nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2015‒04‒02
forty-one papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Promises and pitfalls in environmentally extended input-output analysis for China: a survey of the literature By Hawkins, Jacob; Ma, Chunbo; Schilizzi, Steven; Zhang, Fan
  2. Climate-related innovations, crowding out, and their impact on competitiveness By Hottenrott, Hanna; Rexhäuser, Sascha; Veugelers, Reinhilde
  3. Optimal carbon abatement in a stochastic equilibrium model with climate change By Hambel, Christoph; Kraft, Holger; Schwartz, Eduardo S.
  4. When does the turning point in China's CO2 emissions occur? Results based on the Green Solow Model By Yu Hao; Yi-Ming Wei
  6. Optimal Carbon Abatement in a Stochastic Equilibrium Model with Climate Change By Christoph Hambel; Holger Kraft; Eduardo Schwartz
  7. Social-Ecology : exploring the missing link in sustainable development By Eloi Laurent
  8. Green Economy and Development: Towards Place Making and Community Sustainability By Rosario Turvey
  9.  Spatial heterogeneity and transboundary pollution: a contingent valuation study on the Xijiang River drainage basin in south China  By Jie He; Anping Huang;  Luodan Xu
  10. Evaluating the use of marginal abatement cost curves applied to greenhouse gas abatement in agriculture By Eory, Vera
  11. A cross-region study: climate change adaptation in Malawi's agro-based systems By Assa, Maganga Mulagha; Gebremariam, Gebrelibanos G.; Mapemba, Lawrence D.
  12. La fiscalidad ambiental / Environmental Taxation By José María Durán Cabré; Mikael Skou Andersen; Xosé C. Álvarez; Alberto Gago; Xavier Labandeira
  13. Production Practices and Systems in Sustainable Agriculture By Debertin, David L.; Pagoulatos, Angelos
  14. Has the development of FDI and foreign trade contributed to China's CO2 emissions? An empirical study with provincial panel data By Yu Hao; Yi-Ming Liu
  16. Going Beyond Instrument Interactions: Towards a More Comprehensive Policy Mix Conceptualization for Environmental Technological Change By Karoline S. Rogge; Kristin Reichardt
  17. Good enough! Are socially responsible companies the more successful environmental innovators? By Reif, Christiane; Rexhäuser, Sascha
  18. Assessing conventional and organic citrus farming systems eco-efficiency: a metafrontier directional distance function approach using Life Cycle Analysis. By Mercedes Beltrán Esteve; Ernest Reig Martínez; Vicent Estruch Guitart
  19. Drivers of green supply chain management practices and their impact on firms’ performance in a developing country By Kamran Rashid; M.M. Haris Aslam; Asad ur Rahman Wahla
  20. Assessing Energy Scenarios for Austria with the ISED-AT Framework By Claudia Kettner; Daniela Kletzan-Slamanig; Angela Köppl
  21. Selective Reporting and the Social Cost of Carbon By Tomas Havranek; Zuzana Irsova; Karel Janda; David Zilberman
  22. Adapting to Climate Change: The Remarkable Decline in the U.S. Temperature-Mortality Relationship over the 20th Century By Barreca, Alan I.; Clay, Karen; Deschenes, Olivier; Greenstone, Michael; Shapiro, Joseph S.
  23. Do Plants Make Less Pollution Reduction Efforts during Recession? Plants' Response to Local Economic Condition By Sanguk Yu; Hyunhoe Bae
  24. Four system boundaries for carbon accounts By Zhu Liu; Kuishuang Feng; Klaus Hubacek; Sai Liang; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Chao Zhang; Dabo Guan
  25. Is China's carbon reduction target allocation reasonable? An analysis based on carbon intensity convergence By Yu Hao; Hua Liao; Yi-Ming Wei
  26. Carbon Pricing and Electricity Market Reforms in China By Jin Fan; Dingtao Zhao; Yanrui Wu; Jiuchang Wei
  27. Severe Air Pollution and Labor Productivity By Li, Teng; Liu, Haoming; Salvo, Alberto
  28. Re-examining empirical evidence on contingent valuation – Importance of incentive compatibility By Ewa Zawojska; Mikołaj Czajkowski
  29. The Impact of Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Panel Data of Bangladesh By Kazi Iqbal; Abu Siddique
  30. Modelling of distributional impacts of energy subsidy reforms: an illustration with Indonesia By Olivier Durand-Lasserve; Lorenza Campagnolo; Jean Chateau; Rob Dellink
  31. Marine ecosystem considerations and second-best management By Nicolas Quérou; Agnès Tomini
  32. Indicators for Sustainable Energy Development for Austria (ISED-AT). Residential Buildings and Electricity and Heat Supply By Claudia Kettner; Daniela Kletzan-Slamanig; Angela Köppl
  33. Reforming the taxation of vehicle use and ownership: an overview of papers presented at the CTS symposium 18-19 September 2014 By Proost, Stef; van Dender, Kurt; Eliasson, Jonas
  34. Financing energy and low-carbon investment: public guarantees and the ECB By Michel Aglietta; Étienne Espagne
  35. Gender Equality and Sustainable Development With a Focus on the Coastal Fishing Community of Bangladesh By Md. Maruf Hossan Chowdhury; Mohammed Naim A. Dewan; Mohammed Quaddus; Marita Naude; Abu Siddique
  37. Air pollution, foetal mortality, and long-term health: Evidence from the Great London Smog By Ball, Alastair
  38. A categorisation and evaluation of rhino management policies By Douglas J. Crookes and James N. Blignaut
  39. Negative Production Externalities and Efficacy of the Pigouvian Tax Policy in a Developing Economy: A Pure Economic Argument By Chaudhuri, Sarbajit
  40. Fossil fuel subsidies : approaches and valuation By Kojima,Masami; Koplow,Doug
  41. Waste Reclaiming in Ekurhuleni : a case study of Holomisa and Villa Lisa informal settlements in South Africa By Moipone Rakolojane

  1. By: Hawkins, Jacob; Ma, Chunbo; Schilizzi, Steven; Zhang, Fan
    Abstract: As the largest developing economy, China plays a key role in global climate change. Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EE-IOA) is an important and insightful tool seeing widespread use in studying large-scale environmental impacts in China: calculating and analyzing greenhouse gas emissions, carbon and water footprints, pollution, and embedded energy. Chinese EE-IOA are hindered, however, by unreliable data and limited resolution. This paper reviews the body of literature regarding EE-IOA for China in peer-reviewed journals and provides an overview of the articles, examining their methodologies, environmental issues addressed, and data utilized. This paper further identifies the shortcomings in using input-output analyses to gauge environmental impacts in China. Potentially fruitful areas of expansion in Chinese EE-IOA research are denoted, including under-researched environmental issues, underutilized methodologies, and techniques to disaggregate data to move beyond the limitations inherent in official Chinese input-output data.
