nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2015‒01‒19
37 papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Green inventions and greenhouse gas emission dynamics: A close examination of provincial Italian data By Ding Weina; Marianna Gilli; Massimiliano Mazzanti; Francesco Nicolli
  2. What are the barriers to adopting carbon farming practices? By Kragt, Marit Ellen; Blackmore, Louise; Capon, Tim; Robinson, Cathy J.; Torabi, Nooshin; Wilson, Kerrie A.
  3. Climate change, soil salinity, and the economics of high-yield rice production in coastal Bangladesh By Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md. Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David
  4. Capturing and Storing Carbon : The World Bank's Role By Nataliya Kulichenko; Richard H. Zechter; Asad Ali Ahmed
  5. Green Subsidies and the WTO By Steve Charnovitz
  6. Environmental protektion and the development of envidonmental awareness By Ibro Skenderoviæ, Becir Kalac, Suad Becirovic
  7. The Effects of Emission Taxes on Pollution through the Diffusion of Clean Technology:The Presence of Green Consumers By Wenjun Sun; Naoto Jinji
  8. Environmental implications of crop insurance subsidies in Southern Italy By Capitanio, Fabian; Adinolfi, Felice; Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano
  9. Environmental Management Systems – Does Certification Pay? By Manuel Frondel; Karoline Krätschell; Lina Zwick
  10. Temperate climate - Innovative outputs nexus By Coccia M.
  11. Breathing the Same Air? Measuring Air Pollution in Cities and Regions By Monica Brezzi; Daniel Sanchez-Serra
  12. Greening Household Behaviour: Overview of Results from Econometric Analysis and Policy Implications By Ysé Serret; Zachary Brown
  13. Agriculture, incomes, and gender in Latin America by 2050: An assessment of climate change impacts and household resilience for Brazil, Mexico, and Peru: By Andersen, Lykke E.; Breisinger, Clemens; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Jemio, Luis Carlos; Ringler, Claudia; Robertson, Richard D.; Verner, Dorte; Wiebelt, Manfred
  14. What innovation policies for ecological transition? Powering the green innovation machine By Reinhilde Veugelers
  15. Monitoring and Evaluation of Climate Change Adaptation: Methodological Approaches By Ayesha Dinshaw; Susannah Fisher; Heather McGray; Neha Rai; Johan Schaar
  16. Greening Household Behaviour and Waste By Ruslana Rachel Palatnik; Sharon Brody; Ofira Ayalon; Mordechai Shechter
  17. Inclusion of undesirable outputs in production technology modeling:The case of greenhouse gas emissions in French meat sheep farming By K Hervé Dakpo; Philippe Jeanneaux; Laure Latruffe
  18. Noah Revisits Biodiversity Protection Microeconomics By David Martin
  19. Compliance, cooperation, and credibility: institutions and enforcement in California groundwater By Skurray, James H.
