nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2015‒08‒19
fifty-five papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Inequality as pollution, pollution as inequality By Eloi Laurent
  2. Regional efforts to mitigate climate change in China: A multi-criteria assessment approach By Zhi-Fu Mi; Yi-Ming Wei; Chen-Qi He; Hua-Nan Li; Xiao-Chen Yuan; Hua Liao
  3. Assessing greenhouse gas emissions in Estonia's energy system By Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Panagiotis
  4. US Climate Policy: A Critical Assessment of Intensity Standards By Christoph Böhringer; Xaquín Garcia-Muros; Mikel Gonzalez-Eguino; Luis Rey
  5. Renewable Energy Incentives and CO2 Abatement in Italy By Claudio Marcantonini; Vanessa Valero
  6. Allowance Trading and Energy Consumption Under a Personal Carbon Trading Scheme: A Dynamic Programming Approach By Jin Fan; Yao Li; Yanrui Wu; Shanyong Wang; Dingtao Zhao
  7. Reconcile the fight against transboundary pollution and economic convergence into an union ? By Théophile Bassene; Albert Millogo
  8. Choice experiment assessment of public preferences for forest structural attributes By Per Angelstam; Mikołaj Czajkowski; Marek Giergiczny; Tomasz Żylicz
  9. Does Customary Land Tenure System Encourage Local Forestry Management in Zambia? A Focus on Wood Fuel By Mulenga, Brian; Nkonde, Chewe; Ngoma, Hambulo
  10. Climate-informed decisions: the capital investment plan as a mechanism for lowering carbon emissions By Whittington,Jan; Lynch,Catherine
  11. Environmental quality, public debt and economic development By Mouez Fodha; Thomas Seegmuller
  12. Land use dynamics and the environment By Carmen Camacho; Agustín Pérez-Barahona
  13. The Costs of Climate Change for the European Energy System, an Assessment with the POLES Model By Silvana Mima; Patrick Criqui
  14. Energy efficiency determinants: An empirical analysis of Spanish innovative firms By Costa, M. Teresa (Maria Teresa), 1951-; García, José, 1963-; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-
  15. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Embodied Carbon Emission in Global Trade Flows: 41 Economies and 35 Sectors By Jing Tian; Hua Liao; Ce Wang
  16. Nonmarket Valuation of Water Sensitive Cities: Current Knowledge and Issues By Zhang, Fan; Fogarty, James
  17. Green payment and agroforestry landscape: cost-benefit analysis in the territory of Teverina By Cortigiani, Raffaele; Tantari, Antonella
  18. Biodiversity Policy Response Indicators By Christina Van Winkle; Katia Karousakis; Rosalind Bark; Martijn van der Heide
  19. Defining Climate-Smart Agriculture By Steenwerth, Kerri
  20. Supporting Profitability with Climate-Smart Agriculture By Nelson, Gerald
  21. Climate change adaptation and the German economy technological change By Dr. Ulrike Lehr; Anne Nieters; Thomas Drosdowski
  22. Rethinking the role of scenarios: Participatory scripting of low-carbon scenarios for France By Sandrine Mathy
  23. Perspective of CO2 capture & storage (CCS) development in Vietnam: Results from expert interviews By Hoang Anh Nguyen Trinh; Minh Ha-Duong
  24. Voluntary environmental and organic standards in agriculture: Policy implications By Sylvain Rousset; Koen Deconinck; Hyunchul Jeong; Martin von Lampe
  25. Economic evaluation in the assessment process for decision-making about climate change adaptation By Abigaïl Fallot; Marianela Greppi; Josefina Marin; Juan Mardones; Jean-François Le Coq
  26. Using Pollutant and not-Pollutant Capital into a dynamic analysis of Environment-Economic integrated models: a critical approach By Loreno Cecconi
  27. International transfer of climate technologies: Which factors influence the firm's choice of transfer channel? By Peuckert, Jan; Schmid, Cleo; Gandenberger, Carsten
  28. The Effect of Natural Disasters on Housing Prices: An Examination of the Fourmile Canyon Fire By Katherine A. Kiel; Victor Matheson
  29. Would border carbon adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry competitiveness losses? Insights from a meta-analysis of recent economic studies By Frédéric Branger; Philippe Quirion
  30. La gestion des résidus médicamenteux en France. Questionnements juridiques autour de la pollution émergente hospitalière By Pascale Steichen; Chahnez ANTRI-BOUZAR
  31. Investing in Agricultural Value Chains & Climate Smart Agriculture By Sadler, Marc
  32. Spatial Interactions in Tropical Deforestation: An application to the Brazilian Amazon By Saraly ANDRADE DE SA; Philippe Delacote; Eric Nazindigouba KERE
  33. An Analysis of Allowance Banking in the EU ETS By Denny Ellerman; Vanessa Valero; Aleksandar Zaklan
  34. Agri-Environmental Policies design in Europe, USA and Australia: is an auction more cost-effective than a self-selecting contract schedule? By Vergamini, Daniele; White, Benedict; Viaggi, Davide
  35. Scope of Economic Incentives and Abatement Technologies to Regulate a Natural System's Resilience in a General Equilibrium Model By David Tobón Orozco; Carlos Andrés Vasco Correa; Carlos Andrés Molina Guerra
  36. Overview of bamboo biomass for energy production By An Ha Truong; Thi My Anh Le
  37. Influence of agricultural support on sale prices of french farmland: a comparison of different subsidies, accounting for the role of environmental and land regulations By Laure Latruffe; Laurent Piet; Pierre Dupraz; Chantal Le Mouel
  38. Ecosystem considerations in a second-best world By Nicolas Querou; Agnès Tomini
  39. Pollution, Unequal Lifetimes and Fairness By Grégory Ponthière
  40. Heterogeneous policies, heterogenous technologies : the case of renewable energy By Francesco Nicolli; Francesco Vona
  41. Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Different IPSS Deployment Scenarios for the Light Commercial Vehicle Industry By Dina ANDRIANKAJA; Natacha Gondran; Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu
  42. The sequential equal surplus division for rooted forest games and an application to sharing a river with bifurcations By Sylvain Béal; Amandine Ghintran; Eric Rémila; Philippe Solal
  43. Determinants of Amazon Deforestation: The role of Off-Farm Income By Claudio Araujo; Jean-Louis Combes; José Gustavo Feres
  44. Liquidity and resolution of uncertainty in the European carbon futures market By Iordanis Angelos Kalaitzoglou; Boulis Maher Ibrahim
  45. LA POLITIQUE CLIMATIQUE ENTRE CHOIX NATIONAUX ET SCENARIOS MONDIAUX Implications des positionnements cognitifs et éthiques By Olivier Godard
  46. Role of non-timber forest products in sustaining forest-based livelihoods and rural households' resilience capacity in and around protected area- a Bangladesh study By S. A. Mukul; A. Z. M. M. Rashid; M. B. Uddin; N. A. Khan
  47. Métabolisme social et langages de valuation. Apports et limites de l'économie écologique de Joan Martinez-Alier à la compréhension des inégalités environnementales By Laura Centemeri; Gildas Renou
  48. Rhetoric as a Means for Sustainable Development Policy By Gaël Plumecocq
  50. Transition écologique de l’économie et monnaies locales. Une proposition à partir du cadre proposé par M. Aglietta By Jérôme Blanc
  51. TIC, soutenabilité et stratégie territoriale des villes durables : le cas des EcoCités en France By Amel Attour; Marc-Hubert Depret
  52. Role of Users in the Developing Eco-Innovation: Comparative case research in China and France By Nathalie Lazaric; Jun Jin; Ali Douai; Cécile Ayerbe
  53. Clarifying Sustainable Development Concepts Through Role playing By Odile Blanchard; Arnaud Buchs
  54. La précédente Politique Agricole Commune (2003-2013) a réduit les émissions agricoles françaises By Mathilde Baudrier; Valentin Bellassen; Claudine Foucherot
  55. Editorial : Institutionnalisation du développement durable et émergence d'un marketing durable By Amina Béji-Bécheur; Nil Ozcaglar-Toulouse

  1. By: Eloi Laurent (OFCE - OFCE - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: Ecological crises born with the Anthropocene have arrived at a paradoxical juncture: as environmental degradations gradually become unbearable, environmental concern seems to become intolerable. One can think of two powerful forces at play behind this striking paradox sidestepping environmental emergency when it is most warranted (...).
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Zhi-Fu Mi; Yi-Ming Wei (Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEP), Beijing Institute of Technology); Chen-Qi He; Hua-Nan Li; Xiao-Chen Yuan; Hua Liao
    Abstract: The task of mitigating climate change is usually allocated through administrative regions. In order to put pressure on regions that perform poorly in mitigating climate change and highlight regions with best-practice climate policies, this study explored a method to assess regional efforts on climate change mitigation at the sub-national level. A climate change mitigation index (CCMI) was developed with 15 objective indicators, which were divided into four categories, namely, emissions, efficiency, non-fossil energy, and climate policy. The indicators¡¯ current level and recent development were measured for the first three categories. The index was applied to assess China¡¯s provincial performance in climate protection based on the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method. Empirical results show that the middle Yangtze River area and southern coastal area perform better than other areas in mitigating climate change. The average performance of the northwest area in China is the worst. In addition, climate change mitigation performance has a negative linear correlation with energy self-sufficiency ratio but does not have a significant linear correlation with social development level. Therefore, regional resource endowments should be paid much more attention in terms of mitigating climate change, because regions with good resource endowments in China tend to perform poorly.