    Keywords: China, input-output, disaggregation, Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, C67, D57, F18, O53, Q4, Q5,
    Date: 2015–03–22
  2. By: Hottenrott, Hanna; Rexhäuser, Sascha; Veugelers, Reinhilde
    Abstract: Within the last few decades, rising environmental concerns, particularly about global climate change, have forced policy-makers to act in an effort to mitigate further harm. Yet though greenhouse gas emissions and the wasteful use of natural resources are detrimental to the environment, policy-makers are reluctant to enact any green legislation that might undermine national competitiveness. This is the main reason why governments often fail to agree on legally binding emissions targets on the international level. Many now see the solution to lie in the development of new environmental technologies, which promise to address environmental problems while maintaining a strong economy and competitiveness. This ZEW project examines the effects of environmental technology on competitiveness, especially as it relates to the governmental regulation of pollutants. A key determinant for the proliferation of green technology - and for tackling the environmental problems they are meant to solve - is whether they produce positive returns.
    Abstract: Wachsende Umweltbelange haben in den letzten Jahrzehnten den Druck auf politische Entscheidungsträger erhöht, Maßnahmen zur Verhinderung weiterer ökologischer Schäden zu ergreifen. Doch obwohl Treibhausgasemissionen und der verschwenderische Umgang mit natürlichen Ressourcen schädlich für die Umwelt sind, zögert die Politik, umweltfreundliche Gesetze zu implementieren, von denen Nachteile für die nationale Wettbewerbsfähigkeit befürchtet werden. Viele sehen daher die Lösung in der Entwicklung umweltfreundlicher Technologien, die ökologische Probleme lindern könnten, ohne die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit zu beeinträchtigen. Der Einfluss von Innovationen mit Umweltwirkung auf die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit ist Gegenstand dieser ZEW-Studie.
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Hambel, Christoph; Kraft, Holger; Schwartz, Eduardo S.
    Abstract: This paper studies a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model involving climate change. Our model allows for damages on economic growth resulting from global warming. In the calibration, we capture effects from climate change and feedback effects on the temperature dynamics. We solve for the optimal state-dependent abatement policy. In our simulations, the costs of this policy measured in terms of lost GDP growth are moderate. On the other hand, postponing abatement action could reduce the probability that the climate can be stabilized. For instance, waiting for 10 years reduces this probability from 60% to 30%. Waiting for another 10 years leads to a probability that is less than 10%. Finally, doing nothing opens the risk that temperatures might explode and economic growth decreases significantly.
    Keywords: Climate change economics,Carbon abatement,GDP growth
    JEL: D81 Q5 Q54
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Yu Hao; Yi-Ming Wei (Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEP), Beijing Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: In recent years, the surge in China's CO2 emissions has caused increasing international concern. In this paper, we investigate whether and when the turning point in China's CO2 emissions would occur. A simple yet powerful neoclassical Green Solow Model (GSM) is utilized herein as the main forecasting tool. To verify the capability of this framework to address China's economy, a key prediction of the GSM ¨C the convergence in per capita CO2 emissions across Chinese provinces ¨C is empirically verified. By assigning reasonable values to the GSM's key parameters, the trajectories of total CO2 emissions are projected for the three regions of China and the whole country. The forecast results show that under the benchmark scenario, China's total CO2 emissions would peak approximately in the year 2047. According to the sensitivity analysis, carbon efficiency is the most important determining factor for whether a turning point in total CO2 emissions may occur.
    JEL: Q47 Q54
    Date: 2014–09–03
    Abstract: The importance of the environment is seen as far as the conservation of the planet's ecosystems becomes sine qua non for sustainable development and survival of present and future generations. So, one of the basic principles enshrined in legal literature of how to ensure the compatibility between economic interests and the environment refers to prevention, understood as a guiding principle of any environmental intervention. In other words, for sustainable development suitable national and international measures must be placed to prevent everyday bio-piracy mechanisms as well as the pollution and waste of environmental resources. In this sense, in relation to the biodiversity in much of the developing countries, the United Nations’ Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 brought recognition to the sovereignty of nations over their genetic resources in order to emphasize the underlying responsibility of recipient countries and users of biological resources of third parties so that those should ensure the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from scientific knowledge as well as industrial exploitation and trading of such environmental goods. For both entities, relevant issues of cost-effectiveness and equity must be raised at national and international levels considering private benefit and environmental cost in order to reap socio-economic benefits from the use of such environmental godos [1]. Thus, economic efficiency should lead to fair monetary compensation based on the earnings made from the biological resource consumed. In addition, there must be fair compensation for the reduction of natural ecosystems as a way of internalizing socio-environmental costs (negative externalities) represented by the consumption of environmental goods.[2]. From this perspective, the present research is justified by the urgent need to create international legal mechanisms, guided by parameters of humanist ethics, able to promote the distribution of economic benefits as well as the diffusion of scientific and biotechnological advances resulting from the use of the genetic heritage associated with traditional knowledge of the ancient peoples from the countries that hold Earth’s mega-diversity. In this sense, addressing issues on sovereignty of the mega-diverse countries justifies the implementation of international laws favorable to building a global partnership for sustainable development based on the ideals of economic and social justice.
    Keywords: Sustainable Development - Biological Resources - Traditional Knowledge - Megadiversity Countries - Biopiracy - Social and Economic Benefits - Equitable sharing of Economic and Biotech Development - Social environmental costs (negative externalities)
    Date: 2014–05
  6. By: Christoph Hambel; Holger Kraft; Eduardo Schwartz
    Abstract: This paper studies a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model involving climate change. Our model allows for damages on economic growth resulting from global warming. In the calibration, we capture effects from climate change and feedback effects on the temperature dynamics. We solve for the optimal state-dependent abatement policy. In our simulations, the costs of this policy measured in terms of lost GDP growth are moderate. On the other hand, postponing abatement action could reduce the probability that the climate can be stabilized. For in- stance, waiting for 10 years reduces this probability from 60% to 30%. Waiting for another 10 years leads to a probability that is less than 10%. Finally, doing nothing opens the risk that temperatures might explode and economic growth decreases significantly.
