) program by developing and estimating a dynamic discrete choice model of vehicle ownership. Results from counterfactual analysis based on several specifications all show that the design elements to achieve environmental benefits significantly limit the program impact on demand stimulus: the cost of vehicle demand stimulus after netting out environmental benefits can be up to 77 percent higher under the program than that from an alternative policy design without the design elements aimed at the environmental objective.
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Di Cosmo, Valeria
    Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of the Italian electricity price (PUN) in order to determine the major challenges this market is currently facing. The results suggest that the policy maker should be aware that the importance of market expectations is increasing (captured in the model by the forward electricity price) and this may be used to understand and forecast the dynamics of spot prices. Second, the positive link between fuel prices and the Italian electricity price may lead to a greater exposure of the Italian electricity price to fluctuations in the international fuel markets. However the results show that the risks associated with higher fuel prices are partially mitigated by the presence of wind generation installed in the system.
    Date: 2015–08
  18. By: U.Sankar (Madras School of Economics)
    Abstract: The domain of public economics is increasing as governments‘ policy goal is shifting from economic development to sustainable development. Government has to act as a trustee representing future generations, and public policies must balance and integrate the three pillars (economic, social and environmental) of sustainable development, recognizing the ecological limits to growth. As per the UN development Agenda, sustainable development goals (SDGs) are meant for the period 2015-2030.This paper reviews the global concerns about ecological limits and the need for global partnership and considers the preparatory steps for adoption of SDGs and the means of implementation.
    Keywords: Public economics, General, Public Goods, Environment and Development, Sustainability, Ecological Economics, Ecosystem Services, Government Policy
    JEL: H10 H41 Q56 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2015–06
  19. By: Morgane Le Breton (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Franck Aggeri (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: Afin d'intégrer de nouvelles problématiques sociétales et environnementales dans l'activité des organisations et rendre compte de dimensions jusque-là invisibles, de nouvelles formes de comptabilité sont expérimentées, comme l'illustre l'exemple de la comptabilité carbone. Pourtant, la complexité technique de ce sujet tend à dissimuler les enjeux managériaux et économiques sous-jacents. Que fait une entreprise lorsqu'elle cherche à comptabiliser le carbone ? Pour répondre à cette question, nous adoptons une posture réflexive en déconstruisant la notion de comptabilité carbone, à savoir ses fondements, ses usages dans les entreprises ainsi que les apprentissages et obstacles identifiés dans l'élaboration de conventions de calcul. Cette recherche interroge notamment les effets structurants de la comptabilité et de façon plus inédite, du processus de construction de cette comptabilité pour tâcher de comprendre « ce que comptabiliser le carbone veut dire », à la fois en termes d'action collective que de responsabilité des entreprises. Abstract : To take into account environmental issues, new accounting projects are created such as carbon accounting. However, the technical complexity of this project tends to hide the issues at stake. In fact, what does it mean for a corporation to account for carbon ? In this study, we adopt a reflexive position to answer this question. To do that, we deconstruct the « carbon accounting » concept, both its foundations and uses. Hence we study the structuring effects of a specific form of accounting and of the his creation process in a previously unseen way.
    Keywords: RSE Key words : carbon accounting,performativity,management instruments,CSR,comptabilité carbone,performativité,instrument de gestion
    Date: 2015–05–19
  20. By: Elackiya Sithamparanathan (Wageningen University)
    Abstract: Chemical agents used during the Sri Lankan civil war continue to threaten human andenvironmental health as affected areas are re-settled. Bioremediation is a cost-effective and eco-friendly approach to degrading chemical agents, and has greater public acceptance than chemical degradation. Baseline data on contaminant distribution, environmental parameters, and indigenous microbes are required before bioremediation can commence. The culture and isolate of suitable microbes and enzymes should be followed by laboratory trials, before field application and long-term monitoring of contaminant concentration, soil parameters, microbial ecology, and public health to monitor environmental and public health. As local people are not aware of the persistence of warfare chemicals and do not understand the potential impacts on human health, community awareness programs are required. Active community participation, and collaboration with international and local agencies, would contribute to the success of bioremediation and the effective removal of chemical agents in war affected areas of Sri Lanka.
    Keywords: Bioremediation, Warfare agents, Protection of environmental and human health, Sustainable solution
    JEL: O39 Q53 Q55
  21. By: Strömbäck, Elon (Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University)
    Abstract: In Paper [I], we theoretically assess green public procurement (GPP) as an environmental policy instrument and its ability to lead to the achievement of environmental objectives. Central to our analysis is the extent to which polluting firms choose to adapt to the public sector’s environmental requirements and to invest in greener technologies. Our main finding is that the potential of GPP to function as an objective-effective instrument of environmental policy is limited and can actually be counterproductive. From an environmental policy point of view, it is crucial that GPP aims for environmental standards beyond just the technology of the polluting firms and that it is designed with reference to defined environmental objectives. <p> In Paper [II], we use data on Swedish public procurement auctions for internal regular cleaning service contracts to provide novel empirical evidence regarding GPP and its effect on the potential suppliers’ decision to submit a bid and their probability of being qualified for supplier selection. We find only a weak effect on supplier behavior, and this suggests that GPP, as used in practice, does not live up to its political expectations. However, several environmental criteria appear to be associated with increased complexity, as indicated by the reduced probability of a bid being qualified in the postqualification process. As such, GPP appears to have limited or no potential to function as an environmental policy instrument. <p> In Paper [III], I examine how GPP is organized in Sweden and how the potential suppliers respond to varying buyer market shares using data on Swedish public procurement auctions for internal regular cleaning service contracts. The level of GPP stringency is found to vary systematically across authority types, buyer market share, and political coalition in the relevant council or in Parliament. The results also indicate quite a substantial dispersion in GPP stringency, suggesting a low degree of coordination among contracting authorities when implementing the policy. After controlling for GPP stringency and other covariates, increased buyer market share is associated with a significant increase in the probability of potential suppliers submitting a bid. <p> The European Commission encourages public authorities to split procurement contracts into multiple contracts in order to increase the competiveness of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). <p> In Paper [IV], I use data from Swedish public procurement auctions for internal regular cleaning service contracts to study the effect of contract size and number of contracts on SME participation and probability of winning. The results indicate that SME participation is negatively related to both contract size and the number of contracts in the procurement. A possible interpretation is that reduced contract size in order to stimulate SME participation is counteracted by reduced incentives for them to enter into procurements with multiple contracts. Medium-sized firms are also more successful when bidding for smaller contracts relative to large firms. Nevertheless, the results indicate that the award rate for SMEs is positively correlated with the number of contracts in the procurement.