    Keywords: mitigation efforts, climate policy, carbon efficiency, energy efficiency, non-fossil energy, TOPSIS
    JEL: Q54 Q40
    Date: 2014–09–15
  3. By: Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Panagiotis
    Abstract: This paper investigates Estonia’s prospects in meeting the new European Union climate commitments to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions till 2030 by 40% and 2050 by 80-95% compared to 1990 emission levels. The contribution of this study is twofold. In a first stage, based on organizations reports and using the Long range Energy Alternatives Planning system (LEAP) it constructs seven long-term scenarios to examine Estonia's energy system till 2050. In a second stage, using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) nonparametric approach it evaluates the efficiency of renewable energy commitments in reducing GHG emissions. The findings show that the main challenge for the Estonia policy makers will be the energy policies associated with the renewable energy usage. It appears that under the seven different energy policy scenarios the higher the participation of renewable energy the higher the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
    Keywords: LEAP software; Renewable energy sources; Scenarios analysis; Data Envelopment Analysis; Estonia.
    JEL: Q20 Q40 Q41 Q42 Q50 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2015–08
  4. By: Christoph Böhringer (University of Oldenburg, Department of Economics); Xaquín Garcia-Muros (Basque Centre for Climate Change, Bilbao, Spain); Mikel Gonzalez-Eguino (Basque Centre for Climate Change, Bilbao, Spain); Luis Rey (Basque Country (UPV-EHU), Bilbao, Spain)
    Abstract: Intensity standards have gained substantial momentum as a regulatory instrument in US climate policy. Based on numerical simulations with a large-scale computable general equilibrium model we show that intensity standards may rather increase than decrease counterproductive carbon leakage. Moreover, standards can lead to considerable welfare losses compared to emission pricing via carbon taxation or an emissions trading system. The tradability of standards across industries is a mechanism that can reduce these negative effects.
    Keywords: Unilateral climate policy; carbon leakage, intensity sstandard, computable general equilibrium
    JEL: D21 H23 D58
    Date: 2015–07
  5. By: Claudio Marcantonini; Vanessa Valero
    Abstract: In order to combat global warming, Italy has committed to clear environmental goals by reducing its CO2 emissions. To this purpose, it has notably encouraged renewable energy development through a variety of support schemes, ranging from green certificates to feed-in and premium tariffs. As a result, during the last years, the production of electricity from renewable energy sources, especially from wind and solar energy, has experienced a considerable surge. In this paper we estimate the cost of reducing CO2 emissions in the power sector by deploying wind and solar energy in Italy from 2008 to 2011. The results show that, for the period analyzed, the average costs for wind are in the order of 150 €/tCO2, while for solar are much higher, above 1000 €/tCO2. This is because solar energy generators receive much higher remunerations per MWh of generated electricity than wind energy generators. These costs are about twice as high as in Germany. This is due to the difference between the incentive schemes and the power system in the two countries.
    Keywords: Abatement Cost, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy, Solar Energy, Italy
    Date: 2015–03
  6. By: Jin Fan (School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, P.R. China); Yao Li (School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, P.R. China); Yanrui Wu (Business School, University of Western Australia); Shanyong Wang (School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, P.R. China); Dingtao Zhao (School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China, P.R. China)
    Abstract: In response to the challenge of climate change, personal carbon trading was put forward as a policy instrument to promote low carbon behavior in the household sector. To evaluate the effectiveness of this scheme, it is important to gain insight into the allowance trading and energy consumption behavior in a long emission commitment period. This paper proposes a dynamic programming model to investigate allowance trading and energy consumption. A main feature of the model is its consideration of allowance banking and borrowing activities. Ten simulated scenarios with different allowance prices, price volatility and carbon emission rates are discussed. The findings show that consumers would trade more actively when allowance price is volatile. It is also found that energy consumption and allowance trading will decrease when the carbon emission rate increases. Overall the analysis in this paper implies that personal carbon trading scheme would be an effective policy measure to change consumers’ behavior. Therefore it would be valuable for decision-makers to consider the introduction and implementation of this scheme.
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Théophile Bassene (Université de Strasbourg); Albert Millogo (UTLN - Université de Toulon)
    Abstract: In this paper, we focus on the effectiveness of environmental policy in economic union in the presence of transboundary pollution. We seek to determine the environmental policy instrument capable of reconciling effective fight against transboundary pollution and economic convergence. With an overlapping generations modelization, we show that when transboundary pollution emanates from the least developed country of the Union, applying the polluter pays principle leads to a sub-optimal equilibrium from an of view overall. Only a technological cooperation effectively fights against transboundary pollution without compromising the economic convergence process.
    Abstract: Dans cet article, nous nous intéressons à l'efficacité de la politique environnementale dans une union économique en présence d'une pollution transfrontalière. Nous cherchons à déterminer l'instrument de politique environnementale capable de concilier lutte efficace contre la pollution transfrontalière et convergence économique. A l'aide d'une modélisation à générations imbriquées, nous montrons que lorsque la pollution transfrontalière émane du pays le moins avancé de l'union, appliquer le principe du pollueur-payeur conduit à un équilibre sous-optimal d'un point de vue global. Seule une coopération technologique permettrait de lutter efficacement contre la pollution transfrontalière sans compromettre le processus de rattrapage économique.
    Date: 2015–04–24
  8. By: Per Angelstam (Forest-Landscape-Society Research Network, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Mikołaj Czajkowski (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Marek Giergiczny (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Tomasz Żylicz (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: The objectives of forest policy have been broadened from tangible products, such as wood and fiber, to ecosystem services. This broadening emphasizes the need to also estimate the value of biodiversity and the social benefits of tourism and recreation. While research on the species’ requirements has a long history, the issue of which habitat humans select to engage in tourism and recreation lags behind. In both cases, a major challenge is to consider the complete range of forest structure from a managed to a natural dynamic. Combining the approach used in landscape research with non-market valuation techniques, the aim of this study is to document human habitat selection for recreational purposes in a gradient of forest naturalness. The results indicate that respondents prefer older stands with vertical layering, irregularly spaced trees and a greater number of tree species. Our study thus indicates that forests that are managed (or left unmanaged) for biodiversity purposes are also likely to be attractive to humans. To conclude, while greater management intensity was associated with higher disutility regardless of the model employed, we do not perceive a risk of conflict between forest management designed to protect biodiversity and management targeting recreational value. Consequently, there is a need for spatially differentiated forest management that discriminates among different functions. The state ownership of all larger Polish forest massifs makes this zoning approach feasible.
    Keywords: social preferences, forest characteristics, forest management, discrete choice experiment, multifunctional forestry
    JEL: Q51 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Mulenga, Brian; Nkonde, Chewe; Ngoma, Hambulo
    Abstract: Zambia is one of the most forested countries in Africa, with about 50 million out of the 75 million hectares total land area under some form of forest cover. However, the country also has one of the highest rates of deforestation and degradation in the world, estimated at 250,000-300,000 hectares of forest loss per annum. Reversing/slowing this high deforestation and degradation trend will require the country to design and implement programs and strategies that will effectively deal with both the proximate and underlying drivers of deforestation and degradation.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2015–05
  10. By: Whittington,Jan; Lynch,Catherine
    Abstract: Global trajectories for reducing carbon emissions depend on the local adoption of alternatives to conventional energy sources, technologies, and urban development. Yet, decisions on which type of capital investments to make, made by local governments as part of the normal budget cycle, typically do not incorporate climate considerations. Furthermore, current academic and professional literature specific to climate change draws attention to decision-making tools that would require access to technical expertise, data, and financial support that may not be practical for cities in low- and middle-income countries. Arguably, the methodologies most able to effect this transformation will be those that are convenient and affordable to administer, and that offer straight-forward low carbon alternatives to traditional forms of infrastructure investment. Current methodologies for capital investment planning that do not take climate change into consideration can result in prioritization of investments that diverge from a low carbon path and a potential missed opportunity to reap financial benefits from efficiency gains. This paper concludes that relatively minor alterations to common procedures can reveal the trade-offs and local benefits of low carbon alternatives in the capital investment planning process. This paper was written as an input to the preparation of the Climate-Informed Capital Investment Planning Guidebook, a how-to guide for local government staff, which will be published in 2015.