    JEL: D81 Q54
    Date: 2015–03
  7. By: Eloi Laurent (OFCE)
    Abstract: Environmental challenges are, at their root, social problems that arise from income and power inequality. Thus, inequality is an environmental issue just as environmental degradation is a social issue(forming a “social-ecological nexus”), and solutions must address them jointly through principles and institutions rooted in justice. This article develops a two-sided “social- ecological” approach to offer both analytical and empirical insights into the dynamics of this relationship and a policy path forward
    Keywords: social ecology; social ecological nexus; inequality; social ecological transition
    Date: 2015–03
  8. By: Rosario Turvey (Lakehead University)
    Abstract: This research explores an important yet under-investigated topic on Ontario’s small urban municipalities (SUMs) concerning green economy and development in relation to local initiatives and strategies for framing sustainable communities in Ontario, Canada. The research interest is on place making as a function of initiatives by local economies concerning green economy and community sustainability. Canadian communities are adopting environmental action strategies to protect natural resources and the environment on issues associated with climate change, resource competition and rising demands for social, cultural and economic development. Though many municipal jurisdictions have put in place Environmental Action Plans (EAPs) and Economic Development Strategies (EDS), these often operate in parallel, not in concert with each other to consequently transform places into ‘sustainable communities’. The research has three research objectives. The first objective is to increase understanding of the relationship between ‘green economy,’ sustainability and local development strategies for place making in sustainability context. The second is to contribute to an emerging research agenda on sustainability and economic prosperity of local communities. By understanding how environmental action plans and economic development strategies are linked toward sustainable development in SUMs, the tension between economic prosperity and sustainability can be clarified. Third, the research hopes to contribute toward policy research on local development and environmental sustainability in the medium- if not the long-term. The paper presents the results from the survey on green economy and development of environment and economic development professionals and practitioners from two case study SUMs in Ontario, Canada namely: Orillia and North Bay. The research adopted a ‘sustainable community development model’ as a framework to explore community efforts (local initiatives) as translated into local environmental strategies and priorities to pursue green development and sustainability. The research on SUMs involved a questionnaire survey and statistical assessment using Mann-Whitney U test and other quantitative spatial analysis. The aim of the survey was to determine how three components namely- green economy priorities, planning for green development and energy-related priorities are perceived by those engaged in the framing and implementing strategies, priorities and policies for building sustainable communities. The results from the survey indicated that local priorities and strategies for green economy and development are important components for sustainable community development. Not surprisingly, the survey found that key informants viewed the green economy priorities and strategies in their respective municipalities to be contributing towards community sustainability.
    Keywords: green economy, place making, community sustainability
    JEL: Q01
    Date: 2014–06
  9. By: Jie He (Departement d'economique, Faculte d'administration, Universite de Sherbrooke); Anping Huang (Lingnan (University College), University of Sun Yat-sen, China);  Luodan Xu (Lingnan (University College), University of Sun Yat-sen, China)
    Abstract:  This article examines whether and how transboundary river water pollution spillover may affect resident’s Willingness to Pay (WTP) for a river water quality improvement project. Based on a CVM survey conducted in 20 cities located in the Xijiang river basin located in south China, our study demonstrates that the downstream city respondents report lower WTP when the water quality in the immediate upstream city is more polluted. This negative externality decreases with distance and relative bargaining power of downstream city. The simulated potential gain in social benefit if an integrated river basin management (IRBM) were installed, which is supposed to remove respondents’ concerns about negative externality of transboundary river pollution is found to be significant. We can consider this social benefit as upper bound for the transfer from downstream to upstream regions to ensure the reduction of transboundary river pollution spillovers in the Ecological Service Payment (ESP) regime, a hotly debated market-based environmental policy which is under polit project in some regions in China.
    Keywords:  transboundary water pollution, river, negative externality, spatial, contingent valuation, river water management, ecological service payment, China
    Date: 2015–03
  10. By: Eory, Vera
    Abstract: Agriculture plays an important role in the transformation towards a ‘low-carbon’ society. The sector is highly vulnerable to climate variability, and is a significant source of emissions, while at the same time, it has a potential for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Developing policies to support GHG mitigation emissions requires information on the effectiveness and costs of potential mitigation opportunities. Such information is frequently depicted in marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs), which help to visualise the hierarchy of mitigation measures and their cumulative level of abatement. Like other tools, MACCs have certain limitations. Furthermore, different derivations of MACCs are appropriate to answer different questions. In order to draw both informative and reliable conclusions for policy decisions, the characteristics of the MACCs and the resulting limitations have to be presented clearly. This paper discusses the main limitations of agricultural MACCs (e.g. wider effects, transaction costs, uncertainty, heterogeneity, non-monetary barriers), reviewing recent methodological developments. Furthermore, it provides guidelines for researchers and policy makers about the choice of methods and the communication of the results in order to improve the use of MACCs in the policy process.
    Keywords: marginal abatement cost curves, agriculture, greenhouse gas emissions, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2015–03–12
  11. By: Assa, Maganga Mulagha; Gebremariam, Gebrelibanos G.; Mapemba, Lawrence D.
    Abstract: Agriculture in Malawi is vulnerable to the impacts of changing climate. Adaptation is identified as one of the options to abate the negative impacts of the changing climate. This study analyzed the factors influencing different climate change adaptation choices by smallholder farmers in Malawi. We sampled 900 farmers from all three regions of Malawi, using the multistage sampling procedure, study piloted in 2012. We analyzed smallholder farmers’ climate change adaptation choices with Multinomial logit regression. Factors that enhance or hinder choice of climate adaptation options include age, gender, household size, land ownership, credit access, climate change training and extension visit. Policy thrust should focus on linking farmers to credit institutions, advocating for labour saving farm technologies and intensification of climate change trainings among smallholder farmers.
    Keywords: Climate change, adaptation, multinomial logit, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013–09
  12. By: José María Durán Cabré (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB); Mikael Skou Andersen (Aarhus University); Xosé C. Álvarez (Universidade de Vigo); Alberto Gago (Universidade de Vigo); Xavier Labandeira (Universidade de Vigo)
    Date: 2014
  13. By: Debertin, David L.; Pagoulatos, Angelos
    Abstract: Interest in sustainable agriculture probably had its roots in the concept of sustainable development. There exist no agricultural production technologies or farming systems that are environmentally benign. The question thus becomes "what is sustainable and what is not?" The two underlying themes that appear in most definitions of sustainability and sustainable farming systems deal with (1) the economic profitability of the farming system over a long period of time; and (2) long-term benefits to the environment. To the extent that the proposed (sustainable) farming system provides greater off-site benefits than the farming system currently in place, federal, state and even local governments may have an interest in assuring that the alternative is implemented. Any regulations placed on U.S. farmers in an effort to achieve environmental goals cannot be so onerous such that U.S. farmers will no longer be able to produce commodities profitably at world market prices.
    Keywords: sustainability, production agriculture, agricultural production, agricultural production systems, environment and agriculture, Environmental Economics and Policy, Production Economics, Q56, Q57, Q50, Q28, Q24,
    Date: 2015–03–24
  14. By: Yu Hao; Yi-Ming Liu
    Abstract: Since the reform and opening up in 1978, China's Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and foreign trade have grown rapidly. At the same time, China's Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions surged and China has become the world's biggest CO2 emitter. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between FDI, foreign trade and Carbon Dioxide emissions in China. Using a two-equation model adapted from Halkos and Paizanos (2013), the total impact of FDI on emission is divided into the direct and indirect impacts and estimated accordingly. The results suggest that the increase in per capita FDI helps to inhibit the growth of China's per capita CO2 emissions. Concretely, the dominating direct effect of FDI on carbon emissions is negative and the indirect effect is positive. However, for foreign trade, both direct and indirect effects on CO2 emissions are insignificant after taking consideration of potential endogeneity and introducing dynamics.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Panel Data, CO2 Emissions, Direct and indirect impacts
    JEL: Q47 Q54
    Date: 2014–09–02
  15. By: Iwona Cieślak (Kozminski University); Małgrzata Kucharczyk (Kozminski University)
    Abstract: Managing a company is conditioned by many factors. Among them there are ecological factors closely associated with the consumption of natural resources in the production and the capacity of the natural environment . Depletion of natural resources, constantly progressing environmental degradation are forcing entrepreneurs to focus in addition to profit maximization, also on achieving objectives for the protection of the environment.Entities are increasingly including pro-ecological activities in its core business. Thereupon, the demand for information dealing with this area of activity is increasing and thus it becomes necessary to calculate and determine the costs associated with this segment. Appearing in the economic practice problems with the identification, measurement, valuation and disclosure in the costs and benefits statement of pro-environmental projects is a challenge for modern accounting . Taking the measurement of appearances and processes associated with the natural environment may consist of modification in the already existing accounting system or the separation of the environmental accounting system. For the purpose of generating, processing and presentation of environmental information, it is considered necessary to integrate management accounting and financial accounting tools.Pro-ecological activities of the enterprises are no longer considered only as a source of cost to them, but are increasingly being recognized as an asset, perceived in the sphere of strengths and opportunities for the future. The need to disclose the financial aspects of environmental protection in the company financial statement is dictated by the economic consequences of these activities affecting its property and financial situation. Currently reporting covering environmental issues goes beyond the typical financial statement, representing mostly a separate report or a separate chapter of the statement and information concerning costs associated with environmental protection are usually qualitative data and do not indicate their impact on the company financial position.