    Keywords: Public Procurement Auction; Environmental Policy; Regulation; Sustainability; Competition; Compliance Cost; Endogenous Entry; Supplier Incentives; Buyer Market Share; Split Award; Small and Medium Sized Enterprises
    JEL: D44 H57 O38 Q58
    Date: 2015–08–26
  22. By: Joshua C. Gellers (University of North Florida); Christopher Jeffords (Indiana University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: The global trend toward the adoption of environmental rights within national constitutions has been largely regarded as a positive development for both human rights and the natural environment. The impact of constitutional environmental rights, however, has yet to be systematically assessed using empirical data. In particular, the expansion of procedural environmental rights—legal provisions relating to access to information, participation, and justice in environmental matters—provides fertile ground for analyzing how environmental rights directly interface with conditions necessary for a functioning democracy. In order to understand the extent to which these provisions deliver on their lofty aspirations, the authors conduct a quantitative analysis designed to evaluate the relationship between procedural environmental rights and environmental justice. The results demonstrate that states with procedural environmental rights are more likely than non-adopting states to facilitate the attainment of environmental justice, especially as it relates to access to information.
    Keywords: environmental rights, constitutionalism, environmental justice, human rights, democracy, sustainable development
    Date: 2015–08
  23. By: Lixia YAO (Energy Studies Institute, National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: It is important to recognize the similarities of the four resource-poor island countries in East Asia: Singapore, South Korea, Japan and Taiwan, which have many characteristics in common. All of them had high growth rates that had been sustained over many years. Energy production, particularly fossil fuel production in these countries is not able to keep up with the pace of energy demand growth. Therefore, they are highly dependent on imported energy. This research will present a novel framework for assessing energy security of the resource-poor island countries and evaluating energy policies of these countries. The framework consists of three dimensions: vulnerability, reliability, and sustainability. First, as these countries have little indigenous energy resources, their import dependency makes these countries highly vulnerable to disruption of energy supply. This constitutes the first critical dimension for their energy security: vulnerability. This dimension covers the primary energy resources. Second, besides the vulnerability of fossil fuels import dependency, another key factor that has deep impact on these resource-poor countries is the reliability of electric power sector, which sustains the engine of their economic growth. This dimension covers the secondary energy resources. Third, environmental issues are always closely associated with energy production and utilization. The resource-poor countries have remained committed to putting efforts in maintaining sustainability and keeping the country green. Hence, concerns of sustainability constitute an indispensable component of their contemporary energy regime. This is the third dimension for their energy security: sustainability.Based on the three dimensions of energy security, the research will compare energy policies and energy security situation of the four resource-poor countries in East Asia. Through the evaluation and comparison of their energy policies, the aim of the research is to identify energy policies that help to improve energy security of resource-poor countries, discuss the policy implications, and give suggestions to the governments.
    Keywords: Energy policy; energy security framework; resource-poor countries
  24. By: Wenker, Jan L.; Rüter, Sebastian
    Abstract: Das Thema Nachhaltigkeit und deren Bewertung, insbesondere der ökologischen Komponente des Nachhaltigkeitsbegriffs, gewinnt auch in der Holz- und Möbelindustrie immer mehr an Bedeutung. Zugleich ist die Möbelindustrie ein nicht unerheblicher Verbraucher von Holz und Holzwerkstoffen. Für die Berechnung und Bewertung der Umweltauswirkungen bedient man sich klassischerweise der Methode der Ökobilanzierung, um so Ökobilanz-Daten über die potentiellen Umweltwirkungen von Produkten zu erhalten. Ökobilanz-Daten für holzbasierte Möbel stehen bisher lediglich in sehr eingeschränktem Umfang zur Verfügung. [...]
    Abstract: Sustainability and sustainability assessment is gaining importance in the timber and furniture industry. In particular, the investigation of the sustainability concept's environmental component is of increasing interest. At the same time, the furniture industry is a significant consumer of wood and wood-based materials. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a classical method for the calculation and assessment of environmental impacts. LCA provides data on the potential environmental impacts of products. So far, LCA data for wood-based furniture is only available to a very limited extent. [...]
    Keywords: Ökobilanzierung,Datenerhebung,Datenberechnung,top-down Ansatz,bottom-up Ansatz,Möbel,life cycle assessment (LCA),data collection,data calculation,top-down approach,bottom-up approach,furniture
    Date: 2015
  25. By: Lundberg, Sofia (Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics); Marklund, Per-Olov (Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics); Strömbäck, Elon (Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics); Sundström, David (Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: Politicians expect green public procurement (GPP) to serve as an environmental policy instrument. However, in order for GPP to work as an effective policy instrument, it is important to take into consideration potential suppliers’ decisions to participate in the procurement process, the total number of bidders, and the screening of bidders with respect to mandatory green criteria. The aim of this paper is to empirically study GPP in this respect. The analysis presented here is based on data from Swedish cleaning service procurements that are unique in that they contain very detailed information on various environmental standards set by the contracting authorities. We find at best only a weak effect on supplier behavior, and this suggests that the use of GPP in this situation does not live up to its political expectations.