    Date: 2015–07–29
  11. By: Mouez Fodha (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics); Thomas Seegmuller (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - Université Paul Cézanne - Aix-Marseille 3 - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille 2 - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - CNRS - AMU - Aix-Marseille Université)
    Abstract: This article analyzes the consequences on capital accumulation and environmental quality of environmental policies financed by public debt. A public sector of pollution abatement is financed by a tax and/or public debt. We show that if the initial capital stock is high enough, the economy monotonically converges to a long-run steady state. On the contrary, when the initial capital stock is low, the economy is relegated to an environmental-poverty trap. We also explore the implications of public policies on the trap and on the long-run stable steady state. In particular, we find that government should decrease debt and increase pollution abatement to promote capital accumulation and environmental quality at the stable long-run steady state.
    Date: 2014
  12. By: Carmen Camacho (CNRS, Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - [-]); Agustín Pérez-Barahona (ECO-PUB - Economie Publique - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - AgroParisTech, Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS - Polytechnique - X)
    Abstract: This paper builds a benchmark framework to study optimal land use, encompassing land use activities and environmental degradation. We focus on the spatial externalities of land use as drivers of spatial patterns: land is immobile by nature, but local actions affect the whole space since pollution flows across locations resulting in both local and global damages. We prove that the decision maker problem has a solution, and characterize the corresponding social optimum trajectories by means of the Pontryagin conditions. We also show that the existence and uniqueness of time-invariant solutions are not in general guaranteed. Finally, a global dynamic algorithm is proposed in order to illustrate the spatial-dynamic richness of the model. We find that our simple set-up already reproduces a great variety of spatial patterns related to the interaction between land use activities and the environment. In particular, abatement technology turns out to play a central role as pollution stabilizer, allowing the economy to reach a time-invariant equilibrium that can be spatially heterogeneous.
    Date: 2014–10–13
  13. By: Silvana Mima (équipe EDDEN - PACTE - Politiques publiques, ACtion politique, TErritoires - CNRS - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - Grenoble 1 UJF - Université Joseph Fourier); Patrick Criqui (équipe EDDEN - PACTE - Politiques publiques, ACtion politique, TErritoires - CNRS - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - Grenoble 1 UJF - Université Joseph Fourier)
    Abstract: The paper presents a model-based approach describing the impacts of climate change on the European energy system. Existing analyses only estimate a limited range of climate impacts over a limited geographical area. Using the POLES model and the results from several climate models, the present paper quantifies the main impacts of climate change on the European energy sector, country by country, thus achieving progress in this direction. As far as energy demand is concerned, our main finding is that higher temperatures will mean that air-conditioning will consume more energy, reaching about 53 Mtoe by 2100 in a scenario with no strong emissions constraints (A1B). On the other hand less energy will be consumed for heating buildings, falling by about 65 Mtoe per year. This represents a net decrease in energy consumption of about 12 Mtoe by 2100. On the supply side, more constrained and expensive operating conditions for electric power plants will result in lower electricity generation by thermal, nuclear and hydro-power plants, with a maximum decrease of about 200 TWh in 2070 in the A1B scenario and 150 TWh in 2060 and 2080 for a low emissions scenario (E1). These effects vary a great deal across Europe and remain very dependent on the uncertainties affecting the results of the various climate models. This overall uncertainty may inhibit effective decisions. However the study offers insights not otherwise available without the full coverage of the energy system provided by POLES and climate features provided by climate models. The study identifies the main impacts of climate change in a strategic sector and provides an "order of magnitude" or "central trend" for these impacts, which might be useful in an adaptive policy of act, learn and then act again.
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Costa, M. Teresa (Maria Teresa), 1951-; García, José, 1963-; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-
    Abstract: This paper examines the extent to which innovative Spanish firms pursue improvements in energy efficiency (EE) as an objective of innovation. The increase in energy consumption and its impact on greenhouse gas emissions justifies the greater attention being paid to energy efficiency and especially to industrial EE. The ability of manufacturing companies to innovate and improve their EE has a substantial influence on attaining objectives regarding climate change mitigation. Despite the effort to design more efficient energy policies, the EE determinants in manufacturing firms have been little studied in the empirical literature. From an exhaustive sample of Spanish manufacturing firms and using a logit model, we examine the energy efficiency determinants for those firms that have innovated. To carry out the econometric analysis, we use panel data from the Community Innovation Survey for the period 2008â€2011. Our empirical results underline the role of size among the characteristics of firms that facilitate energy efficiency innovation. Regarding company behaviour, firms that consider the reduction of environmental impacts to be an important objective of innovation and that have introduced organisational innovations are more likely to innovate with the objective of increasing energy efficiency. Keywords: energy efficiency, corporate targets, innovation, Community Innovation Survey. JEL Classification: Q40, Q55, O31
    Keywords: Energia, Economia ambiental, Tecnologia -- Innovacions, Empreses -- Espanya -- Aspectes ambientals, 33 - Economia, 504 - Ciències del medi ambient,
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Jing Tian; Hua Liao; Ce Wang
    Abstract: The spatial-temporal variations of embodied carbon emissions in international trade at global scope are still unclear. This paper studies the variations of outflows and inflows of embodied carbon emissions at 35-disaggregated sectors level of 41 countries and regions, and an integrated world input-output model is employed. It also examines what would happen if there were not international trade flows in China, USA and Finland, the representatives of three different levels of the global balance of embodied carbon. We find that: (1) Embodied carbon in global trade increases at about 3% per year since 1995 World Trade Organization founded, and East Asia tends to burden more from the net increase of the balance of embodied carbon. (2) China¡¯s export has the largest and increasing outflow of carbon burden, USA's import the largest and increasing inflow of carbon burden, and Finland¡¯s export and import have the decreasing carbon burden. (3) The global trade structure tends to be not so much carbon-intensive. BRIIAT (Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, Australia and Turkey) has the largest embodied carbon intensity in export (about 7.35 kg/$) while NAFTA (the United States, Canada and Mexico) the largest embodied carbon intensity in import (about 10.32 kg/$). (4) There existed some inclination of embodied carbon flows including neighbors-centered outflows and country-centered inflows.
    Keywords: Embodied carbon flow, International trade, Spatial-temporal variations, Input-output analysis
    JEL: Q54 Q40
    Date: 2014–09–16
  16. By: Zhang, Fan; Fogarty, James
    Abstract: This paper presents a systematic review of the applications of the economic evaluation methods that are relevant to Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD). WSUD involves integrating the urban water cycle into urban design to improve water supply and environmental protection. The review considers four main WSUD-related aspects: improving and securing water supply requirements; protection of groundwater systems; management of wastewater; and environmental protection. The literature reviewed is grouped under these broad headings, and the evaluation method used to obtain information about non-market values. The advantages, disadvantages, and limitations of each non-market valuation method are also summarized and compared. The review establishes that the two methods most commonly used to estimate non-market values for benefits relevant to WSUD have been contingent valuation and choice experiments (also known as choice modelling). Other valuation methods, such as the travel cost method, the averting behaviour method, the hedonic price method, and engineering methods have also been used. For some areas of benefit that can be delivered through WSUD there is a reasonable knowledge base; yet in other areas the knowledge base is quite limited. The most appropriate way to generalise non-market valuation study results from one location to others remains unclear and is an area requiring additional research.
    Keywords: Water sensitive urban design, Economic valuation, Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2015–08–10
  17. By: Cortigiani, Raffaele; Tantari, Antonella
    Abstract: Green payment (or greening) is one of the main aspect of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) 2014-2020. With this instrument continues the process started especially with the Fischler reform in order to justify public spending, ensuring the first pillar payments to farmers producing public goods. Regarding the agroforestry landscape, the greening in several territories, especially those in inner and hilly areas, will maintain the current characteristics such as the simultaneous presence of different crops, including pasture, forest and landscape features. The effectiveness of greening in terms of benefits and costs is one of the most interesting aspects to be analyzed, considering the application rules and the financial budget of this environmental instrument. In this study has been carried out a cost-benefit analysis in an territory called Teverina. The benefits of agroforestry landscape were evaluated using the Contingent Valuation Method. The main results show a ratio of benefits-costs that seems to justify public spending to maintain the current landscape. In conclusion, the analysis shows that the greening is in accordance to the new objectives of the CAP and in general to those of Europe 2020 strategy, with several negative aspects that are discussed.
    Keywords: greening payments, sustainability, cost/benefit analysis, contingent valuation, Agricultural and Food Policy, C10, Q18, Q57,
    Date: 2015–06
  18. By: Christina Van Winkle; Katia Karousakis; Rosalind Bark; Martijn van der Heide
    Abstract: This paper reviews a number of OECD data sources to examine their potential for establishing indicators which can contribute to monitoring progress towards two of the 2011-2020 Aichi Biodiversity Targets under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), namely Target 3 on Incentives and Target 20 on Resource Mobilisation. Aichi Target 3 refers to the need to eliminate, phase out, or reform incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity and to develop and apply positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Aichi Target 20 refers to the need to substantially increase the mobilisation of financial resources from all sources to effectively implement the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020. The objectives of this work were twofold, namely to (a) identify the indicator needs to monitor progress towards these two targets, and (b) examine to what extent existing relevant OECD datasets and monitoring systems can be used for these purposes, including the types of modifications to data collection methodology or classification that may be useful to better align the data sources with the indicator needs. Within this context, six data sources are reviewed and assessed, and gaps and data limitations as they pertain to the reporting purposes of the CBD are highlighted. Given the caveats that are raised, as well as the upcoming need to assess progress on the achievement of the Aichi Targets in 2020, the analysis here aims to provide policy-makers and negotiators with the information needed to consider whether existing OECD datasets could be used and built upon so as to further develop indicators that are useful for the CBD.