    Keywords: green accouting, Balanced Scorecard, cost accounting,
    JEL: M49
    Date: 2014–10
  16. By: Karoline S. Rogge (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (Fraunhofer ISI), Karlsruhe, Germany; SPRU – Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9SL, UK); Kristin Reichardt (Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands)
    Abstract: Reaching a better understanding of the policies and politics of transitions presents a main agenda item in the emerging field of sustainability transitions. One important require- ment for these transitions, such as the move towards a decarbonized energy system, is the redirection and acceleration of technological change, for which policies play a key role. Several studies of policies supporting environmental technological change have ar- gued for the need to combine different policy instruments in so-called policy mixes. However, existing policy mix studies often fall short of reflecting the complexity and dy- namics of actual policy mixes and the underlying politics of (re)designing them. In this paper we take a first step towards a more comprehensive, interdisciplinary policy mix concept for environmental technological change based on a review of the bodies of lit- erature on innovation studies, environmental economics and policy analysis. The concept introduces a clear terminology and consists of the three building blocks elements, proc- esses and characteristics, which can be delineated by several dimensions. Throughout the paper, we illustrate the concept using the example of the policy mix for fostering the transition of the German energy system to renewable power generation technologies. We argue that the proposed concept provides an integrating analytical framework for empirical studies analyzing the impact of the policy mix on environmental technological change and sustainability transitions more broadly. Finally, we derive policy implications and suggest avenues for future research.
    Keywords: Policy mix; policy strategy; instrument mix; policy making and implementation; consistency; coherence; credibility; comprehensiveness; environmental technological change; eco-innovation; sustainability transitions
    Date: 2015–03
  17. By: Reif, Christiane; Rexhäuser, Sascha
    Abstract: The link between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities and financial performance of firms has been intensively examined and debated in academics and politics, but the connection to innovation has so far lacked research attention. This paper investigates whether CSR is complementary to environmental innovations, so that a joint introduction of both strategies generates a higher financial performance than the application of one or none of the strategies. We analyse if environmental innovators can generate higher financial performance by signalling their environmental engagement through CSR. For this purpose, we use panel data of environmental R&D activity together with a CSR variable on the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) and analyse their effect on the financial performance of a firm. The novelty of our work is the complementary approach with which we examine the effect of a joint strategy of environmental R&D and CSR on financial performance. Although our results support the view of strategic complements for environmental R&D and GRI, we cannot conclude that this is also true for other types of CSR signalling environmental engagement.
    Keywords: complementarity,environmental R&D,CSR,signalling,reputation,Global Reporting Initiative
    JEL: O32 Q56
    Date: 2015
  18. By: Mercedes Beltrán Esteve (Department of Applied Economics II, Universitat de València); Ernest Reig Martínez (Department of Applied Economics II, Universitat de València); Vicent Estruch Guitart (Universitat Politècnica de València)
    Abstract: In this paper, the eco‐efficiency of citrus farms operating under two different conventional and organic technological systems is analyzed. The methodology combines Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), to estimate the environmental impacts associated with the production process, and Data Envelopment Analysis(DEA) to estimate the position of each holding in relation to a frontier formed by the best farming practices. The use of the directional distance function concept allows us to calculate farms’eco‐efficiency scoring with respect to specific environmental impacts, and not only for the whole of them. The metafrontier concept is also used in order to compare the relative eco‐efficiency of each of the two cultivation technologies used. Our results show a wide superiority of the organic farming system in relation to the conventional. An eco‐efficient('green') organic technology represents, in relation to an eco‐efficient use of conventional citrus cultivation techniques, a potential reduction of environmental impacts by 80% without worsening economic performance. In contrast, when the performance of organic and conventional citrus farms is only analyzed in relation to best practices within each system, average eco-efficiency scores are similar for both types of farms.
    Keywords: TFP, business cycle 1501
    JEL: C61 Q12 Q51 Q57
    Date: 2015–01
  19. By: Kamran Rashid (University of Management & Technology); M.M. Haris Aslam (University of Management & Technology); Asad ur Rahman Wahla (University of Management & Technology)
    Abstract: Environmental sustainability of supply chains has become increasingly important in the recent years. The purpose of this paper is to identify the drivers of Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) practices among manufacturing firms of a developing country, and to examine the impact of GSCM practices on firms’ economic and environmental performance. A structural equation model is developed to study the hypothesized relationships between three drivers and GSCM practices, and between GSCM practices and firm’s economic and environmental performance. A sample of manufacturing firms is drawn from the companies listed in the local stock exchange. Cross-sectional data of 80 responses from these manufacturing firms is collected. The developed model is tested through Partial Least Square (PLS) technique of structural equation modeling using Smart PLS version 2.0 M3. Structural equation estimates indicate that customer’s pressure and firm’s internal drive (enviropreneurship) positively influence the adaptation of GSCM practices. However governmental legislation is not significantly driving the adaptation of GSCM practices. In view of these findings, effectiveness of governmental environmental legislation and issues related to implementation of these regulations are discussed. Further, it was found that GSCM practices positively impact the supply chain buying firm’s economic and environmental performance. The paper discusses the implications of these findings in the context of managing supply chains in a developing country.
    Keywords: Green supply chain management (GSCM), supply chains, environmental performance, structural equation modeling, Partial Least Square (PLS)
    Date: 2014–06
  20. By: Claudia Kettner (WIFO); Daniela Kletzan-Slamanig (WIFO); Angela Köppl (WIFO)
    Abstract: The mitigation of (anthropogenic) climate change requires an extensive decarbonisation of production and consumption activities and thus a major transformation of societal processes and energy systems. In order to monitor and evaluate the transformation path en route to the long-term climate and energy policy targets adequate information and measurement tools are required. In this paper we use the system of Indicators for Sustainable Energy Development for Austria (ISED-AT) and the complementing composite indices in a forward-looking approach, applying them to analyse changes in the energy system in three scenarios for the period until 2030. The analysis of household final energy demand and electricity and heat supply in Austria in the three scenarios reveals substantial progress in terms of ecological aspects, such as the share of renewable energy sources and CO2 emissions. With respect to energy efficiency, until 2030 an accelerated improvement that goes far beyond the rates observed in the past is assumed for the household sector. Making full use of the available potentials for energy efficiency improvements will be decisive for a fundamental transformation of the energy systems.