    Keywords: Auctions; Compliance cost; Degree of Competition; Endogenous entry; Objective effectiveness
    JEL: D44 H57 Q01 Q28
    Date: 2015–09–15
  26. By: Marc Baudry
    Abstract: Renewable energy technologies are called to play a crucial role in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Since most of these technologies are immature, public policies provide for two types of support: technology push and market pull. The latter aims at creating demand for new technologies and at stimulating their diffusion. Nevertheless, due to the complex self-sustained dynamics of diffusion it is hard to determine whether newly installed capacities are imputable to the impulse effect of instruments at the beginning of the diffusion process or to the current support. The paper addresses this problem. A micro-founded model of technology diffusion is built to estimate the impact of the yearly average Return-on-Investment (RoI) on the yearly count of commissioned wind farms in six European countries over the last decade. A counter-factual analysis is carried out to assess the impact of policy instruments on the RoI and, indirectly, on diffusion.
    Keywords: Renewable energy; technology diffusion; wind power; market pull; technology push.
    JEL: O33 Q42 Q55 H23 C61
    Date: 2015
  27. By: Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun); Ghassen El Montasser (University of Manouba, Tunisia); Hassen Toumi (University of Sfax, Tunisia)
    Abstract: This study complements existing literature by examining the nexus between energy consumption (EC), CO2 emissions (CE) and economic growth (GDP) in 24 African countries using a panel ARDL approach. The following findings are established. First, there is a long run relationship between EC, CE and GDP. Second, a long term effect from CE to GDP and EC is apparent, with reciprocal paths. Third, the error correction mechanisms are consistently stable. However, in cases of disequilibrium only EC can be significantly adjusted to its long run relationship. Fourth, there is a long-run causality running from GDP and CE to EC. Fifth, we find causality running from either CE or both CE and EC to GDP and inverse causal paths are observable. Causality from EC to GDP is not strong, which supports the conservative hypothesis. Sixth, the causal direction from EC to GDP remains unobservable in the short term. By contrast, the opposite path is observable. There are also no short-run causalities from GDP, or EC, or EC and GDP to EC. Policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Energy consumption; CO2 emissions; Economic growth; Africa
    JEL: C52 O40 O55 Q43 Q50
    Date: 2015–09
  28. By: CHANITA PANMANEE (Faculty of Economics, Maejo University); ROENGCHAI TANSUCHAT (Faculty of Economics, Chiangmai University); AREE CHEAMUANGPHAN (Faculty of Economics, Maejo University); KASEM KUNASRI (Faculty of Management Sciences, Chiangmai Rajabhat University); NISACHON LEERATTANAKORN (Faculty of Economics, Maejo University)
    Abstract: Dried longan is one of economic product in the northern of Thailand. It does not only solve the excess supply problem of fresh longan, but increase employment opportunities. Currently, the environmental responsibility is the important issue in which both producers and consumers are interested. Dried longan production system, thus, changes from traditional system using extravagant energy to environmentally friendly system using green technology. However, the green products are accepted in some consumer groups. Consequently, this paper explores the best decision making on green or non-green oriented productions of the dried longan enterprises by applying the game theory. The selected samples are two dried longan enterprise clusters in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces for playing in this game. The results represent that the green production system is the best choice of producers. It brings about the high economic payoffs but low physical resource usage. However, the information is necessary for the consumers to perceive value of green consumption and increase demand of green products. This findings are obviously useful for the dried longan enterprises in Thailand to make a decision for changing their production from traditional to green orientation.
    Keywords: Dried longan enterprise clusters, Green production, Non-green production, Game theory
    JEL: C70 C79 C71
  29. By: Joëlle Noailly; David Ryfisch
    Abstract: This paper presents novel empirical evidence on the internationalization of green R&D by multinational firms (MNCs), as measured by patents data. Using data on inventors’ addresses for the set of 1,200 MNCs firms patenting in green technologies over the 2004-2009 period, we find that about 17% of green patents result from MNCs R&D investments conducted outside their home countries. MNCs tend to locate their foreign green R&D activities in other OECD markets and in China, in particular in lightings and solar technologies. The empirical analysis reveals that the probability of conducting green R&D abroad increases with the host country’s stringency of environmental regulation, market size and (green) R&D intensity. Also, relatively lower wages for scientists and engineers, and stronger protection for intellectual property rights in the host country increase the likelihood for MNCs to offshore green R&D. The paper concludes by discussing the policy implications of this changing global innovation landscape.
    Keywords: Energy; R&D; Multinationals; Globalization.
    JEL: Q4 Q55 O33
    Date: 2014–02–19
  30. By: K.S. Kavi Kumar (Madras School of Economics); R.S. Soundar Rajan; R. Manivasagan
    Abstract: Biofuels are acquiring importance due to their potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The two most important biofuels – viz., bioethanol and bio-diesel, are largely considered supplementary to the transport fuels. India has extensive programs and aims to blend 20 percent of transport fuels with biofuels by 2017. This paper focuses on three aspects in the context of biofuel production and policy in India. First, the paper looks at feasibility of meeting the biofuel blending targets envisaged. While jatropha remains as the main feedstock for biodiesel production, sweet sorghum could be considered as alternative feedstock to sugarcane for bioethanol production. Secondly, the paper analyzes the competitiveness of jatropha and sweet sorghum using the cost of cultivation data for a number of crops grown in major states of India during the decade of 2000s. The results suggest that both jatropha and sweet sorghum could pose threat to coarse cereals production. Lastly, the paper critically analyzes the viability of jatropha plantations based on insights from field survey conducted in the Southern state of Tamil Nadu. The paper argues that despite aggressive approach adopted by the Government of India, inadequate attention paid to the institutional issues has resulted in unsatisfactory progress in achieving the bio-diesel blending targets.