    Keywords: government policy, biodiversity conservation, environment & development, agricultural policy, ecological economics, ecosystem services
    JEL: Q18 Q22 Q56 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2015–07–31
  19. By: Steenwerth, Kerri
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015–02–20
  20. By: Nelson, Gerald
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015–02–20
  21. By: Dr. Ulrike Lehr (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research); Anne Nieters (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research); Thomas Drosdowski (GWS - Institute of Economic Structures Research)
    Abstract: Although climate change is a global challenge, its effects occur locally and differ by region. A feasible adaptation strategy needs to assess regional damages and their socio-economic effects. For Germany, the largest threat comes from extreme weather events, which will impact residential and commercial buildings, infrastructure and in the case of heat waves will limit labor productivity. This paper presents findings from a study of economic effects of climate change adaptation until the year 2050 in Germany on different scales. In particular, the authors have applied an input-output-based macroeconometric model, adjusting it to cope with the challenges of damages from heat waves, and river flood events, by integrating suitable adaptation measures to such events into the model. Infrastructure damages, shifts from domestic production to imports, and low levels of productivity due to heat waves, are some of the topics the paper deals with. Comparing scenarios with (a) integrated extreme weather events and (b) adaptation measures with a reference scenario without extreme weather or adaptation, the simulation results reveal slightly negative effects on economic sectors and Germany’s economy as a whole. These effects intensify over time and hurt the economy. Adaptation measures reduce the damages and pay off, but the economy is still worse off with climate change.
    Keywords: extreme weather events, heat wave, river flood, adaptation
    JEL: Q54
    Date: 2015
  22. By: Sandrine Mathy (équipe EDDEN - PACTE - Politiques publiques, ACtion politique, TErritoires - CNRS - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - Grenoble 1 UJF - Université Joseph Fourier, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - CNRS)
    Abstract: This article considers the usefulness of low-carbon scenarios in public decision-making. They may be useful as a product-oriented trajectory. The scenarios on the agenda of the 2013 Energy Debate in France belong to this category. But a scenario may also be process-oriented, in the sense that its scripting process helps build consensus and a minimum level of agreement. We have scripted scenarios using a codevelopment method, involving about 40 stakeholders from the private and public sectors, and from the state: NGOs, consumer groups, trade unions, banks and local authorities. They selected policies they considered acceptable for achieving 75% greenhouse gases emission reductions in 2050. These policies were then integrated in the Imaclim-R-France technico-economic simulation model, as part of a high or moderate acceptability scenario. In the first case emissions were cut by between 58% and 72% by 2050; in the second case by between 68% and 81%, depending on the energy price assumptions. All these measures benefited jobs and economic growth, swiftly and durably cutting household spending on energy services. This offers a solid basis for gaining acceptability for low carbon trajectories; the process constitutes also a framework for consolidating collective learning centering on the acceptability of climate policies.
    Date: 2015–02
  23. By: Hoang Anh Nguyen Trinh (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), Department of Renewable Energy - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - CNRS); Minh Ha-Duong (CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), Department of Renewable Energy - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - CNRS)
    Abstract: This paper summarizes expert opinions regarding crucial factors that may influence Vietnam’s future use of carbon capture and storage (CCS) based on face-to-face interviews in December 2013 with 16 CCS-related experts from the Vietnamese government, research institutes, universities and the energy industrial sector. This study finds that financial incentives and climate policy are the most important factors for the development of CCS technologies in Vietnam in the next two decades. Financial incentives involve direct subsidies from the government, such as tax exemptions for land use and the importation of CCS-related equipment. In addition, all the experts agree that international financial support is important to initiate a large deployment of CCS technologies in Vietnam by implementing demonstrative/pilot projects to prove CCS’s working efficiency.
    Date: 2015
  24. By: Sylvain Rousset; Koen Deconinck; Hyunchul Jeong; Martin von Lampe
    Abstract: While public regulation in food and agriculture is attracting attention at both policy and research level for their potential implications on international food trade, policy implications of agricultural standards – understood to be legally not mandatory and hence voluntary – are much less well understood. Yet, environmental and organic standards have grown in importance in agriculture and agri-food chains, making also their potential trade effects more relevant. In this context, understanding the linkages between governments and standards has become a key element in the debate. This report analyses possible roles of public authorities in the area of environmental and organic standards, including policy objectives, options for interaction and means for the use of standards for achieving public policy goals. It identifies the main objectives behind government activity on environmental and organic standards in the area of consumer protection and fraud prevention, the enabling of functioning food markets and the improvement of efficiency in the design, implementation and monitoring of public policies. Countries have taken very different approaches towards dealing with standards on organic agriculture which frequently, though not always, are seen as a subset of environment-related standards. Choices for organic standards range between market self-regulation and the development of government-owned public standards. More generally, the level of public intervention often reflects OECD governments’ perception on the environmental benefits of organic agriculture itself.
    Keywords: agricultural trade, environmental standards, environmental policies
    JEL: M38 Q13 Q17 Q58
    Date: 2015–08–06
  25. By: Abigaïl Fallot (CATIE-CCC - Grupo Cambio Climático y Cuencas del Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza - Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, GREEN - Gestion des ressources renouvelables et environnement - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement); Marianela Greppi (Bosque Modelo Jujuy (BMJ)); Josefina Marin (FCBC - Fundación para la Conservación del Bosque Chiquitano); Juan Mardones (BMAAM - Bosque Modelo Araucarias del Alto Malleco); Jean-François Le Coq (ART-Dev - Acteurs, Ressources et Territoires dans le Développement - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III - CIRAD - CNRS - UM - Université de Montpellier)
    Abstract: The economic assessment of climate change adaptation basically consists in balancing costs and benefits of actions considered when addressing climate change (CC) threats. The purpose of economic evaluation in the assessment process of CC adaptation actions is essentially to provide figures for the comparison of different possibilities. In the context of the 3 EcoAdapt south American sites (Los Perico-Manantiales watershed in Argentina – BMJ, Zapoco watershed in Bolivia – BMCh and Alto Malleco in Chile – BMAAM), economic evaluation is to rely on a shared understanding of local contexts and the economic drivers of current dynamics. We focus on specific actions considered in these contexts so as to address unsustainable dynamics. The present report D3.4 provides a framework for economic evaluation: its context and the approach under development; the elements of costs and benefits that enter the analysis; and how uncertainty and irreversibility can be accounted for when using economic evaluation results. The initial panorama of the context of the economic evaluation recalls synthetically what we know about the territories and their people in terms of scales, activities and living conditions and about the extent to which they are affected by climate. Such introduction aims at facilitating the understanding of the types of actions considered for climate change adaptation. Then the economist standpoint on climate adaptation is explained and the perimeter of the evaluation is defined: 15 actions in BMJ, 11 in BMCh and 9 in BMAAM. Twelve fields of investigation are identified, for which available information is synthetized and on-going research on the elements of costs and benefits is described, so as to both make a progress status, and actualize the road map for integrating economic evaluation in modelling (task 3.2), scenario development (task 4.2) and implementation (task 5.3). A final section illustrates the possible use of the economic analysis to reveal or highlight specific characteristics of the actions considered, for instance: their time horizons and links with inexplicit future benefits or costs; their progressive definition that requires to start the evaluation; their reliance on resources considered free.
    Date: 2014–08–20
  26. By: Loreno Cecconi
    Abstract: This paper analyzes economic-environment integrated dynamic models. These models are built taking into account the coupling between environmental variables and economic variables. In particular, we consider two kinds of capital: pollutant and not-pollutant capital. We start with a simple linear model and after we introduce other variables like the gross output and Government abatement policy. So, we formalize more complex models that often consist of nonlinear differential equations. Central purpose of our work, is the use of the theory of dynamical systems for the analysis of the dynamics of some variables included in models of different structure. We have a critical approach, both in the same mathematical method and assessment of the general economic and political environmental problem in a capitalist economy. Our conclusions are very different from those of mainstream economic theory: we believe that a new model of development is closely related to a new way of thinking about environmental protection, and that the model of capitalist development is inadequate for this purpose.
    Keywords: Dynamic linear-systems, Dynamic non-linear systems, linearization of non-linear system, Jacobian matrix, Environment-economic integrated models, pollutant and non-pollutant capital, pollution stock, Government abatement policy
    JEL: B40 C02 Q50 Q54 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2015–07
  27. By: Peuckert, Jan; Schmid, Cleo; Gandenberger, Carsten
    Abstract: Based on a survey among German climate technology companies, we analyse how characteristics of the technology and organization-specific resources influence the channel chosen for transferring climate technologies to other countries. We employ a multi-step method that combines factor analysis and hierarchical logistic regression. Our results suggest that organizations tend to choose hierarchical modes of transfer with increasing relevance of firm-internal capabilities. The most significant empirical link exists between the complexity of the relevant technology and the observed mode of transfer. A high degree of technological complexity tends to increase the likelihood of internal transfers, which is consistent with the assumption that the transfer of tacit knowledge requires a higher amount of personal communication between donor and recipient.