    Keywords: sustainable energy development, composite index, scenario analysis, Austria
    Date: 2015–03–25
  21. By: Tomas Havranek; Zuzana Irsova; Karel Janda; David Zilberman
    Abstract: We examine potential selective reporting in the literature on the social cost of carbon (SCC) by conducting a meta-analysis of 809 estimates of the SCC reported in 101 studies. Our results indicate that estimates for which the 95% confidence interval includes zero are less likely to be reported than estimates excluding negative values of the SCC, which might create an upward bias in the literature. The evidence for selective reporting is stronger for studies published in peer-reviewed journals than for unpublished papers. We show that the findings are not driven by the asymmetry of the confidence intervals surrounding the SCC and are robust to controlling for various characteristics of study design and to alternative definitions of confidence intervals. Our estimates of the mean reported SCC corrected for the selective reporting bias are imprecise and range between USD 0 and 130 per ton of carbon at 2010 prices for emission year 2015.
    Keywords: social cost of carbon; climate policy; integrated assessment models; meta-analysis; selective reporting; publication bias;
    JEL: C83 Q54
    Date: 2015–03
  22. By: Barreca, Alan I. (Tulane University); Clay, Karen (Carnegie Mellon University); Deschenes, Olivier (University of California, Santa Barbara); Greenstone, Michael (University of Chicago); Shapiro, Joseph S. (Yale University)
    Abstract: A critical part of adapting to the higher temperatures that climate change brings will be the deployment of existing technologies to new sectors and regions. This paper examines the evolution of the temperature-mortality relationship over the course of the entire 20th century in the United States both for its own interest but also to identify potentially useful adaptations that may be useful in the coming decades. There are three primary findings. First, the mortality impact of days with a mean temperature exceeding 80° F has declined by about 70%. Almost the entire decline occurred after 1960. There are about 14,000 fewer fatalities annually than if the pre-1960 impacts of high temperature on mortality still prevailed. Second, the diffusion of residential air conditioning can explain essentially the entire decline in hot day related fatalities. Third, using Dubin-McFadden's discrete-continuous model, we estimate that the present value of US consumer surplus from the introduction of residential air conditioning (AC) in 1960 ranges from $83 to $186 billion ($2012) with a 5% discount rate. The monetized value of the mortality reductions on high temperature days due to AC accounts for a substantial fraction of these welfare gains.
    Keywords: health, temperature, air conditioning, climate change adaptation
    JEL: I18 J10 Q54
    Date: 2015–03
  23. By: Sanguk Yu (Yonsei University); Hyunhoe Bae (Yonsei University)
    Abstract: The U.S. communities are experiencing economic hardship with plant or business closings contributing to high unemployment rates. In this circumstance, communities and local governments may prioritize economic recovery over environmental improvement, thereby weakening community and government pressure against nearby polluting plants. Under this weakened public pressure, plants may make less effort to reduce their emission. In an attempt to explore the concern, this study examines the impact of local economic downturn on nearby chemical plants’ toxic release reduction behavior. A total of 352 chemical use plants in upstate New York and their toxic release inventory data were traced for five years (2006-2010) and analyzed with local economic condition variables along with other socio-economic and regulatory environmental variables.Particularly, this study estimated the impact of local economic recession on plants’ behavior by adopting an alternative measure. Instead of plants’ simple toxic release levels, which could be also an outcome of plants’ production volume change, this study used an explicit measure of plant’s toxic release reduction efforts. The measure of plant’s reduction effort was constructed based on Berrone and Gomez-Mejia’s 2009 study, whose effort measure considers both toxic release level and production increase ratio. In addition, along with widely used economic recession measure—unemployment rates, this study also used plant/business closing rates of the community, assuming it is a more tangible and realistic indicator of the local economic condition community members recognize.The results show plants’ toxic release reduction effort, which incorporated both toxic release level and production increase ratio in its measurement, was reduced when unemployment and plant closing rates are high. The results imply declining economy weakens community pressure and governments’ monitoring/enforcement intensity by making them prioritize the recovery of local economy over pollution reduction/environmental conservation. The findings of this study may reveal the limitations of the recent regulatory approach, which employs a public pressure mechanism to achieve polluters’ better environmental performance, such as information-based regulation or voluntary programs.
    Keywords: Recession, pollution reduction effort, plant closing, unemployment, toxic release inventory.
    Date: 2014–10
  24. By: Zhu Liu; Kuishuang Feng; Klaus Hubacek; Sai Liang; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Chao Zhang; Dabo Guan
    Abstract: Abstract Knowing the carbon emission baseline of a region is a precondition for any mitigation effort, but the baselines are highly dependent on the system boundaries for which they are calculated. On the basis of sectoral energy statistics and a nested provincial and global multi-regional input?output model, we calculate and compare four different system boundaries for China's 30 provinces and major cities. The results demonstrate significant differences in the level of emissions for the different system boundaries. Moreover, the associated emissions with each system boundary varies with the regional development level, i.e. richer areas outsource more emissions to other areas, or in other words boundary 4 emissions are higher than boundary 1 emissions for rich areas and vice versa for poor areas. Given these significant differences it is important to be aware of the implications the choice of an accounting system might have on outcomes.
    Keywords: China
  25. By: Yu Hao; Hua Liao; Yi-Ming Wei (Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEP), Beijing Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: To curb CO2 emissions, the Chinese government has announced ambitious goals to reduce the CO2 intensity of GDP, and the total target has been allocated to all Chinese provinces during the twelfth "Five-year Plan" period (2011-2015). Although setting the target allocation plan is an efficient way to achieve this goal, some key questions, including how the plan is designed, remained unanswered. From an economic perspective, this requires us to test for the existence of convergence in the CO2 intensity of GDP because the convergence is one of the most important intrinsic economic characteristics that policy makers should take into account: if the convergence exists, the provinces with a higher CO2 intensity of GDP tend to experience a more rapid reduction in the intensity and therefore could share a heavier burden of the intensity reduction. The existence of stochastic convergence and ¦Â-convergence is verified by employing different estimation methods and using various estimation specifications. As a result, the direct policy implication is that provinces with high CO2 intensity should be assigned tougher reduction targets to cut CO2 intensity at higher speeds, while the provinces with low carbon intensity should be allowed to reduce the CO2 intensity at a relatively lower speed. Because some social and economic indicators such as GDP per capita, industrial structure and population density may influence CO2 intensity, the policy makers should take all these factors into consideration to design reasonable reduction target allocation plan.