  20. Noah Revisits Biodiversity Protection Prioritization By David Martin
  21. Greening Household Behaviour and Transport By Ilka Ehreke; Boris Jaeggi; Kay W. Axhausen
  22. The Effect of Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards on Technology Adoption By Klier, Thomas H.; Linn, Joshua
  23. Accidental Environmentalists? Californian Demand for Teslas and Solar Panels By Magali A. Delmas; Matthew E. Kahn; Stephen Locke
  25. Droughts, distress, and policies for drought proofing agriculture in Bihar, India: By Kishore, Avinash; Joshi, Pramod Kumar; Pandey, Divya
  26. Mesures de compensation écologique : risques ou opportunités pour le foncier agricole ? By Claire Etrillard; Michel Pech
  27. The Value of Heterogeneous Property Rights and the Costs of Water Volatility By Daniel A. Brent
  28. Gender and Climate Change in Latin America: An analysis of vulnerability, adaptation and resilience based on household surveys By Lykke E. Andersen; Dorte Verner; Manfred Wiebelt
  29. Inter-temporal R&D and Capital Investment Portfolios for the Electricity Industry’s Low Carbon Future By Nidhi R. Santen; Mort D. Webster; David Popp; Ignacio Pérez-Arriaga
  30. Facing the hungry tide : climate change, livelihood threats, and household responses in coastal Bangladesh By Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md. Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David
  31. Les conséquences environnementales des inégalités économiques : structuration théorique et perspectives de recherche (In French) By Alexandre BERTHE; Luc ELIE
  32. Rabassaires, formiguers and caganers: comparing two nutrient balances c.1860 and c.1920 in the Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula By Elena Galán del Castillo
  33. Justice écologique et adaptation au changement climatique : le cas des petits territoires insulaires By Alexandre BERTHE; Sylvie FERRARI
  34. Short term effects of public smoking bans on health By Fabrizio Mazzonna; Paola Salari
  35. The spatial curse of natural resources By Fabrizio Carmignani
  36. Gender, Ethnicity and Climate Change in Mexico: An analysis of vulnerability and resilience based on household surveys By Lykke E. Andersen; Anna Sophia Doyle; Dorte Verner; Manfred Wiebelt
  37. Análisis macroeconómico de los impactos sectoriales de cambio climático en Colombia By Andrés C. ÁLVAREZ ESPINOSA; Silvia Liliana CALDERÓN; German David ROMERO; Daniel Alejandro ORDOÑEZ

  1. By: Ding Weina (Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China.); Marianna Gilli (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Italy.); Massimiliano Mazzanti (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Italy.); Francesco Nicolli (IRCReS-CNR, Italy; Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Italy.)
    Abstract: Eco-innovation plays a crucial role in reducing carbon emissions. Exploiting the consolidated IPAT / STIRPAT framework, this paper studies whether a relationship exists between green technological change and both CO2 emissions and emission efficiency (CO2/VA), exploiting a rich panel covering 95 Italian provinces from 1990-2010. The main regression results suggest that green technology has not yet played a significant role in promoting environmental protection, although it significantly improved significantly environmental productivity. Notably, this result is not driven by regional differences, and the main evidence is consistent among different areas of the country.
    Keywords: CO2 emission, Technological Change, Green Patents, IPAT, Environmental Performance
    JEL: Q53 Q55
    Date: 2014–12
  2. By: Kragt, Marit Ellen; Blackmore, Louise; Capon, Tim; Robinson, Cathy J.; Torabi, Nooshin; Wilson, Kerrie A.
    Abstract: In many environmental and conservation policy contexts, gaps are observed between policy objectives and implementation outcomes. Carbon farming policies are designed to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, but policy success depends on the participation of land managers and their adoption of alternative land management practices. We surveyed Western Australian farmers to gauge their knowledge of carbon farming, their current adoption of carbon farming practices, and identified the drivers and barriers to adoption. Drivers for adoption included knowledge and perception of co-benefits (for yield, productivity, and the environment); beliefs and attitudes about climate change and its causes. Key barriers to the adopting carbon farming practices included policy and political uncertainty, and on-farm characteristics. We conclude that, to increase participation, the productivity benefits of carbon farming practices must be actively promoted and practices must be easy to integrate into existing farming systems.
    Keywords: Land management, Policy adoption, Climate change mitigation, Farmer surveys, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Q16, Q18, Q58,
    Date: 2014–12–21
  3. By: Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md. Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David
    Abstract: It is a virtual certainty that sea-level rise will continue throughout the century and beyond 2100 even if greenhouse gas emissions are stabilized in the near future. Understanding the economic impacts of salinity intrusion thus is essential for planning adaptation in low-lying coastal areas around the world. This paper presents a case study in Bangladesh on how climate change leads to the spread of soil salinity and the impact on agricultural production in the coastal region. The analysis is conducted in two stages. The first stage predicts future soil salinity for 69 subdistricts, taking into account climate-induced changes in river salinity, temperature, and rainfall by 2050. The second stage uses econometric analysis to predict the impact of climate-induced increases in soil salinity on the output and price of high-yielding-variety rice. The findings indicate output declines of 15.6 percent in nine subdistricts where soil salinity will exceed 4 deciSiemens per meter before 2050. Without newly developed coping strategies, the predicted changes will produce significant income declines from high-yielding-variety rice production in many areas, including a 10.5 percent loss in Barisal region and a 7.5 percent loss in Chittagong region.