    Keywords: International Technology Transfer,Climate Technology,Transfer Channel,Tacit Knowledge,Transaction Costs Economics
    Date: 2015
  28. By: Katherine A. Kiel (Department of Economics, College of the Holy Cross); Victor Matheson (Department of Economics, College of the Holy Cross)
    Abstract: In September 2010, the Fourmile-Lefthand Canyon forest fire burned 6,181 acres, destroyed 169 homes, and caused $217 million in property damages making it by far the most expensive fire in Colorado history at the time. This paper examines how the fire affected housing prices in vulnerable neighboring areas that were not directly impacted by the fire, controlling for the property’s level of risk. This damaging fire may have increased home owners’ perceptions about the risk of living in forested areas subject to wildfires to a significant degree adding to the total direct economic losses from the fire. Utilizing a unique fire risk data set and a difference-in-difference approach, we test whether buyers of houses in areas with different risk levels prior to the fire adjust expectations differently. We find buyers in the highest risk area are most likely to change their perceptions in response to a fire with houses in these areas experiencing a statistically significant 21.9% decline in sale price.
    Keywords: disasters, forest fires, housing, climate change
    JEL: Q54 R11 R21
    Date: 2015–08
  29. By: Frédéric Branger (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - CNRS, AgroParisTech); Philippe Quirion (CNRS, CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AgroParisTech - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - CNRS)
    Abstract: The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses. A widely discussed policy option to reduce leakage and protect competitiveness of heavy industries is to impose border carbon adjustments (BCAs). The estimation of carbon leakage as well as the assessment of different policy options led to a substantial body of literature in energy-economic modeling. In order to give a quantitative overview on the most recent research of the topic, we conduct a meta-analysis on 25 studies, altogether providing 310 estimates of carbon leakage ratio according to different assumptions and models. The typical range of carbon leakage estimates are from 5% to 25% (mean 14%) without policy and from −5% to 15% (mean 6%) with BCAs. A meta-regression analysis is performed to further investigate the impact of different assumptions on the leakage estimates. The decrease of the leakage ratio with the size of the coalition is confirmed and quantified. Among the BCA options, the extension of BCAs to all sectors and the inclusion of export rebates are the most efficient features in the meta-regression model to reduce the leakage ratio. All other parameters being constant, BCAs reduce leakage ratio by 6 percentage points.
    Date: 2014
  30. By: Pascale Steichen (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis); Chahnez ANTRI-BOUZAR (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis)
    Abstract: The drug is a therapeutic means to achieve a state of well-being. This design, however, is changing. Today, science demonstrates that this substance is a pollutant because it has impacts on human health and the environment. An inventory of the French regulation reveals significant gaps, mainly, in the management of waste activities generating this substance. Arises in this regard, the issue of liability for damage caused by the pollution and the question of the legal status of hospital waste that water treatment plant fail to treat.
    Abstract: Le médicament constitue, a priori, un moyen thérapeutique pour atteindre un certain état de bien-être. Cette conception est cependant en train d'évoluer. Aujourd'hui, la science démontre que cette substance devient un polluant du fait qu'elle entraîne des impacts sur la santé humaine et sur l'environnement. Un état des lieux de la réglementation française révèle d'importantes lacunes relevées principalement au niveau de la gestion des rejets des activités génératrices de cette substance. Se pose à cet effet, la question des responsabilités pour les dommages causés par cette pollution et la question du statut juridique des effluents hospitaliers que les stations d'épuration n'arrivent pas à traiter.
    Date: 2014–04–15
  31. By: Sadler, Marc
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Political Economy, Production Economics, Public Economics, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2015–02–20
  32. By: Saraly ANDRADE DE SA (ETH Zurich - ETH ZURICH); Philippe Delacote (INRA [INRA] - INRA(Institut national de la recherche agronomique - INRA)); Eric Nazindigouba KERE (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the mechanisms determining spatial interactions in deforestation, and its transmission channels, using data from Brazil. Our preliminary results confirm the hypothesis that deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon is characterized by complementarity, meaning that deforestation in a particular municipality tends to increase deforestation in its neighbors. We further show that cattle density, tend to be the most important factors determining the nature of spatial interactions between neighboring areas.
    Date: 2015–03–25
  33. By: Denny Ellerman; Vanessa Valero; Aleksandar Zaklan
    Abstract: The existence of some 2 billion unused EU Allowances (EUAs) at the end of Phase II of the EU's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) has sparked considerable debate about structural shortcomings of the EU ETS. At the same time, there has been a surprising lack of interest in one possible explanation of this accumulation of EUAs: the theory of intertemporal permit trading, i.e. allowance banking. In this paper we adapt basic banking theory to the case of a smoothly declining cap such as that in the EU ETS. We show that it is rational for agents to decrease emissions beyond the constraint imposed by the cap initially, accumulating an allowance bank and then drawing it down in the interest of minimizing abatement cost over time. Having laid out the theory, we carry out a set of simulations for a reasonable range of key parameters, calibrated to the EU ETS, to illustrate the e_ects of intertemporal optimization of abatement decisions on optimal time paths of emissions and allowance prices. We also explore the e_ect of an unexpected change in counterfactual emissions. We conclude that bank accumulation as the result of intertemporal abatement cost optimization should be considered at least a partial explanation when evaluating the current discrepancy between the cap and observed emissions in the EU ETS.
    Keywords: Cap and Trade System, EU ETS, Intertemporal Trading.
    JEL: D92 F18 Q54
    Date: 2015–04
  34. By: Vergamini, Daniele; White, Benedict; Viaggi, Davide
    Abstract: Various alternative agri-environmental payments approach have been theoretically and empirically designed in Europe (EU), United States (US) and Australia (AUS) with the aim to reduce information rent and increasing the costeffectiveness of the measures. Despite much theoretical analysis on incentive-compatible agri-environmental contracts and wide experimentation of conservation auction in the US and AUS, the main debate on the EU agri-environmental payment still focused on problem of efficiency instead of facing the effectiveness. The main obstacle to designing and implementing more efficient and targeted agri-Environmental Payments (AEP) is limited information on the side of policy makers which can give rise to adverse selection and moral hazard limiting the effectiveness of the schemes and making them expansive to run. Auctions are a category of innovative policy mechanism designed to address adverse selection and to induce farmers to reveal, through competitive bidding, their compliance costs to the government. This paper provide a simulation of an input based menu of contracts model, and of a one-shot procurement auction with data from Farm Accountancy Data Network 2012 (FADN) of Regione Emilia-Romagna (RER), in order to test the relevance of the two methods for designing more cost-effective AE payments. The case study developed for EmiliaRomagna (E-R) demonstrates the heterogeneity in compliance cost. The results of the auction model highlight a significant cost saving compared with the traditional flat rate schemes. The result of the contract model confirm that the recourse of the revelation principle and mechanism design have a potential to reduce information rent and negotiation cost. However, though not directly addressed in this paper, there are several recognized limitation in the literature, which could affect both simulation results and the ability of the methods to contribute in the design of cost-effective AE payments.
    Keywords: agri-environmental policy, auction, contract, information asymmetry, adverse selection, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015–06
  35. By: David Tobón Orozco (Universidad de Antioquia); Carlos Andrés Vasco Correa (Universidad de Antioquia); Carlos Andrés Molina Guerra
    Abstract: This paper discusses a general equilibrium model consisting of a productive sector generating externalities on another sector having clean production, and on consumers, affecting the property of resilience of a natural system that feeds the economic system. The scope of efficiency of economic incentives is analyzed simultaneously with production activities in the polluting sector and the use of a pollution abatement technology. Our model predicts a boomerang effect: the polluting sector could find itself in a worse situation in the equilibrium with externalities; this sector initiated the problem, but at the end it is highly affected. In any case, the use of economic incentives helps keep pollution levels to maintain more valuable equilibria of nature.
    Keywords: Isagen, Colombia, Public utility, privatization
    JEL: D50 H23 Q56
    Date: 2015
  36. By: An Ha Truong (USTH - UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES OF HANOI, CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), Department of Renewable Energy - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM)); Thi My Anh Le (USTH - UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES OF HANOI, CleanED - Clean Energy and Sustainable Development Lab - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM), Department of Renewable Energy - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM) - Université des Sciences et des Technologies de Hanoi - USTH (VIETNAM))
    Abstract: Bamboo biomass energy has great potential to be an alternative for fossil fuel. Bamboo biomass can be processed in various ways (thermal or biochemical conversion) to produce different energy products (charcoal, syngas and biofuels), which can be substitutions for existing fossil fuel products. Bamboo biomass has both advantages and drawbacks in comparison to other energy sources. It has better fuel characteristics than most biomass feed stocks and suitable for both thermal and biochemical pathways. The drawbacks of bamboo biomass includes establishment, logistic and land occupation. It can also impose negative impacts to environment if not well-managed, therefore, selection of bamboo as an energy dedicated feed stocks need to be evaluate carefully to avoid or minimized any possible risks. Bamboo biomass alone cannot fulfill all the demand for energy. It needs to combine with other sources to best exploit their potential and provide sustainable energy supply.