    Keywords: CO2 intensity of GDP, convergence, China, panel data
    JEL: Q47 Q54
    Date: 2014–09–01
  26. By: Jin Fan (School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China); Dingtao Zhao (School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China); Yanrui Wu (University of Western Australia); Jiuchang Wei (School of Management, University of Science and Technology of China)
    Abstract: As a large emerging economy, China is exploring to establish a carbon pricing system to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The electricity sector which generates the greatest amount of China's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions should be covered by such a carbon pricing system. The review of the three main stages of China's electricity market reforms shows that the degree of electricity marketization is relatively low, which might become an obstacle to carbon pricing. This paper develops theoretical and empirical models to analyze the impacts of carbon pricing on electricity supply under two scenarios, namely, marketization and regulation. It is concluded that the electricity market reform is a prerequisite for the development of carbon pricing. Without market-oriented reforms of electricity pricing in China, carbon pricing might lead to a shortage in electricity supply. Potential electricity market reforms to encourage market competition and promote market-oriented electricity-pricing are also suggested.
    Date: 2014
  27. By: Li, Teng (National University of Singapore); Liu, Haoming (National University of Singapore); Salvo, Alberto (National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: We examine day-to-day fluctuations in worker-level output over 15 months for a panel of 98 manufacturing workers at a plant located in an industrial city in Hebei province, north China. Long-term workers earn piece-rate wages, with no base pay or minimum pay, for homogeneous tasks performed over fixed 8-hour shifts. Over the sample period, ambient fine-particle (PM2.5) mass concentrations measured at an outdoor air monitor located 2 km from the plant ranged between 10 and 773 micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3, 8-hour means), variation that is an order of magnitude larger than what is observed in the rich world today. We document large reductions in productivity, of the order of 15%, over the first 200 µg/m3 rise in PM2.5 concentrations, with the drop leveling off for further increases in fine-particle pollution. A back-of-the-envelope calculation suggests that labor productivity across 190 Chinese cities could rise by on average 4% per year were the distributions of hourly PM2.5 truncated at 25 µg/m3. We also find reduced product quality as pollution rises. Our model allows for selection into work attendance, though we do not find particle pollution to be a meaningful determinant of non-attendance, which is very low in our labor setting. Subsequent research should verify the external validity of our findings.
    Keywords: air pollution, labor productivity, labor supply, PM2.5, environmental damage
    JEL: J24 Q52
    Date: 2015–03
  28. By: Ewa Zawojska (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Mikołaj Czajkowski (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: The contingent valuation (CV) method uses respondents’ stated choices made in hypothetical situations to infer their preferences for environmental public goods. It enables the general public’s preferences to be stated in monetary terms and hence to estimate the economic value of a change in the quantity or quality of the goods. However, a key question remains regarding CV’s validity: do the value estimates obtained from a CV study reflect respondents’ true preferences and their maximum willingness to pay? Numerous empirical investigations have tested CV’s validity, but overall conclusions are mixed. We critically re-evaluate this evidence considering the issue of incentive compatibility in contingent valuation settings for which the necessary conditions were recently proposed by Carson and Groves (2007). Our analysis shows that once incentive compatibility conditions are considered, the available studies consistently show that the CV method is valid. As a result, we argue that contingent scenarios and elicitation formats must be made incentive compatible in order to observe consumers’ true preferences.
    Keywords: contingent valuation, stated preference, validity, incentive compatibility
    JEL: Q51 H4 D6
    Date: 2015
  29. By: Kazi Iqbal (Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies); Abu Siddique (Business School, University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of climate change on agricultural productivity in Bangladesh for the period 1975-2008 for 23 regions. First, the study relies on descriptive statistics and maps to explore the long term changes at both country and local level in climatic variables such as temperature, rainfall, humidity and sunshine. Second, it uses regression models to estimate the impact of climate change on agricultural productivity. Unlike the existing literature, this study exploits within-region time series variations (regional fixed effect) to estimate the impact of long term changes in climatic variables on agricultural productivity in order to control for regional differences, both observed and unobserved. The results show that long term changes in means and standard deviations of the climatic variables have differential impacts on the productivity of rice and thus the overall impact of climate change on agriculture is not unambiguous.
    Date: 2014
  30. By: Olivier Durand-Lasserve; Lorenza Campagnolo; Jean Chateau; Rob Dellink
    Abstract: This report develops an analytical framework that assesses the macroeconomic, environmental and distributional consequences of energy subsidy reforms. The framework is applied to the case of Indonesia to study the consequences in this country of a gradual phase out of all energy consumption subsidies between 2012 and 2020. The energy subsidy estimates used as inputs to this modelling analysis are those calculated by the International Energy Agency, using a synthetic indicator known as “price gaps”. The analysis relies on simulations made with an extended version of the OECD’s ENV-Linkages model. The phase out of energy consumption subsidies was simulated under three stylised redistribution schemes: direct payment on a per household basis, support to labour incomes, and subsidies on food products. The modelling results in this report indicate that if Indonesia were to remove its fossil fuel and electricity consumption subsidies, it would record real GDP gains of 0.4% to 0.7% in 2020, according to the redistribution scheme envisaged. The redistribution through direct payment on a per household basis performs best in terms of GDP gains. The aggregate gains for consumers in terms of welfare are higher, ranging from 0.8% to 1.6% in 2020. Both GDP and welfare gains arise from a more efficient allocation of resources across sectors resulting from phasing out energy subsidies. Meanwhile, a redistribution scheme through food subsidies tends to create other inefficiencies. The simulations show that the redistribution scheme ultimately matters in determining the overall distributional performance of the reform. Cash transfers, and to a lesser extent food subsidies, can make the reform more attractive for poorer households and reduce poverty. Mechanisms that compensate households via payments proportional to labour income are, on the contrary, more beneficial to higher income households and increase poverty. This is because households with informal labour earnings, which are not eligible for these payments, are more represented among the poor. The analysis also shows that phasing out energy subsidies is projected to reduce Indonesian CO2 emissions from fuel combustion by 10.8% to 12.6% and GHG emissions by 7.9% to 8.3%, in 2020 in the various scenarios, with respect to the baseline. These emission reductions exclude emissions from deforestation, which are large but highly uncertain and for which the model cannot make reliable projections.<BR>Ce rapport élabore un cadre analytique qui évalue les effets macroéconomiques, environnementaux et redistributifs des réformes des subventions énergétiques. Il applique ce cadre au cas de l’Indonésie afin d’étudier les conséquences dans ce pays d’une suppression progressive de toutes les subventions à la consommation d’énergie entre 2012 et 2020. Les estimations des subventions à l’énergie sur lesquelles se base cette analyse par modélisation sont celles calculées par l’Agence internationale de l’énergie, à l’aide d’un indicateur synthétique appelé « différentiel de prix ». L’analyse repose sur des simulations réalisées avec une version enrichie du modèle ENV-Linkages de l’OCDE, modèle dynamique d’équilibre général calculable (EGC) mondial. La suppression des subventions à la consommation d’énergie a été simulée en retenant trois types de dispositifs de redistribution : un paiement direct au niveau des ménages, un soutien aux revenus du travail et des subventions aux produits alimentaires. Les résultats de la modélisation réalisée dans ce rapport indiquent que si l’Indonésie venait à supprimer ses subventions à la consommation des combustibles fossiles et d’électricité, elle enregistrerait des gains de PIB réel de 0.4 % à 0.7 % en 2020, selon le dispositif de redistribution retenu. La redistribution sous forme de paiements directs au niveau des ménages donne les meilleurs résultats en termes de gains de PIB. Le gain global pour les consommateurs en termes de bien-être est plus élevé, allant de 0.8 % à 1.6 % en 2020. Les gains en matière de PIB et de bien-être sont obtenus grâce à une répartition des ressources entre les secteurs de façon plus efficiente à la suite de l’élimination des subventions énergétiques. Dans l’intervalle, un dispositif de redistribution sous forme de subventions alimentaires tend à créer d’autres inefficacités, qui compensent en partie les avantages macroéconomiques de la suppression des subventions à la consommation d’énergie. Les simulations montrent aussi qu’à terme, le dispositif de redistribution joue un rôle en déterminant l’effet redistributif global de la réforme. Les transferts monétaires, et dans une moindre mesure les subventions alimentaires, peuvent rendre la réforme plus profitable pour les ménages pauvres et faire reculer la pauvreté. À l’inverse, les mécanismes qui compensent les ménages à l’aide de paiements proportionnels aux revenus du travail bénéficient davantage aux ménages à revenu élevé et accroissent la pauvreté. En effet, les ménages qui reçoivent des revenus du travail dans le secteur informel et qui ne peuvent prétendre à ces paiements, sont plus nombreux chez les pauvres. L’analyse montre aussi que d’après les prévisions, la suppression des subventions énergétiques en Indonésie devrait réduire les émissions de CO2 dues à la combustion des énergies fossiles de 10.8 % à 12.6 % et les émissions de GES de 7.9 % à 8.3 % en 2020 selon les différents scénarios, par rapport au scénario de référence. Ces réductions d’émissions ne tiennent pas compte des émissions dues à la déforestation, qui sont élevées mais restent très mal connues, et au sujet desquelles le modèle ne peut pas faire de projections fiables.