    Keywords: Bio-ethanol; Bio-diesel; Energy Policy; Economic Viability; Rural Livelihoods
    JEL: Q42 Q56 O13
    Date: 2015–06
  31. By: Nisachon Leerattanakorn (Maejo University)
    Abstract: For several decades, environmental consciousness has been highlighted. Such many consumers have been progressively participate in green activities and tend to be green consumers. A survey was adopted and sampling of 1,200 consumers who purchased green products or eco-friendly products in Chiang Mai, Thailand. This paper focuses on the segmentation of consumers into five shades; lifestyle of health and sustainability, neutralities, drifter, conventional and unconcern group based on their buying behavior and psychographic toward green consumption by applying cluster analysis. The different characteristics, purchasing patterns and awareness of environment of each segment of green consumer has been analyzed. Moreover the result from multiple regression analysis indicates that both demographic and psychographic-behavior variables are significant factors influencing degree of green consumption
    Keywords: Green Consumer, Green Consumption, Market Segmentation
    JEL: A10
  32. By: Massimo Anna Alberini (University of Maryland,USA); Massimo Filippini (ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: In this paper, we measure the energy efficiency in residential energy consumption using a panel dataset comprised of 40,246 observations from US households observed over 1997-2009. We fit a stochastic frontier model of the minimum input of energy needed to meet the level of energy services demanded by the household. This benchmarking exercise produces a transient and a persistent efficiency index for each household and each time period. We estimate that the US residential sector could save approximately 10% of its total energy consumption if it reduced persistent inefficiencies and 17% if it was able to eliminate transient inefficiencies. These figures are in line with the assessment by McKinsey (2008, 2009, 2013) and greater than those indicated by the Electric Power Research Institute (2009). They suggest that savings in energy use and associated emissions of greenhouse gases (and other pollutants) may benefit from both policy measures that attain short-run behavioral changes (e.g., nudges, social norms, display of real-time information about usage, and real-time pricing) as well measures aimed at the long run, such as energy-efficiency regulations, incentives on the purchase of high-efficiency equipment and incentives towards a change of habits in the use of the equipment.
    Keywords: US residential energy demand; efficiency and frontier analysis; Household data; CO2 emissions reductions
    JEL: D D2 Q Q4 Q5
    Date: 2015–09
  33. By: Andrei Yakovlev (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Irina Levina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Anastasia Kazun (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper considers two issues. First, it evaluates the changes in Russia’s investment climate in 2012-2014 after the announcement of an ambitious governmental program to improve the conditions for doing business. Second, because the relevant reforms were personally initiated by Vladimir Putin, we carried out a survey experiment designed to find out how references to a popular politician influence respondents’ opinions about the business climate. We used the data of a large-scale survey of top managers in Russian manufacturing sector conducted in July-October of 2014. Contrary to the World Bank report, Easy Doing Business, our empirical data shows that there was practically no improvement in the investment climate in Russia in 2012-2014. Also contrary to the results of population surveys showing extremely high public support for Vladimir Putin after Crimea’s accession to Russia, our survey experiment demonstrated that referring to the President Putin as the initiator of business climate reform improves assessments of the business climate change only slightly. However, the effect of reference to the President’s initiative differs significantly for firms from different size groups – we revealed no effect of question wording in the group of small firms, much higher share of non-answers in the group of large firms and a significant increase in the share of positive assessments of business climate among mid-size firms when Vladimir Putin was mentioned.
    Keywords: economic policy, business climate, enterprises behavior, experiments
    Date: 2015
  34. By: Faridah Djellal (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et technologies); Faïz Gallouj (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et technologies)
    Abstract: The purpose of this work is to examine the extent to which services and service innovation can contribute to sustainable development in its environmental dimension. The supposed immateriality of services seems to argue in favour of their natural sustainability. This is actually just a myth – one we examine the roots of, and which we refute. This calling into question of the naturally-green-servicesmyth does not, however, mean that the greening of the economy cannot rely on services. On the contrary, greening also fundamentally depends on innovation dynamics being implemented in or by services.
    Date: 2015–05
  35. By: Strömbäck, Elon (Department of Economics, Umeå School of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: Throughout the world, green public procurement (GPP) has become an established environmental policy instrument. Advocates of this purchasing policy argue that the public sector can use its buyer power to incentivize industries into becoming less environmentally damaging. I study how GPP is organized in Sweden and the potential supplier’s response to varying buyer market shares. The level of GPP stringency is found to vary systematically with authority type, buyer market share, and political coalition in the relevant council or the Swedish Parliament. The results indicate quite substantial dispersion in GPP stringency and suggest a low degree of coordination when implementing the policy. After controlling for GPP stringency and other covariates, buyer market share is positively associated with the probability of potential suppliers submitting a bid.