    Date: 2014–07
  37. By: Laure Latruffe (UMR1302 SMART - Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - Institut National de Recherche Agronomique); Laurent Piet (UMR1302 SMART - Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - Institut National de Recherche Agronomique); Pierre Dupraz (UMR1302 SMART - Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - Institut National de Recherche Agronomique); Chantal Le Mouel (UMR1302 SMART - Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - Institut National de Recherche Agronomique)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of agricultural land price in several regions in France over the period 1994-2011, using individual plot transaction data, with a particular emphasis on agricultural subsidies and nitrate zoning regulations. It found a positive but relatively small capitalisation effect of the total subsidies per hectare. The data revealed that agricultural subsidies capitalised, at least to some extent, but the magnitude of such a capitalisation depends on the region considered, on the type of subsidy considered, and on the location of the plot in a nitrate surplus zone or not. Only land setaside premiums significantly capitalise into land price, while single farm payments have a significant positive capitalisation impact only for plots located in a nitrate-surplus zone.
    Date: 2014–01–30
  38. By: Nicolas Querou (LAMETA - Laboratoire Montpelliérain d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - CNRS - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - Centre international de hautes études agronomiques méditerranéennes [CIHEAM], CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Agnès Tomini (LAMETA - Laboratoire Montpelliérain d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - CNRS - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - UM1 - Université Montpellier 1 - Centre international de hautes études agronomiques méditerranéennes [CIHEAM])
    Abstract: Species' interactions and the involvement of fishermen in several fisheries may not be properly accounted for by regulatory schemes,thus making regulation suboptimal. Being the only implementable instruments, the degree of ineffciency of three second-best instruments is assessed (by using a bioeconomic multispecies model) in terms of their ability to get close to socially optimal effort and stock levels. The type of regulation and the existing biological interaction are also shown to result in different impacts on effort re-allocation: a specific regulation does not necessarily increase the pressure on the unregulated species. Finally, we discuss how the choice of which second-best policy to implement is situation-specific.
    Date: 2014–09–11
  39. By: Grégory Ponthière (ERUDITE - Equipe de Recherche sur l’Utilisation des Données Individuelles en lien avec la Théorie Economique - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12, PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: Pollution is a major cause of mortality, leading to substantial inequalities in lifetime well-being across individuals. This paper characterizes the optimal level of pollution in a two-period OLG economy where pollution deteriorates survival conditions. We compare two long-run social optima: on the one hand, the average utilitarian optimum, where the long-run average well-being is maximized, and, on the other hand, the ex post egalitarian optimum, where the well-being of the worst-o¤ at the stationary equilibrium is maximized. It is shown that the ex post egalitarian optimum involves a higher level of pollution in comparison with the utilitarian optimum. This result is robust to introducing health expenditures in the survival function. Finally, we examine the decentralization of those two social optima, and we compare the associated optimal taxes on capital income aimed at internalizing the pollution externality.
    Date: 2014–12
  40. By: Francesco Nicolli (Facoltà di Economia (Faculty of Economics) - Università degli Studi di Ferrara); Francesco Vona (Facoltà di Economia (Faculty of Economics) - Università degli Studi di Ferrara)
    Abstract: This paper investigates empirically the effect of market regulation and renewable energy policies on innovation activity in different renewable energy technologies. For the EU countries and the years 1980 to 2007, we built a unique dataset containing information on patent production in eight different technologies, proxies of market regulation and technology-specific renewable energy policies. Our main findings show that lowering entry barriers is a more significant driver of renewable energy innovation than privatisation and unbundling, but its effect varies across technologies, being stronger in technologies characterised by the potential entry of small, independent power producers. Additionally, the inducement effect of renewable energy policies is heterogeneous and more pronounced for wind, which is the only technology that is mature and has high technological potential. Finally, the ratification of the Kyoto protocol – determining a more stable and less uncertain policy framework - amplifies the inducement effect of both energy policy and market liberalisation.
    Date: 2014–07
  41. By: Dina ANDRIANKAJA (PIESO-ENSMSE - Département Performance Industrielle et Environnementale des Systèmes et des Organisations - Mines Saint-Étienne MSE - École des Mines de Saint-Étienne - Institut Mines-Télécom - Institut Henri Fayol, EVS - UMR 5600 Environnement Ville Société - ENSAL - Ecole nationale supérieure d'architecture de Lyon - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne - CNRS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon); Natacha Gondran (PIESO-ENSMSE - Département Performance Industrielle et Environnementale des Systèmes et des Organisations - Mines Saint-Étienne MSE - École des Mines de Saint-Étienne - Institut Mines-Télécom - Institut Henri Fayol, EVS - UMR 5600 Environnement Ville Société - ENSAL - Ecole nationale supérieure d'architecture de Lyon - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne - CNRS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon); Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu (PIESO-ENSMSE - Département Performance Industrielle et Environnementale des Systèmes et des Organisations - Mines Saint-Étienne MSE - École des Mines de Saint-Étienne - Institut Mines-Télécom - Institut Henri Fayol, EVS - UMR 5600 Environnement Ville Société - ENSAL - Ecole nationale supérieure d'architecture de Lyon - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne - CNRS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon)
    Abstract: IPSS are popular in different fields of transport, mainly for personal use (car-sharing, bike-sharing). Their usage in urban goods transport is not still generalized but those systems present a good potential. This paper proposed to assess and analyze four different scenarios for urban goods transport to compare IPSS configurations to a business as usual situation, in terms of environmental impacts. Those impacts will be estimated via a life cycle analysis (LCA) method. First, the four scenarios are presented. The first scenario is the reference one, i.e. the business as usual situation. The other three scenarios represent possible IPSS configuration, i.e. a vehicle leasing system, a vehicle sharing system and an urban consolidation system. Second, the methodology for scenario assessment using LCA is described, and the main proposed indicators defined. Third, the main results of the scenario assessment are presented, analyzed and discussed. Finally, future researches are proposed.
    Date: 2015–05–18
  42. By: Sylvain Béal (CRESE - Centre de REcherches sur les Stratégies Economiques - Université de Franche-Comté); Amandine Ghintran (EQUIPPE - Economie Quantitative, Intégration, Politiques Publiques et Econométrie - Université Lille II - Droit et santé - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et technologies - Université Charles-de-Gaulle Lille 3 - Sciences humaines et sociales - PRES Université Lille Nord de France); Eric Rémila (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - PRES Université de Lyon - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon); Philippe Solal (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - PRES Université de Lyon - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon)
    Abstract: We introduce a new allocation rule, called the sequential equal surplus division for rooted forest TU-games. We provide two axiomatic characterizations for this allocation rule. The first one uses the classical property of component efficiency plus an edge deletion property. The second characterization uses standardness, an edge deletion property applied to specific rooted trees, a consistency property, and an amalgamation property. We also provide an extension of the sequential equal surplus division applied to the problem of sharing a river with bifurcations.
    Date: 2014
  43. By: Claudio Araujo (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Jean-Louis Combes (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); José Gustavo Feres (IPEA - Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - Brésil)
    Abstract: This paper aims at assessing the determinants of Amazon deforestation, with an emphasis on the role played by off-farm income. We first present a microeconomic model which relates off-farm income to deforestation patterns. We then test the empirical implications by using data on the 2006 Brazilian Agricultural Census. Our results suggest that an increase in off-farm income tends to reduce deforestation. This may be explained by the fact that greater off-farm opportunities tends to increase the opportunity cost of farm labor. Results also show that smallholders are less responsive to the increase in the returns of off-farm activities than large ones, which is in line with our hypothesis of labor market imperfections regarding off-farm activities.
    Date: 2014–11–19
  44. By: Iordanis Angelos Kalaitzoglou (Audencia Recherche - Audencia); Boulis Maher Ibrahim (Heriot-Watt University - HERIOT-WATT UNIVERSITY)
    Abstract: We investigate whether liquidity introduces or helps resolve uncertainty in Phase I and the first year of Phase II of the European carbon futures market. We propose a distinction between ‘absolute’ or overall liquidity and that which is ‘relative’ to a benchmark. For this purpose, we suggest volume-weighted duration as a natural measure of trading intensity as a proxy for liquidity, and we model it as a rescaled temporal point process. The new model is called Autoregressive Conditional Weighted Duration (ACWD) and is shown to outperform its discrete modelling counterparts. Liquidity is found to play a dual role, with higher relative liquidity introducing uncertainty and higher absolute liquidity accelerating uncertainty resolution, thus, enhancing market efficiency.