    Keywords: computable and other applied general equilibrium models, Indonesia, distributional impact, households’ heterogeneity, fossil fuel subsidy reforms, hétérogénéité des ménages, réforme des subventions aux énergies fossiles, effets distributifs, Indonésie, modèle d’équilibre général calculable
    JEL: C68 H23 O53
    Date: 2015–03–27
  31. By: Nicolas Quérou; Agnès Tomini
    Abstract: Since existing regulatory schemes are often suboptimal, we compare the performance of several second-best control rules implemented on multi-species fisheries in terms of their effect on biodiversity and on effort transfer. We show how these effects depend on the economic returns and on the type of ecological interaction considered. We highlight speciffically that fishing effort is not necessarily reallocated from regulated to unregulated sectors, and that the shape of second-best effcient instruments (tax versus subsidy) may differ drastically depending on the nature of the interaction.
    Date: 2015–03
  32. By: Claudia Kettner (WIFO); Daniela Kletzan-Slamanig (WIFO); Angela Köppl (WIFO)
    Abstract: A transformation of prevailing energy systems requires adequate measurement systems. In this paper we propose an energy-service based indicator set and a composite index for monitoring sustainable energy development in the residential sector and electricity and heat supply in Austria. The system of Indicators for Sustainable Energy Development for Austria (ISED-AT) and the composite index focus on energy services instead of energy flows and are hence effective tools for monitoring and guiding the transition, as they allow assessing the whole range of technology options for providing a particular energy service. The analysis of household final energy demand and electricity and heat supply in Austria shows substantial progress in terms of ecological aspects, such as the share of renewable energy sources and CO2 emissions. With respect to energy efficiency, in contrast, only little improvement can be observed. Efficiency of energy service provision is decreasing except for heating and air conditioning. Final energy demand is rising in all areas of household energy demand. The challenge lies in a substantial improvement of energy efficiency that will allow an absolute decoupling of energy service demand from final energy consumption.
    Keywords: sustainable energy development, indicator set, composite index, residential buildings, energy supply
    Date: 2015–03–23
  33. By: Proost, Stef (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven); van Dender, Kurt (OECD); Eliasson, Jonas (KTH)
    Abstract: In many economies, motor fuel taxes have long been the main instruments for generating tax revenues from the transport sector. Nowadays they are also rationalized on the grounds of reducing congestion, carbon emissions, local air pollution, energy dependency, and sometimes accident costs. However, for several reasons, there is now much debate about reforming or partially replacing these taxes. This debate raises several kinds of research questions, including efficient design of such tax instruments and what factors affect their design in reality, CTS organised an international symposium where recent research regarding these issues was presented. This report summarises some findings from the symposium.
    Keywords: Fuel tax; Vehicle tax; Transport pricing
    JEL: R41 R48
    Date: 2015–03–24
  34. By: Michel Aglietta; Étienne Espagne
    Abstract: The eurozone has been said to have caught a disease called "secular stagnation". Productive investment in the private sector fell by about 20% overall between 2007 and 2014, while private saving has surged, creating a huge gap between gross domestic savings and investment. The trajectory of actual GDP has decoupled from successive estimates of potential GDP, and there is no sign of a spontaneous short-term adjustment. The engineering of a powerful investment drive seems the only way out of this self-fulfilling low-growth trap. The European Union has already set investment objectives in the Climate and Energy Package. These targets cover four areas: renewable energy supply capacity, electricity distribution networks, energy efficiency in building renovation and urban mobility. Several financing tools need to be combined to tailor risk-sharing devices for investments in each of these sectors. First and foremost, is the integration of a high carbon price. However, as any sudden sharp increase in the overall carbon price would have a major (and politically unsustainable) impact on the rest of the economy, a core issue is how to create a transitory distinction between the carbon price included/paid by the existing capital stock and the carbon price included/paid by new low carbon investments. This can be achieved through a two-tier approach. First, for the four key sectors, a high notional carbon price is used to set an asset value on the carbon saved by new investments ("carbon asset"): these assets are accepted as repayment by central banks, and publically guaranteed. The ECB, by buying financial instruments issued by the low-carbon investors, creates a direct transmission channel to these areas of the economy. Second, fiscal measures ensure the carbon price catches up with the notional value, thus generating revenues that allow for the purchase of the carbon debt held by the central banks, guaranteeing the final budget neutrality of the process. By focusing on investments in these four sectors, the European output gap could be closed in the short run and a credible path opened to a low carbon economy.
    Keywords: Ecular Stagnation;Social Cost of Carbon;Certification;Low Carbon Transition
    JEL: Q43 Q48
    Date: 2015–03
  35. By: Md. Maruf Hossan Chowdhury (Graduate School of Business, Curtin University); Mohammed Naim A. Dewan (Graduate School of Business, Curtin University); Mohammed Quaddus (Graduate School of Business, Curtin University); Marita Naude (Graduate School of Business, Curtin University); Abu Siddique (University of Western Australia)
    Abstract: Sustainable development encompasses achieving economic development while maintaining social solidarity and environmental stewardship. Present studies campaign for the agenda of women empowerment for sustainable development in Bangladesh since women are one of the largest disadvantaged groups in this country. The conditions faced by coastal women are even more deplorable and they represent a substantial proportion of the total number of women in the country. The aim of this research is to determine the indicators of gender inequality in Bangladesh with special emphasis on the coastal fishing communities of Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh; and to explore the ways and means of mitigating gender inequality for sustainable development of that area. Data were collected using the semi-structured interviews from the coastal women, NGO members and local government representatives of coastal fishing community of Bangladesh. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) integrated Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is used to analyse the data. The study finds that ensuring education, access to financing and skill development are the most important factors in mitigating gender inequality for sustainable development.