    Keywords: Environmental policy; Regulation; Compliance cost; Endogenous entry; Buyer market share; Supplier incentives
    JEL: D78 H57 O38 Q58
    Date: 2015–09–15
  36. By: Yoosoon Chang (Department of Economics, Indiana University); Chang Sik Kim (Department of Economics, Sungkyunkwan University); J. Isaac Miller (Department of Economics, University of Missouri); Joon Y. Park (Department of Economics, Indiana University and Sungkyunkwan University); Sungkeun Park (Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade)
    Abstract: We analyze a time series of global temperature anomaly distributions to identify and estimate persistent features in climate change. In our study, temperature densities, obtained from globally distributed data over the period from 1850 to 2012, are regarded as a time series of functional observations that are changing over time. We employ a formal test for the existence of functional unit roots in the time series of these densities. Further, we develop a new test to distinguish functional unit roots from functional deterministic trends or explosive behavior. We ?nd some persistent features in global temperature anomalies, which are attributed in particular to signi?cant portions of mean and variance changes in their cross-sectional distributions. We detect persistence that is characteristic of a unit root process, but none of the persistence appears to be deterministic or explosive.
    Keywords: climate change, temperature distribution, global temperature trends, functional unit roots
    JEL: C13 C23 Q54
    Date: 2015–09–09
  37. By: Michael Brock (University of East Anglia); Charles Lester
    Abstract: This paper provides a snapshot of people's attitudes regarding the facilities housed at Brandon Country Park, a local amenity located in Thetford Forest, Suffolk. Using both short answer face-to-face surveys and a computer-based 'management task', this project invited respondents to indicate whether they felt the park managers were maximising this public amenity and, if not, where alterations could be made to more efficiently utilise this space. Our results indicate that people are reasonably content with the services provided, yet some small improvements could be made to raise the park's appeal and/or efficiency. Alterations could include raising car parking charges and considering more carefully how to target the accessibility of the Park. For the latter, this concerns both the type of activities held and the respective transportation links. The objective of the project was to investigate how Brandon Country Park can operate more effectively. However, it is our belief that these surveys can serve as useful tools for a much wider spectrum of environmental public amenity managers creating some first insights regarding they could perform and take forward key investment and planning decisions.
    Keywords: collective decision-making, local public goods, forest management, environmental sustainability, biodiversity conservation
    JEL: D71 H4 Q23 Q26 Q28 Q57
    Date: 2015–04
  38. By: OLAWUYI SEYI (Ladoke Akintola University of Technology); OLAWUYI TOSIN (Ladoke Akintola University of Technology)
    Abstract: Risk is an unavoidable element in the business of agriculture especially with the prevalent issue of climate change which hitherto affects production. Production can vary widely from year to year due to unforeseen weather and market conditions, causing wide swings in commodity prices. But risk, while inevitable, is often manageable. Risk management involves choosing among alternatives for reducing risks that threaten the economic success of production process and well-being of the households; hence, determinants of risk management strategies adoption among farming households in Kwara State of Nigeria was investigated. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 122 farming households used for the study. Data collected through a well-structured questionnaire was analyzed through descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages and mean values while inferential statistics such as Tobit regression was used to test the formulated hypothesis. The result revealed a mean age of 49.25 years while the average household size was estimated at approximately 12 persons; also, the average years of formal education was estimated at 6.31 years. 92.62% of the respondents engaged primarily in farming while majority are faced with production risks. The prevalent risk management strategies adopted are: obtaining credit facilities from social organizations, irrigation practices, borrowing from friends, use of family labour and distress sales of assets. And, determinants of risk management strategies adoption are: years of formal education (p<0.1), household size (p<0.1), social organization membership (p<0.01) and outcomes (p<0.05). This study concludes that human capital (proxied by years of formal education) and social capital endowment (proxied by social organization membership) have a strong influence on the adoption of risk management strategies.
    Keywords: Risk Management Strategies, Adoption, Farming Households, Tobit, Nigeria
    JEL: A12
  39. By: Volkan Cakir (Arel University); Ahmet Pirlanta (Arel University)
    Abstract: Local governments are researching efficient and sustainable solutions to the problem of increasing amount of solid waste. Recycling is proposed as one of these solutions considering increasing environmental concerns. Recycling operation system starts with separating recyclable waste at household level. Though an efficient recycling system's success largely depends on the participation rate of inhabitants.Büyükçekmece is a district and municipality in the suburbs of Istanbul, Turkey on the Sea of Marmara coast of the European side, western part of the city. It is largely an industrial area with a population of 380,000. Although Büyükçekmece is a non-large district of
    Keywords: recycle management, Büyükçekmece, AHP, TOPSIS, solid waste management
    JEL: Q53 C65 D70
  40. By: Mayanggita Kirana (Faculty of Economics and Business, Diponegoro University (UNDIP)); Indah Susilowati (Faculty of Economics and Business, Diponegoro University (UNDIP))
    Abstract: Pekalongan municipality lies in the west-northern part of Central Java, it is considered as one of the biggest herritage of batik (a uniques textile printed) industry of Java since long time ago and till now.This textile industry of batik operates in small- to large-scales. Many of batik industry to get rid of their waste water directly to the ditches and at last flow to Pekalongan river. In fact, Pekalongan river as a part of watershed of Kali Kupang is stream down to Java sea passing the regency and municipality of Great Pekalongan. The main problem encountered in managing Pekalongan river since the last decade is heavy liquid waste pollution from batik industry. This is due to incomplete compliance of industry and less committment from other stakeholders for zero-waste conception. Many efforts had have been put on managing the Pekalongan river from technical aspect. However, it is remain ineffective to reduce the pollution which is shared mostly by the community and batik-makers. People are perceived that uncleaned water of Pekalongan river is becoming an indicator of spin over economic activities of textile industry. It is a big dilemma between economic and environment choice. The study aimed to formulate a blue print strategy for river-and-estuaries management using social enginering to empower stakeholders in the study area. This research employed purposive sampling to collect the data from households, entrepreneurs, and key-persons/ informants. In-depth interview and FGD were carried out, accordingly. This study applied a mix-method of quantitative method, such as institutional analysis and economic valuation method; and the qualitative ones to outline the strategy of stakeholders’ empowerment. The results indicated that in the long-run co-management approach - among the responsible stakeholders along the river-and-estuaries resources - will shed a light for better management scheme for the study area. However, in the short-run, people tend to be more realistic to fall their choice more on economic consideration. Therefore, it is indeed need a social-engineering strategy to romance the stakeholders awareness to promote the sustainable resource management for river-and-estuaries. This study suggested that sooner or later, empowerment of the A-B-G-C stakeholders is becoming the most important agenda to manage river-and-estuaries resourcefor last for long
    Keywords: pollution, batik, river, Pekalongan, Indonesia
  41. By: Fabio Montobbio (Università di Torino (Italy), CRIOS – Università L. Bocconi, Milano (Italy)); Ilaria Solito (Laboratoire RITM, Université Paris Sud, Faculté Jean Monnet (France))
    Abstract: This paper aims at analyzing whether environmental management systems can spur innovation at firm level, by providing new empirical evidence on the relationship between EMAS (Eco Management and Audit Scheme) and patented innovation. In applying a Negative Binomial model with Fixed Effect, we estimate the number of granted patents using EMAS as key explanatory variable. The relationship between EMAS and innovation is studied by using an original panel database composed by 30439 European firms belonging to all sectors and size. Moreover, we use an original instrumental variable to control for potential endogeneity. The analysis reveals that EMAS is positively correlated with innovation at firm level, although the results vary across countries and sectors.