    Date: 2015–01
  45. By: Olivier Godard (Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS - Polytechnique - X)
    Abstract: Cet ouvrage analyse la manière dont des stratégies nationales de lutte contre l’effet de serre peuvent se déterminer en fonction des positionnements cognitifs et éthiques des États nationaux au regard de scénarios climatiques mondiaux. Sont ainsi distinguées les approches cognitives de type « prédictif », « thomiste » ou « symétrique », croisées avec des positionnements éthiques désignés comme « égocentrique », « altruiste-dynastique, « solidariste intragénérationnel », « altruiste cosmopolitique » et « universaliste kanto-millien ». Pour évaluer ces configurations on suppose que les choix faits par un État s’appuient sur une évaluation des dommages climatiques associés à différents scénarios de concentration de gaz à effet de serre. Les indicateurs centraux utilisés sont la valeur actuelle du dommage entraîné par l’émission d’une tonne de CO2 et le niveau du taux d’actualisation. Dans ce cadre classique où se met à l’épreuve le concept de dommages pour appréhender des phénomènes de long terme, l’évaluation détermine quelles configurations cognitivo-éthiques justifient la cible du « Facteur 4 » en 2050 : il en existe un nombre réduit, relevant soit d’un « altruisme cosmopolitique (international et intergénérationnel) », soit d’un « universalisme kanto-millien », si cette cible est choisie en fonction du seul problème climatique. En postulant qu’une valeur de 100 € / tCO2 en 2030 est un point de passage obligé vers le « Facteur 4 »en 2050, de tels choix éthiques impliquent la reconnaissance d’une valeur actuelle 2010 d’un niveau élevé pour le dommage entraîné par l’émission d’une tonne de CO2e (au moins 53 € / tCO2, soit un ordre de grandeur supérieur au prix 2013 du carbone sur le marché ETS) et l’adoption d’un taux d’actualisation caractéristique qui, dépendant des configurations étudiées, ne saurait être plus élevé que 3,25 %. De telles valeurs doivent être considérées comme des conditions logiques à respecter pour tous les choix dérivés et en particulier lorsqu’il s’agit de déterminer la meilleure trajectoire intertemporelle de réduction des émissions. Autre résultat : en prenant en compte l’incidence de la date d’émission sur le dommage climatique, il s’avère qu’« altruisme cosmopolitique » et « universalisme kanto-millien » conduisent à des recommandations strictement opposées quant au profil de la meilleure trajectoire temporelle de « consommation » d’un budget d’émissions fixé pour la période 2011-2050 : le premier demande de concentrer les émissions en début de période et le second de débuter par un « choc de réduction ». Au total aucune des configurations justifiant la cible du « Facteur 4 » ne s’accorde avec l’application simple d’une règle de Hotelling qui ferait progresser la valeur de la tonne de CO2 au taux d’actualisation standard pour l’investissement public.
    Date: 2014–12–01
  46. By: S. A. Mukul; A. Z. M. M. Rashid; M. B. Uddin; N. A. Khan
    Abstract: People in developing world derive a significant part of their livelihoods from various forest products, particularly non-timber forest products. This article attempts to explore the contribution of NTFPs in sustaining forest-based rural livelihood in and around a protected area of Bangladesh, and their potential role in enhancing households resilience capacity. Based on empirical investigation our study revealed that, local communities gather a substantial amount of NTFPs from national park despite the official restrictions. 27 percent households of the area received at least some cash benefit from the collection, processing and selling of NTFPs, and NTFPs contribute as HHs primary, supplementary and emergency sources of income. NTFPs also constituted an estimated 19 percent of HHs net annual income, and were the primary occupation for about 18 percent of the HHs. HHs dependency on nearby forests for various NTFPs varied vis-a-vis their socio-economic condition as well as with their location from the park. Based on our case study the article also offers some clues for improving the situation in PA.
    Date: 2015–04
  47. By: Laura Centemeri (CEMS - Centre d'étude des mouvements sociaux - CNRS - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales); Gildas Renou (CRAPE - Centre de Recherches sur l'Action Politique en Europe - CNRS - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Rennes - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1)
    Abstract: Les travaux de Martinez-Alier constituent aujourd’hui une borne qui est devenue décisive dans le débat contemporain sur la question environnementale, notamment pour ce qui concerne l’analyse des inégalités environnementales en tant qu’inégalités d’accès aux ressources naturelles et en tant qu’inégalités dans l’exposition aux nuisances et aux risques environnementaux. Il considère que la crise environnementale est la conséquence directe de la perpétuation d’un système économique reposant sur l’objectif de la croissance. La contestation scientifique de la civilisation de la croissance industrielle sans fin que Martinez-Alier déploie ne peut toutefois pas être séparée de la volonté de contribuer activement à la constitution d’un sujet politique porteur d’une critique d’un tel modèle. Dans cette contribution, nous verrons comment ce positionnement à la frontière de la réflexion théorique et de l’action politique génère des tensions internes à son cadre conceptuel, notamment dans la manière d’envisager l’enjeu du pluralisme des « langages de valuation » de l’environnement
    Date: 2015–04–11
  48. By: Gaël Plumecocq (AGIR - AGrosystèmes et développement terrItoRial - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), LEREPS - Laboratoire d'Etude et de Recherche sur l'Economie, les Politiques et les Systèmes Sociaux - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Toulouse - UT1 - Université Toulouse 1 Capitole - UTM - Université Toulouse 2 Le Mirail - École Nationale de Formation Agronomique - ENFA)
    Abstract: This paper examines the hypothesis that all public policies are based, at least in part, on rhetorical strategies. By analysing public policies implemented in the context of sustainable development, this article emphasises the need for and the challenges of providing legitimate foundations for the rhetorical means used to encourage change; it is these foundations that determine a given policy's effectiveness. To do so, historical analyses are used, as well as socio-economic perspectives examined through textual analysis. The text concludes by showing the importance of a common framework for action based on shared values at the regional level for legitimising the political use of rhetoric to change behaviours and attitudes.
    Date: 2014–09–01
  49. By: Anna Creti (UP9 - Université Paris 9, Dauphine - Université Paris IX - Paris Dauphine, Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS - Polytechnique - X); Alena Kotelnikova (Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS - Polytechnique - X); Guy Meunier (INRA-AliSS - UR 1303, Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS - Polytechnique - X); Jean-Pierre Ponssard (Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS - Polytechnique - X, CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: The transition of a sector from a pollutant state to a clean one is studied. A green technology, subject to learning-by-doing, progressively replaces an old one. The notion of abatement cost in this dynamic context is fully characterized. The theoretical, dynamic optimization, perspective is linked to simple implementation rules. The practical "deployment" perspective allows to study sub-optimal trajectories. Moreover, the analysis of the launching date provides a denition of a dynamic abatement cost easy to use for evaluation of real-world policy options. The case of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles offers an illustration of the proposed methodology.
    Date: 2015–06–01
  50. By: Jérôme Blanc (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - CNRS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Lyon - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon)
    Abstract: Ce texte vise à discuter la proposition de Michel Aglietta de fixation d’une valeur sociale au carbone évité (VSC) et à proposer une connexion de ce principe à un dispositif de monnaie locale intégrant la possibilité de financement des investissements écologiques. La proposition de Michel Aglietta est double : elle concerne d’une part un dispositif de fixation d’une valeur sociale au carbone évité en vue de stimuler les investissements bas-carbone, et d’autre part la promotion d’une économie circulaire par les monnaies locales. Je commence par commenter les deux propositions (1) puis je propose un prolongement afin d’intégrer financement et investissement dans les systèmes de monnaies locales afin qu’elles contribuent à la transition écologique des territoires (2). Dans ce troisième temps, la proposition qui est faite porte sur une organisation monétaire décentralisée et territorialisée apte à soutenir la transition écologique de l’économie et dans un rapport de subsidiarité avec l’organisation monétaire à l’échelle nationale. Elle est présentée selon trois étapes ou étages successifs, chaque étage supposant que le précédent a été construit. Le premier étage de la proposition consiste à renforcer l’existant des monnaies locales pour lui intégrer le principe du financement de l’investissement ; il ne nécessite pas des politiques publiques de transition mais suppose néanmoins une implication des collectivités. Le second étage introduit les politiques publiques de transition, qui passent alors par la conversion de fonds publics (fournis par les collectivités locales et territoriales concernées et par l’Etat) à des Fonds d’investissement territoriaux pour la transition écologique, FITTE) en monnaie locale sous forme de subventions ou de compléments de crédits à taux zéro pour investissement écologique, pour les entreprises et les ménages. Le troisième étage de la proposition intègre l’existence d’un plan européen ou international visant à valoriser le carbone évité, tel que la proposition Aglietta de VSC (valeur sociale du carbone évité). Il s’agit de connecter les fonds d’investissement territoriaux (FITTE) aux financements carbones développés dans le cadre de tels plans carbone. Il s’agit donc de convertir à l’échelle des territoires pertinents (par exemple, la région) une partie les fonds dégagés pour les investissements bas-carbone, et de les convertir en monnaies locales afin d’avoir une action appropriée à cette échelle.