    Date: 2014
    Abstract: San Pedro Atlapulco is a rural indigenous community of; it is located in state of Mexico together with the Insurgente Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla national park. The former population worked as peasants and sold natural resources, but unfortunately the community has never received some support from the government sector. Nowadays, the principal economy is based on tourism because of the availability proximity of conifer wood) which makes a suitable environment in the valleys which manages the tourist´s activities such as horse riding, All Terrain Vehicle (ATV), hiking, Picnic, etc. There is some effect necessary to be evaluated in order to preserve and take advantage for eco-tourism and the need to research the opportunities for its sustainable use and adequate management. The main objective of this investigation is to evaluate the sustainability of the recreative tourism activity through social indicators and the possibility of incorporating this resource to the tourism activity with the aim of proposing an eco-tourism alternative for the community of San Pedro Atlapulco, State of Mexico which would allow strengthening of the tourism product and consequently would present opportunities for the improvement of the quality of life for the residents. The methodology to be used was model to evaluate the Management of the Natural Resources System Incorporating Indicators for Sustainability (MESMIS), which consists of integrating experiences and recommendations of different institutions, which have been working on the development of methodologies to evaluate the management of the sustainability of natural resources.
    Keywords: Recreative activity, Wood, Sustainable development, Eco-tourism, San Pedro Atlapulco
    JEL: D20 D70 O13
    Date: 2014–10
  37. By: Ball, Alastair
    Abstract: This paper provides new evidence on the consequences of foetal exposure to high levels of pollution for the risk of stillbirth, and for the long-term health and labour market outcomes of those that survive. Variation in in utero exposure comes from a persistent weather system that affected London for five days in December 1952, preventing the dispersion of atmospheric pollution. This increased levels of total suspended particulate matter by around 300%. Unaffected counties in England and Wales are used in a differences-in-differences design to identify the short and long-term effects. Historical registrar data for the nine months following the smog show a 2% increase in reported stillbirths in London relative to national trends. As foetal deaths often go unreported, the exercise is then repeated for registered births. The data show around 1600 fewer live births then expected in London, or a reduction of 3% against national trends. Survivors are then identified by district and quarter of birth, and their health and labour market outcomes observed at fifty and sixty years old. Differences-in-differences estimates show that survivors are in general less healthy, less likely to have a formal qualification, and less likely to be employed than those unaffected by the smog.
    Keywords: Atmospheric pollution; Great London Smog; Fetal exposure; Health; Education; Employment
    JEL: I10 I18 Q53
    Date: 2014–11–01
  38. By: Douglas J. Crookes and James N. Blignaut
    Abstract: Rhino populations are at a critical level and new approaches are needed to ensure their survival. This study conducts a review and categorisation of policies for the management of rhinos. Twenty seven policies are identified and classified into in situ (reserve based) and ex situ (market based) policies. The policies are then evaluated based on four target areas: poachers/hunters; consumers; intermediaries and the game reserves themselves. The study finds that protected areas management policies seem most beneficial in the short run, in particular the enforcement of private property rights over resource utilisation, as well as the establishment of wildlife sanctuaries that act as sustainable breeding grounds for rhino populations.
    Keywords: rhino, Economics, Property rights, tragedy of the commons
    Date: 2015
  39. By: Chaudhuri, Sarbajit
    Abstract: This theoretical note examines the usefulness of the Pigouvian tax policy in dealing with negative production externalities and in improving social welfare in a small developing economy. A two-sector, full-employment general equilibrium model with exogenous labour market imperfection is used for the analytical purpose where the sector that faces an imperfect labour market creates pollution through its production and lowers the efficiency of workers. The analysis finds that the socially optimal Pigouvian tax rate may not necessarily be positive and that it crucially hinges both on the degree of labour market imperfection and the scale of negative externalities that production of the dirty commodity generates.
    Keywords: Negative production externality; pollution; efficiency of labour; Pigouvian tax; social welfare; general equilibrium.
    JEL: D58 D62 H23 Q52 Q58
    Date: 2015–03–23
  40. By: Kojima,Masami; Koplow,Doug
    Abstract: Numbers ranging from half a trillion to two trillion dollars have been cited in recent years for global subsidies for fossil fuels. How are these figures calculated and why are they so different? The most commonly used methods for measuring subsidies are the price-gap approach -- quantifying the gap between free-market reference prices and the prices charged to consumers -- the inventory approach, which constructs an inventory of government actions benefiting production and consumption of fossil fuels. Practitioners are not faced with two choices. The two methods are complementary and should be used together -- price gaps cause distortions throughout the economy and quantification is needed for improving pricing policies; an inventory is useful for examining budgetary allocation. An inventory based on a full accounting framework for producer and consumer support estimates in fact captures price gaps as market transfers to producers or consumers. Differences in subsidy valuation arise from assumptions made to compensate for missing data and the scope of subsidy measurement. Having a common understanding of terms and standardizing calculation methods would go a long way in enabling comparison of subsidies across countries and sectors, benchmarking pricing, and assessing subsidy policies. Subsidy measurement should not be viewed as a one-off exercise to inform subsidy reform strategies. Just as subsidy reform in many countries does not have a clear end but is a continuous process of adjustment, so too is subsidy tracking. Devoting resources to data collection and analysis to track subsidies on a continuous basis can bring rich dividends by increasing transparency and enabling informed decisions.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Markets and Market Access,Energy Production and Transportation,Environmental Economics&Policies,Transport Economics Policy&Planning
    Date: 2015–03–23
  41. By: Moipone Rakolojane (University of South Africa)
    Abstract: This paper is about waste reclaiming in the Ekurhuleni Municipality, Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is about the role of informal settlements or shanty towns in waste management, particularly in prolonging the life of a landfill. It documents how government and local community partnerships contribute to waste minimization, in the short term and zero waste management, in the long run. This partnership, it is argued in the paper, contributes also to poverty alleviation for the communities who eke out a living by “working on the dumpsâ€. The argument in the paper is that the Rooikraal example serves as a demonstration project for simple and unsophisticated ways of managing household waste in South Africa and for other major cities in the country, in particular. There is an argument in the literature that marginalized groups still play a limited role in waste management even though they are the main consumers of waste that the richer sections of society generate. This paper concurs with the literature in finding that limited participation cannot be used to give local government the aura of democratic participation. There is a need to recognise the reclaimers as a legitimate constituency in the waste management systems in South Africa.
    Keywords: reclaiming, waste management, South Africa
    JEL: Q53
    Date: 2014–10

This nep-env issue is ©2015 by Francisco S. Ramos. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.