    Keywords: Innovation; Environmental management systems; Patents; Eco-Management and Audit Scheme
    Date: 2015–09
  42. By: Enrico Conti; Sabrina Iommi; Stefano Rosignoli; Leonardo Piccini (Istituto Regionale per la Programmazione Economica della Toscana)
    Abstract: Cultural and, in general, experiential tourism is nowadays a very promising market for areas so far remained on the margins of economic development, but rich in architectural and natural heritage. The initiative of the European Cultural Routes is therefore particularly interesting for a region like Tuscany, worldwide famous for the beauty and integrity of its smaller towns and rural landscapes. Public investments play of course a central role in these strategies of territorial development, and require increasingly sophisticated techniques for the assessment of economic, social and environmental impacts. When direct surveys are not possible, however, the use of existing data, appropriately processed referring to the area of interest, may be a viable alternative. The work presents the results of the application of three different estimating methods at the Tuscan case, based on geographic approach. The results are of course different, but they all confirm the widespread expectations about the leverage effect exerted by the cultural and landscape heritage on the local economic development
    Keywords: cultural tourism, economic impact
    JEL: L83
    Date: 2015
  43. By: Rodríguez, Elsa Mirta M.; Lupín, Beatriz; González, Julia
    Abstract: Choice Modelling surveying was applied to assess the importance of attributes and willingness to pay for a fresh potato produced with a low environmental impact production system.Among the stated preference methods, this is the most used to study consumer preferences for attributes of goods with little or no market share. We interviewed 402 individuals, aged 18, in super / hypermarkets and grocery stores. Four different attributes of potato: price, agrochemicals content, cooking quality and treatment were selected according to previous research carried out by the authors. For this purpose, a Conditional Logistic Model (McFadden, 1973) was applied. On the average, ceteris paribus, the full sample participants were willing to pay between US$ 0.60 and US$ 0.49 more per 1 kg of potatoes with low agrochemical content. Related to good cooking quality attributes, participants were willing to pay between US$ 0.31 and US$ 0.25 more per 1 kg of potatoes having this attribute.
    Keywords: Disposición a Pagar; Papa; Preferencias del Consumidor; Modelos Econométricos;
    Date: 2015–08
  44. By: Daniela, Antonescu; Raluca-Mirela, Antonescu
    Abstract: Tourism became one of the most important economic activity in the world after the '60s, when mankind began to be more interested in its holiday destinations. Thus, more and more tourists wanted to spend their leisure time and holidays in the countryside, being largely influenced by environmental ideas, by the desire to escape from traditional tourist structures, by the search for the best quality / price ratio, etc. This article aims to provide a summary on sustainable development of the tourism sector in rural areas in the European Union and Romania.
    Keywords: turism; dezvoltare durabila
    JEL: O1 O13
    Date: 2013–09
  45. By: Katia Alejandra Covarrubias
    Abstract: The linkages between gender, crop choice and agricultural output must be explored if food security is to be ensured under changing climates. Using a rich nationally representative household panel dataset from Uganda, this paper addresses the topic empirically, bringing new evidence to a literature that has not yet fully examined the role of gender in responding to environmental shocks that increase agricultural production variability. A longitudinal analysis that endogenizes production portfolios and agricultural decision-maker gender in ascertaining productivity outcomes indicates parcel manager gender and crop diversity are distinguishing factors in the household food security function. Heterogeneity is explored in the context of diverse agro-ecological zones and differential access to factors of production.
    JEL: Q12
    Date: 2015–07
  46. By: Maxime Menuet (LEO - Laboratoire d'Economie d'Orléans - CNRS - Université d'Orléans); Patrick Villieu (LEO - Laboratoire d'Economie d'Orléans - CNRS - Université d'Orléans)
    Abstract: The vampire metaphor has been used in numerous papers describing biological interactions between two populations. Such a metaphor translates well to a standard endogenous growth model with public debt. Public debt can be assimilated to a Vamp, whose blood-sucking behavior corresponds to the harmful effect of the debt burden on productive public expenditures. However, the complete destruction of public debt in the long-run is shown to be socially undesirable, because this would imply too much distortionary taxation, with damaging effects on the balanced growth path. By identifying ecological or biological processes with usual national account relationships, this analysis is one step further in the integration of macroeconomics and environmental economics.