    Keywords: Water Resources Assessment,Water Conservation,Hydro Power,Environmental Economics&Policies,Science of Climate Change
    Date: 2014–12–01
  4. By: Nataliya Kulichenko; Richard H. Zechter; Asad Ali Ahmed
    Keywords: Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Climate Change Economics Energy - Energy Production and Transportation Environment - Environment and Energy Efficiency Energy - Energy and Environment
    Date: 2014–12
  5. By: Steve Charnovitz
    Abstract: This paper provides a detailed explanation how the law of the World Trade Organization regulates environmental subsidies with a focus on renewable energy subsidies. The paper begins by discussing the economic justifications for such subsidies and the criticisms of them and then gives examples of different categories of subsidies. Next the paper provides an overview of the relevant WTO rules and caselaw, including the recent Canada -Renewable Energy case. The paper also makes specific recommendations for how WTO law can be improved, and discusses the existing literature discussing reform proposals. The study further finds that because of a lack of clarity in WTO rules, for some clean energy subsidies, a government will not know in advance whether the subsidy is WTO-legal.
    Keywords: international trade, international law, environmental protection, climate, subsidies, trade law
    Date: 2014–09
  6. By: Ibro Skenderoviæ, Becir Kalac, Suad Becirovic (University of Novi Pazar, Novi Pazar)
    Abstract: Knowledge of environmental laws, processes and phenomena in the nature enriches human to perceive it bodily. Arranging it to his needs he mustn’t disrupt the process or disarrange the functional balance that exists between human beings and theirs environment. It can be avoided if ones are familiar to the ecological legality and if people act in accordance with them. So, the consciousness of ecology impersonates a life form, which respects and harmonizes it with the physical laws of matter orbiting, energy expenditure or life regeneration, whereby it urges to take just the basic human needs necessities. That’s why the environmental ethics represents a man ecological relationship to the environment, which refers to the moral relationship between human (techno sphere) and natural (biosphere). A new environment attitude, as well as the transformation of the spirit of modern working world is becoming imperative. A sustainable development concept offers the possibility of harmonious development.
    Keywords: environment, environmental legitimacy, environmental awareness, sustainable development, environmental ethics.
    JEL: Q5 Q50 Q57
    Date: 2014–09
  7. By: Wenjun Sun; Naoto Jinji
    Abstract: We analyze how the implementation of an emission tax influences aggregate pollution through the diffusion of a new, less polluting technology. Our focus is on how the consumption behavior of green consumers changes the relationship between policy stringency and the equilibrium state of technology diffusion or the ranking of the states of technology diffusion (i.e., full, partial, and no diffusion) in terms of aggregate pollution. We find that emission taxes should not be too high for an “efficient full-diffusion equilibrium” to emerge, in which the full diffusion of the new technology occurs in equilibrium and attains the lowest level of aggregate pollution. If the emission tax is high, aggregate pollution may be lowest in the no diffusion scenario. In addition, the presence of green consumers narrows the range of emission taxes and degree of the new technology that leads to the efficient full-diffusion equilibrium and widens the range of parameters for which aggregate pollution is lowest in the no diffusion case.
    Keywords: technology diffusion; emission taxes; green consumers
    JEL: Q55 Q58 H23 L13
    Date: 2014–12
  8. By: Capitanio, Fabian; Adinolfi, Felice; Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano
    Abstract: The changing environment affects agriculture introducing sources of uncertainty. On the other hand, policies to cope with risks may have strong impacts on the environment. We evaluate the effects of public risk management programmes, such as subsidised crop insurance, fertilizer use and land allocation to crops. We implement a mathematical programming model of a representative wheat-tomato farm in Puglia, a southern Italy region. The results show that under the current crop insurance programmes, tomato productions are expected to expand and to require larger amount of fertilizer, whereas the opposite is true for wheat productions. Policy and environmental implications are discussed.