    Date: 2015–04
  51. By: Amel Attour (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis); Marc-Hubert Depret (CRIEF - CRIEF - Centre de Recherche sur l'Intégration Economique et Financière - Université de Poitiers)
    Abstract: Cet article s'intéresse au cas des villes urbaines et à la manière dont développement durable (DD), développement public local des services publics à base de technologies de l'information et de la Communication (TIC) et stratégie territoriale se combinent. Il définit dans une première partie les notions de durabilité, de ville (et de quartier) durable, de " TIC vertes " et les intègre dans le contexte historique et institutionnel des villes urbaines contemporaines. Il dresse ensuite dans une deuxième et troisième partie le panorama des politiques de développement durable et de développement numérique menées par un échantillon d'EcoCités françaises labélisées dans le cadre du " plan d'actions Ville durable " lancé en novembre 2009. Il propose enfin une typologie des projets de villes durables sur la base de trois critères : le choix technologique, la stratégique économique et la dimension territoriale des initiatives publiques locales.
    Date: 2014–03
  52. By: Nathalie Lazaric (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis); Jun Jin (School of Management, Zhejiang University, China - Chercheur Indépendant); Ali Douai (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis); Cécile Ayerbe (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS)
    Abstract: This article proposes a model of eco-innovation that emphasizes the role of users and regulation in the development and diffusion of eco-innovation products, by comparing the diffusion of two e-bike companies, CEP and Lvyan, from China and France. These cases show that diffusion of eco-innovation in China and France is strongly linked to the institutional context and specific consumer needs, highlighting the importance of involving users in the development and diffusion of eco-innovation in order to satisfy market demand, and increase profit and competitiveness in niche markets. It also shows that, to achieve a comprehensive picture, institutions and policy makers should adopt a coevolutionary approach to regulation that includes consideration of technology, uses and practices. The case of CEP reveals that regulation appropriate to the market fosters companies' eco-innovation; compared to the case of Lvyan which shows that irrelevant regulation can become a barrier to the diffusion of eco-innovations such as the e-bikes. The superior 'snob effects' of the French market are discussed and compared with the 'bandwagons effects' noted in the Chinese market.
    Abstract: Cet article propose un cadre d'analyse de l'éco-innovation, mettant l'accent sur le rôle des utilisateurs et des régulations dans son développement et sa diffusion à partir d'une comparaison des trajectoires de deux firmes du secteur du vélo électrique, Lyyuan (Chine) et CEP (France). Ces cas mettent en exergue le rôle du contexte institutionnel et des besoins spécifiques de consommateurs dans la trajectoire de l'éco-innovation. Une approche en termes de co-évolution entre la technologie, les usages et les pratiques est mise en avant pour expliquer les différences de trajectoire. Les effets de " snobisme " sur le marché français sont discutés et comparés aux effets " boule de neige " (bandwagon) observables sur le marché chinois.
    Date: 2014
  53. By: Odile Blanchard (équipe EDDEN - PACTE - Politiques publiques, ACtion politique, TErritoires - CNRS - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - IEPG - Sciences Po Grenoble - Institut d'études politiques de Grenoble - Grenoble 1 UJF - Université Joseph Fourier); Arnaud Buchs (Institute of Geography and Sustainability, - UNIL - Université de Lausanne - Université de Lausanne)
    Abstract: The article aims at assessing the effectiveness of a role-play in addressing two concerns: clarifying the concept of sustainable development and teaching sustainable development issues. The effectiveness is gauged by surveying students to reveal how the game matches a set of "significant learning" criteria defined by Fink (2003). Firstly, our article brings a short overview of how the concept of sustainable development has emerged and spread over time. Secondly, in order to assess the learning potential of our role-play, we examine how it addresses the six components of Fink's taxonomy of "significant learning": (i) foundational knowledge, (ii) application, (iii) integration, (iv) human dimensions, (v) caring and, (vi) learning how to learn. This taxonomy is analysed through a rigorous assessment methodology. The assessment shows that our role-play is highly praised by the players as it not only brings them foundational knowledge, but also allows them to enhance many skills. Thus, the framework of this role-play contributes to educating about sustainable development as well as educating for sustainable development.
    Date: 2015
  54. By: Mathilde Baudrier (Mission Climat de la Caisse des Dépôts - Pôle Mécanismes de projet, agriculture, forêt - Groupe caisse des dépots); Valentin Bellassen (UMR 1041 Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - SAE 2 - Sciences Sociales, Agriculture et Alimentation, Espace et Environnement. - CESAER - Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux - SAD - Sciences Pour l'Action et le Développement. - Agrosup Dijon - Institut National Supérieur des Sciences agronomiques de l'Alimentation et de l'Environnement); Claudine Foucherot (Mission Climat de la Caisse des Dépôts - Pôle Mécanismes de projets, agriculture, forêt - Groupe caisse des dépots)
    Abstract: En septembre 2013, les institutions européennes ont ratifié la réforme de la politique agricole commune pour 2014-2020 avec de nouveaux objectifs visant à lutter contre le changement climatique qui devient donc un objectif officiel de la Politique agricole commune (PAC). Pour autant, l’impact de la PAC sur les émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) n’a pas commencé en 2014, même s’il était jusque-là un effet collatéral des mesures visant d’autres objectifs. Cette Etude Climat évalue les émissions évitées et induites de la PAC 2003-2013 sur la base des différentes mesures modifiées en France pendant cette période. Une liste de 20 mesures majeures a été établie. Ces mesures respectaient les trois critères suivants :[br/] - la mesure a potentiellement un impact sur les émissions de GES ;[br/] - un budget alloué supérieur à 20 millions d’euros annuels ;[br/] - la mesure a été créée ou a subi une modification entre 2003 et 2013. [br/] Leur impact, positif ou négatif, sur les émissions de GES a ensuite été estimé à l’échelle unitaire (hectare, animal, mètre carré de serre, etc.), à l’échelle nationale (MtCO2e par an) et relativement à la quantité de produit (tCO2e par litre de lait, quintal de blé, etc.). Ces mesures incitent quasiment toutes à la réduction des émissions, quelle que soit la métrique considérée : tCO2e par hectare ou par quantité de produit. Toutefois, dans une petite moitié des cas, l’incitation n’est pas jugée efficace : les données d’activités (eg. surface de prairies, quantité d’animaux, etc.) évoluent dans le sens opposé à l’effet attendu de la mesure. L’effet de l’autre moitié des mesures est estimé à plus de 2 millions de tCO2e par an, soit de l’ordre de 2 % des émissions du secteur Agrofourniture-Agriculture-Agroalimentaire en 2011. Les deux tiers de ces réductions sont attribués à trois types de mesures : incitations à l’utilisation raisonnée des intrants (Plan végétal pour l’environnement, Plan de performance énergétique, formation), prime herbagère agroenvironnementale et aides couplées aux légumineuses à graines. Ce chiffrage a principalement vocation à ouvrir le débat. Les hypothèses qui sous-tendent les chiffrages nationaux sont grossières et les résultats ne sauraient donc constituer une évaluation robuste de l’efficacité des mesures correspondantes. Les évaluations unitaires de chaque mesure nous semblent en revanche robustes, et constituent ainsi une référence utile sur l’impact potentiel de différents types de soutiens publics sur les émissions agricoles.
    Date: 2015
  55. By: Amina Béji-Bécheur (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12 - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée); Nil Ozcaglar-Toulouse (LSMRC - - Université Lille II - Droit et santé)
    Abstract: Le développement durable est aujourd'hui introduit dans les discours comme un modèle alternatif et légitime pour répondre à un problème majeur de notre époque contemporaine : il est urgent de combiner à la fois le développement économique et le respect des ressources naturelles, des droits sociaux et de l'équité dans la répartition de la richesse créée. Dans ce contexte, la responsabilité des acteurs du marché s'élargit au périmètre défini par le rapport Brundtland (1987). Ce dernier questionne les modalités de fonctionnement des entreprises et interpelle les théories en marketing notamment la notion d'échange entre l'entreprise et son marché, y compris ses parties prenantes. Pour autant, les moyens de la mise en oeuvre du développement durable par le marketing sont encore à préciser et à crédibiliser (Gabriel, 2003), même si de nombreuses expériences illustrent l'émergence de nouvelles pratiques et innovations marketing. Quant à la recherche, elle se déploie désormais, dans une visée performative ou transformative, les actions des organisations souhaitant répondre aux enjeux du développement durable (Trinquecoste, 2013). A ce titre, le marketing peut sortir par le haut (Volle, 2013) en pensant le temps long de l'action des entreprises (Pras, 2013). Mais le marketing ne se pense seulement au niveau des organisations : les consommateurs sont à la fois des vecteurs et des acteurs de la performance des politiques mises en oeuvre par les entreprises. Ils peuvent aussi être les promoteurs de nouvelles orientations en marché (Callon et Muniesa, 2003 ; Martin et Schouten, 2014). Dans cette mouvance, nous avons fait un appel à contributions, il y a déjà deux ans, pour dévoiler les transformations à l'oeuvre dans les marchés et dans les techniques de marketing en relation avec le développement durable : d'une part, pour mieux saisir la mise en oeuvre
    Date: 2014

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