    Keywords: public debt,vampire,ecological process
    Date: 2015–09–17
  47. By: Rivayani Darmawan (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Stephan Klasen (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Nunung Nuryantono (Bogor Agricultural University)
    Abstract: Indonesia now has the highest deforestation rate in the world, with an average increase of about 47,600 ha per year. As a result, the nation is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world and putting its rich biodiversity at risk. Although the literature discussing the political economy of Indonesia commercial’s logging is growing, only a small amount focuses on the relationship between migration and deforestation. Migration may contribute to the forest cover change, as migrants often face serious constraints from the local residents in claiming the land, and thus tend to find new forest land which can be used as a means of living or converted into an agricultural plantation. This paper empirically investigates the relationship between recent in-migration and deforestation in Indonesia. By combining available population census data with the satellite image data MODIS, we find a significant positive relationship between migration and deforestation at the district level using a fixed effects panel econometric framework. The results also suggest that the expanding oil palm production is one significant driver for the fast disappearance of Indonesia’s forest.
    Keywords: deforestation; migration; oil palm; Indonesia
    JEL: Q23 R14 J61
    Date: 2015–09–19
  48. By: Michael L. Anderson
    Abstract: There is strong evidence that short-run fluctuations in air pollution negatively impact infant health and contemporaneous adult health, but there is less evidence on the causal link between long-term exposure to air pollution and increased adult mortality. This project estimates the impact of long-term exposure to air pollution on mortality by leveraging quasi-random variation in pollution levels generated by wind patterns near major highways. We combine geocoded data on the residence of every decedent in Los Angeles over three years, high-frequency wind data, and Census Short Form data. Using these data, we estimate the effect of downwind exposure to highway-generated pollutants on the age-specific mortality rate by using bearing to the nearest major highway as an instrument for pollution exposure. We find that doubling the percentage of time spent downwind of a highway increases mortality among individuals 75 and older by 3.6 to 6.8 percent. These estimates are robust and economically significant.
    JEL: I12 Q53
    Date: 2015–09
  49. By: Hansen, Teis (Department of Human Geography & CIRCLE, Lund University; Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU)); Coenen, Lars (CIRCLE, Lund University; Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU))
    Abstract: The development and diffusion of biorefineries is a central factor in the transition towards a bioeconomy. Such biorefineries, which produce multiple products based on biological material, are heralded as an important opportunity for renewal of the pulp and paper industry in developed countries, facing increasing competition and environmental requirements. However, pulp and paper firms have only made few investments in biorefineries. <p> Examining investment decision in Swedish and Finnish pulp and paper firms, this paper highlights the importance of considering decision-making processes within companies in order to understand the limited diffusion of biorefinery technologies. Further, the paper identifies organisational innovations in the form of new divisions, forward vertical integration, and creation of new value chain relations as central to commercialisation of biorefinery technologies. Theoretically, it argues that the technological innovation systems framework should be complemented with insights on decision-making processes within companies in order to understand the development of emerging technologies.
    Keywords: Biorefineries; investment decisions; organisational innovation; pulp and paper industry
    JEL: L73 O31 O33 Q55
    Date: 2015–09–11
  50. By: Han Phoumin (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia)
    Abstract: Only about one-third of households in Cambodia have access to commercial energy. Full rural electrification remains far from being achieved, and energy services are mainly delivered through fuel-based engines or generators to produce electricity that can then be stored in batteries, while biomass rather than electricity is used to power many small industrial processes. The current electricity cost in Cambodia is very high, ranging from US$0.15/kWh in Phnom Penh to US$1.00/kWh in rural areas. This high cost of electricity in rural areas provides an opportunity for the Solar Home System (SHS) to be competitive, although the installed system price of SHS remains high despite a decline in global SHS prices. This study aims to (i) review the current Renewable Energies (RE) policies in Cambodia, and (ii) analyse the cost structure through the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) of HSH compared with current electricity costs in rural areas. The results indicate that the LCOE of SHS (without any government subsidy) is about 50 percent cheaper than the current electricity price in rural areas. When factoring in a government subsidy of US$100 per SHS unit, the LCOE of SHS drops to about one third of the current electricity price in rural areas. These results imply that promoting SHS would enable rural households to cut spending on electricity, thus increasing deposable incomes and social wellbeing of rural communities. Policy support for SHS is needed from the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) to ensure that the upfront costs remain comparable to other countries. It is therefore important for the state-owned electricity utility, Electricité du Cambodge, and the Rural Electricity Department to look into the whole value chain of SHS from procurement through to installation. In order to achieve savings it may be necessary to make large purchases directly from manufacturers, and increase transparency in the bidding and procurement process, together with the removal of import taxes on Renewable Energy equipment, including SHS. Furthermore, providing training to local technicians and small business entrepreneurs will be necessary to promote the solar energy business in rural Cambodia. This will help to drive down the unit costs of SHS, and promote the widespread use and application of SHS in rural Cambodia.