    Keywords: uncertainty, risk, insurance, externalities, multifunctionality, environment
    JEL: C60 D81 Q51 R58
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Manuel Frondel; Karoline Krätschell; Lina Zwick
    Abstract: The voluntary adoption of environmental management systems (EMS), frequently certified by third-party audits following international standards, has become a vital supplement to mandatory environmental policies based on regulation and legislation. Although there is empirical evidence that both EMS adoption and certification can effectively improve firms’ environmental performance, the impact on their business performance is far from clear. Drawing upon an OECD survey including more than 4,000 manufacturing facilities, this paper fills this void by estimating the impact of both EMS adoption and certification on facilities’ business performance using statistical matching techniques. While our results indicate that the pure adoption of EMS without any certification does not enhance facilities’ business performance, the financial performance of certified facilities turns out to be significantly high.
    Keywords: Environmental regulation; matching method
    JEL: O33 O38 Q28
    Date: 2014–11
  10. By: Coccia M. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: Technological change is a vital human activity that interacts with geographic factors and environment. The purpose of the study here is to analyse the relationship between geo-climate zones of the globe and technological outputs in order to detect favourable areas that spur higher technological change and, as a consequence, human development. The main finding is that innovative outputs are higher in geographical areas with a temperate climate latitudes. In fact, warm temperate climates are favourable environments for human societies that, by a long-run process of adaptation and learning, create platforms of institutions and communications systems, infrastructures, legal systems, economic governance and socio-economic networks that support inventions and diffusion of innovations. The linkages between observed facts show the vital geo-climate sources of fruitful patterns of the technological innovation and economic growth.
    Keywords: Economic Development: General; Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights: General; Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes; Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity;
    JEL: O10 O30 R11 R12
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Monica Brezzi; Daniel Sanchez-Serra
    Abstract: This paper presents a new set of estimates of exposure to air pollution (fine particulate matter - PM2.5) at the city, regional and national levels for the 34 OECD countries, and at the regional and national levels for Brazil, China, India, Russia and South Africa. The estimates are developed by the computation of satellite-based observations. They have the advantage of providing consistent values of the magnitude and spatial distribution of air pollution to be compared across and within countries and over time. The paper also explores the association between shape of cities (population density, share of built-up area, extension of the hinterlands, etc.) and air pollution. The estimates of air pollution at (TL2) regional level have been used in the newly released OECD Regional Well-Being Database as a measure of the environmental dimension.
    Keywords: health, air pollution, urban form, sub-national disparities
    JEL: Q53 Q56
    Date: 2014–12–22
  12. By: Ysé Serret; Zachary Brown
    Abstract: The second round of the OECD Survey on Environmental Policy for Individual Behaviour Change (EPIC) was implemented in 2011. A publication providing an overview of the survey data from over 12 000 households in eleven countries (Australia, Canada, Chile, France, Israel, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland) is available.1 Follow-up econometric analyses were conducted in each of the thematic areas covered (energy, food, transport, waste and water), as well as on cross-domain comparisons in environmental attitudes and behaviours.2 This report presents a synthesis of main results from econometric analysis using the data from the 2011 EPIC survey, as well as policy implications.<BR>La deuxième édition de l'enquête de l'OCDE sur la politique de l'environnement et le comportement individuel (EPIC) a été réalisée en 2011. Une publication offrant une première vue d’ensemble des données recueillies auprès de plus de 12 000 ménages dans onze pays (Australie, Canada, Chili, Corée, Espagne, France, Israël, Japon, Pays-Bas, Suède et Suisse) est disponible.3 Des analyses économétriques complémentaires ont ensuite été effectuées dans chacun des domaines thématiques considérés (énergie, alimentation, transports, déchets et eau). Les attitudes et les comportements vis-à-vis de l’environnement ont par ailleurs fait l’objet de comparaisons transversales.4 Ce rapport présente une synthèse des principaux résultats des analyses économétriques réalisées à partir des données de l'enquête de 2011 ainsi que les implications pour les politiques publiques.