    Keywords: : Government policy, Solar Home System, Solar PV, rural electrification
    JEL: Q42 L11 Q48
    Date: 2015–09
  51. By: Renaud Coulomb; Simon Dietz; Maria Godunova; Thomas Bligaard Nielsen
    Abstract: Raw materials are essential for the global economy and future development depends on their continued supply. Like fossil fuels, minerals are non-renewable. In general, their deposits in the Earth’s crust are also geographically clustered, making security of supply a potential risk. In many cases, the exhaustion of economically competitive minerals deposits in industrialized countries has made supplies increasingly dependent on the political stability of mineral-rich emerging economies. At the same time, increasing demand from these emerging markets, new technologies that require large amounts of rare minerals , low substitutability in applications and low rates of recycling have made economies more vulnerable to potential supply disruptions. Consequently policy-makers in several OECD countries and regions have developed reports that assess the vulnerability of their respective economies to disruptions in the supply of minerals. A common aim of many of these studies is the identification of a list of so-called ‘critical minerals’, defined as minerals for which the risk of disruptions in supply is relatively high and for which supply disruptions will be associated with large economic impacts.<BR>Les matières premières sont essentielles pour l'économie mondiale et le développement futur dépend de leur approvisionnement continu. Comme les combustibles fossiles, les minerais ne sont pas renouvelables. Par ailleurs, leurs dépôts dans la croûte terrestre sont, en général, regroupés géographiquement, faisant ainsi de la sécurité de l'approvisionnement un risque potentiel. Dans de nombreux cas en effet, pour ce qui est des pays industrialisés, l'épuisement des réserves en minerais économiquement compétitifs a rendu l'approvisionnement en matières premières une activité de plus en plus dépendante de la stabilité politique des pays émergents riches en minerais. Dans le même temps, la demande croissante de ces marchés émergents, mais aussi les nouvelles technologies qui nécessitent de grandes quantités de minerais rares, ainsi qu’une faible substituabilité dans leurs applications concrètes et des taux de recyclage faibles, ont rendu les économies plus vulnérables aux éventuelles ruptures d'approvisionnement. Par conséquent les décideurs dans plusieurs pays et régions de l'OCDE ont commandé des rapports qui évaluent la vulnérabilité de leurs économies respectives face à des perturbations dans l'approvisionnement en minerais. L’objectif commun d'un grand nombre de ces études est l'identification d'une liste de soi-disant «minerais critiques», définis comme les minerais pour lesquels le risque de perturbations de l'approvisionnement est relativement élevé et pour lesquels les ruptures en approvisionnement seront associées à de grands impacts économiques.
    Keywords: recycling, recyclage
    JEL: O13 Q32 Q37
    Date: 2015–09–08
  52. By: Tankari, Mahamadou Roufahi
    Abstract: This study aims to contribute to the understanding of factors influencing the sustainable farmland management in Niger. Specifically, it examines the determinants of adoption of sustainable land management practices including measures to combat erosion, and the use of manure, residues and fertilizer with a view to support the formulation of efficient land use policies based on evidences given fact that the impact of factors influencing farmland management appears to be specific to each context. The study is based on data from the National Survey of Household Living Conditions and Agriculture of 2011 (ECVMA-2011) analyzed within the framework of multivariate Probit model. The results show that there are unobservable interdependences between the decisions on farmland management practices. Furthermore, several types of factors related to access to physical, human, financial and biophysical capitals as well as infrastructure and services seem to play an important role. In addition, it appears that more security is needed in land tenure for a sustainable farmland management while farmland defragmentation can act negatively on sustainable farmland management.
    Keywords: land degradation, sustainable farmland management, poverty.
    JEL: Q1 Q15
    Date: 2015–09
    Abstract: : Green marketing initiatives focus on the values and efforts that various companies incorporate into their marketing portfolio. The practice is driven by environmentally-conscious-consumers, who demand eco-friendly, healthy and sustainable products and services from organizations that they perceive to be socially-responsible and do business with. This article analyses the green marketing process and practices prevalent in the food industry of India. Green marketing, along with greening the product and the firm by converting the 4Ps (price, product, promotion and place) of marketing into 4Ps of green marketing, involves a careful understanding of consumer preferences and purchase decision process. An in-depth review of the recent literature indicates that most of the aspects of green marketing align synergistically with the framework in the developed nations and, though it may appear to lag behind momentarily, it is catching-up quickly among Asian countries, including India. With the conscious-consumer at the helm, green marketing is increasingly viewed as a relevant marketing strategy in India towards sustainable development of the food industry. A questionnaire-based survey method was used for the data collection from food companies in India. The data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis and made use of other statistical tools and evaluations as well.The data presented in this study was also drawn from the World Bank repository of food processing companies of India. In India, the demand for environmentally-safe and green food products has been at the lower level, as the consumers perceive these options to be expensive and not offering much special benefits to them. In the long-term, both the consumers and the food processing industry stand to benefit greatly from such green marketing initiatives and awareness but the policies and strategies need to be formulated and implemented accordingly. This article recommends that the Government of India and various business organizations work together to adjust and promote the marketing elements to Indian consumers so as to increase the acceptance, accessibility and affordability of the green products.
    Keywords: Green Marketing Practices, Green Products, Food Processing Industry, Sustainable Development
    JEL: M39 Q01 Q13
  54. By: Andor, Mark A.; Frondel, Manuel; Schmidt, Christoph M.; Simora, Michael; Sommer, Stephan
    Abstract: Öffentlichkeit und Politik müssen häufig den Eindruck gewinnen, dass Wirtschaftswissenschaftler bei zentralen wirtschaftspolitischen Fragen keine Einigkeit erzielen können. Dies gilt nicht zuletzt für die Umsetzung der Energiewende. Dieser Beitrag nutzt die öff entlich zugänglichen Stellungnahmen einschlägiger Forschungsinstitute, um durch die Identifikation von Bereichen des Konsens und Dissens unter Energieökonomen einen Kontrapunkt zu setzen. Wider Erwarten wird offenbar, dass auf wesentlichen Handlungsfeldern weitgehende Einigkeit besteht und somit klare Handlungsempfehlungen ausgesprochen werden können.
    Keywords: Strommarkt,Fördermodelle,Emissionshandel,Erneuerbare Energien,Verteilungseffekte,Netzausbau
    JEL: Q28 Q40 Q42 Q48 Q58
    Date: 2015

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