    Date: 2014–12–12
  13. By: Andersen, Lykke E.; Breisinger, Clemens; Mason d'Croz, Daniel; Jemio, Luis Carlos; Ringler, Claudia; Robertson, Richard D.; Verner, Dorte; Wiebelt, Manfred
    Abstract: This report has been prepared in response to growing concerns about the impacts of climate change on Latin American economies, agriculture, and people. Findings suggest that because of the climate change impacts on agricultural production (yield change) and international food prices, unless proper mitigation measures are implemented, by 2050 Brazil and Mexico may face accumulated economic loses between US$ 272.7 billion and US$ 550.6 billion and between US$ 91.0 billion and US$ 194.7, respectively. Peru, with a different productive structure, may face both economic gain and loss (a gain of US$11.0 billion against a loss of US$ 43.3 billion).
    Keywords: Economics, Macroeconomics, Agriculture, Climate change, Food prices, Gender, Women, productivity, income, households,
    Date: 2014
  14. By: Reinhilde Veugelers
    Abstract: In this contribution we describe how green policies should be designed to activate private innovation forces for ecological transitions. We look at the evidence on the current deployment of green policies and the current performance of the private green innovation machine. We try to assess how strong which types of government interventions have and can be to power the green innovation machine. An important insight from the economic analysis of the effectiveness of the public intervention for green innovations, is the complementarity between policy instruments, requiring an adequate policy mix of instruments, rather than a focus on individual instruments. The evidence provides little support for the efficacy of single instruments, like subsidies, when used in isolation. For the EU, this is perhaps the biggest challenge for its green technology policy: the lack of a sufficiently high carbon price. And as the evidence has shown that the world of green science and technologies is an emerging global, multipolar one, with many geographically dispersed sources in the various green scientific fields and technologies, coordination of green policies internationally should therefore be high on the policy agenda.
    Keywords: Ecological innovation, Economic growth path, Globalisation, Green jobs, Innovation, Innovation policy, New technologies, Patents, Policy options, Research, Socio-ecological transition
    JEL: O31 O38
    Date: 2014–12
  15. By: Ayesha Dinshaw; Susannah Fisher; Heather McGray; Neha Rai; Johan Schaar
    Abstract: This paper explores methodological approaches that can be used to monitor and evaluate climate change adaptation initiatives at the projects and programme levels. It examines approaches that have been used in other areas of development practice to see what lessons have been learned that can inform the development of monitoring and evaluation frameworks targeted at adaptation. The paper focuses on three methodological challenges related to monitoring and evaluation that are particularly relevant for adaptation: i) assessing attribution, ii) establishing baselines and targets, and iii) dealing with long time horizons. The paper also considers the importance of on-going learning in evaluation and the benefit of applying a comprehensive approach to monitoring and evaluation, building on tested practices from participatory methods and social sciences techniques.<BR>Ce rapport analyse les approches méthodologiques utilisables pour suivre et évaluer les initiatives d’adaptation au changement climatique mises en oeuvre au niveau des projets ou des programmes. Il examine les approches adoptées dans d’autres domaines d’action en faveur du développement afin de cerner, parmi les enseignements qui en ont été tirés, ceux qui pourraient éclairer l’élaboration de cadres de suivi et d’évaluation visant l’adaptation. Le rapport met l’accent sur trois enjeux méthodologiques du suivi et de l’évaluation qui s’avèrent particulièrement intéressants du point de vue de l’adaptation : i) évaluer l’attribution, ii) établir des niveaux de référence et des objectifs, et iii) travailler avec des horizons temporels lointains. Il aborde également l’importance que revêt l’apprentissage continu dans l’évaluation, ainsi que l’avantage que présente une approche globale du suivi et de l’évaluation, fondée sur des pratiques éprouvées qui relèvent de méthodes participatives et de techniques des sciences sociales.
    Keywords: learning, climate change adaptation, monitoring and evaluation, apprentissage, adaptation au changement climatique, suivi et évaluation
    JEL: H43 O22 Q54
    Date: 2014–12–02
  16. By: Ruslana Rachel Palatnik; Sharon Brody; Ofira Ayalon; Mordechai Shechter
    Abstract: This report focusses on the determinants of household waste generation, the separation of recyclables and waste prevention behaviours. It presents the econometric results of follow-up analysis of the 2011 OECD Survey on Environmental Policy and Individual Behaviour Change (EPIC). This report complements the overview of the survey data provided in the publication « Greening Household Behaviour: Overview from the 2011 Survey - Revised edition » (2014)...<BR>Ce rapport est consacré aux déterminants de la production de déchets ménagers, du tri des déchets recyclables et des comportements de prévention de la production de déchets. Il présente les résultats de travaux d’analyse économétrique qui s’inscrivent dans le prolongement de l’enquête sur la politique de l’environnement et le comportement individuel (EPIC) réalisée par l’OCDE en 2011. Ce rapport complète la synthèse des données de l’enquête présentée dans l’ouvrage « Vers des comportements plus environnementaux : Vue d'ensemble de l'enquête 2011 » (2014).
    Keywords: household survey, waste generation, recycling, waste prevention, pay-as-you-throw pricing, production de déchets, prévention de la production de déchets, recyclage, enquête auprès des ménages, redevances unitaires incitatives (PAYT)
    JEL: C51 D11 D12 H23 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2014–12–10
  17. By: K Hervé Dakpo; Philippe Jeanneaux; Laure Latruffe
    Abstract: We consider different models that assess eco-efficiency in the perspective of production frontier estimation. These models span from the ones that consider bad outputs as inputs, or as outputs under the weak disposability assumption, or under the weak G-disposability and the materials balance principles, or under the modeling of multiple sub-technologies like the by-production model, or under the natural and managerial disposability concepts. These models are confronted to livestock farming data (meat sheep) and greenhouse gas pollution in French grassland areas, to discuss their suitability in eco-efficiency measurement. A major contribution is that we propose a new version of the by-production approach by augmenting it with ‘interdependence constraints’. Although all models considered here confirm the existence of large improvement potentials, all except the by-production model converge to the same results as in the case where undesirable outputs are treated as inputs. By contrast, the by-production model with interdependence provides more realistic results than the other models.
    Keywords: eco-efficiency, bad outputs; materials balance principles, weak G-disposability, by-production technology, natural and managerial disposability, greenhouse gas emissions, meat sheep farming
    JEL: C61 Q12 Q53
    Date: 2014
  18. By: David Martin (Department of Economics, Davidson College)
    Abstract: Since pledges to finance biodiversity preservation are a fraction of the identified needs, scientists must develop tools to help prioritize the many goals. Analysts and policy makers often describe this problem with the “Noah’s Ark” metaphor to imply that society must choose how much and which specific components of biodiversity to save. Since the relevant economic models frequently don’t capture the complexity and interrelatedness that enrich ecological perspectives and the ecological models often ignore the anthropogenic aspects that drive economic analysis, I develop a microeconomic framework for prioritizing species conservation policies that advances the integration of these two perspectives. I start with Weitzman’s (Econometrica 1998) “Noah’s Ark” model and build upon Perry’s (EcolEcon 2010) and Arponen’s (BiodiversConserv 2012) work so as to include ecological concerns. I demonstrate this methodology with two examples related to Keoladeo National Park (India). First, I look at maintaining the Gambhir River’s natural flow instead of impounding it behind the Panchana Dam so as to help re-establish the Siberian Crane at the Park and, second, I investigate enhancing the Sarus Crane population by protecting the satellite wetlands that are part of the Park’s overall ecosystem.
    Keywords: Biodiversity, Noah’s Ark, Natural Capital, Conservation
    JEL: Q57
    Date: 2013–05
  19. By: Skurray, James H.
    Abstract: The success of any groundwater management plan depends on user compliance. There is an intimate relationship between regulatory regimes and pumper perceptions. As well as its enforcement powers, an agency's behavior sends information to users. While enforcement power need not always be used to be effective, it must be seen as credible as well as legitimate. Perceived legitimacy has different sources – or may be lacking – depending on the origins, and implementation, of the regulatory apparatus. This paper examines a number of California groundwater basins, employing variables from Ostrom's analytical frameworks. In comparison with a West Australian regulated basin - where compliance is low, monitoring weak, and enforcement ineffective - we examine the effect on compliance of the adjudicated basin approach. We focus on the role of enforcement provisions, and their origins and implementation, in shaping appropriator attitudes towards compliance. Key attributes of effective systems include perceived legitimacy among users, mutual visibility of actions, and the credible threat of enforcement or sanction. We examine the extent to which 'administrative adjudications' may more cost-effectively provide the benefits of court adjudications. The paper illustrates that monitoring and enforcement are more effective and less costly when institutions encourage cooperation than when they promote competition. While norms, social capital, and trust must bear upon and inform the types of rules chosen at the collective-choice level, they also arise from the operation of those rules – i.e., from users' iterative reactions to the arrangements chosen. Groundwater management plans should incorporate design elements encouraging collaborative attitudes among users.
    Keywords: Institutions, governance, common-pool resources, commons, collective action, institutional analysis, sustainability, coercion, institutional design, groundwater management, voluntary compliance, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Land Economics/Use, Political Economy, Public Economics, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, D02, D03, D23, D71, D78, D83, Q25, Q28, Q38, Q56, Q57, Q58, R52, H11, H23, H41,
    Date: 2014–12–12
  20. By: David Martin (Department of Economics, Davidson College)
    Abstract: The pledges to finance biodiversity preservation make up a fraction of the identified needs. Therefore, scientists must develop tools to help prioritise the many goals of biodiversity preservation. Analysts and policy makers often use the ‘Noah’s Ark’ metaphor to imply that society must choose how much biodiversity to save and which specific components of it to save. Unfortunately, economic models proposed to answer these questions do not capture the complexity and inter-relatedness that enrich ecological perspectives, while ecological models often ignore the anthropogenic aspects that drive economic analysis. I develop a framework for prioritising species conservation policies that advances the integration of the economic and ecological perspectives. I first develop a macro-oriented model that builds from Norgaard’s framework (EcolEcon 2010) to address how big an ark to build. Then, I develop a microeconomic model that prioritises species—one that starts with Weitzman’s model (Econometrica 1998) and builds upon the work of Perry (EcolEcon 2010) and Arponen (BiodiversConserv 2012) to include ecological concerns. I demonstrate this methodology with two examples from current issues concerning protecting Keoladeo National Park, India. First, I look at maintaining the Gambhir River’s natural flow (instead of impounding it behind the Panchana Dam) to help re-establish the Siberian Crane at the park. Second, I investigate the protection of satellite wetlands, which are part of the park’s overall ecosystem, to enhance the Sarus Crane population.
    Keywords: Biodiversity, Noah’s Ark, Natural Capital
    JEL: Q57
    Date: 2013–05
  21. By: Ilka Ehreke; Boris Jaeggi; Kay W. Axhausen
    Abstract: This report focuses on personal transport choices. It presents the results of follow-up analysis of the 2011 OECD Survey on Environmental Policy and Individual Behaviour Change (EPIC) survey where econometric techniques are applied. The report complements the overview of the survey data provided in the publication OECD (2014). The objective of the analysis is to understand the determinants of household choices in the following areas: the use of alternative modes of transportation car ownership, willingness-to-pay for an electric vehicles and the relative importance of environmental factors when buying a car. The results indicate that the choice of non-motorized modes of transportation is strongly correlated with the proximity of the destination and that attitudinal variables play only a minor role. The same is true for the use of public transport. Households that say that they trust information about environmental impact of products, are better educated about impact of private transport and are in favour of government actions to reduce CO2, tend to have a higher willingness to pay for electric vehicles.<BR>Ce rapport porte sur le choix du mode de transport personnel. Il présente les résultats de travaux d’analyse qui s’inscrivent dans le prolongement de l’enquête sur la politique de l’environnement et le comportement individuel (EPIC) réalisée par l’OCDE en 2011, et qui ont donné lieu à l’application de techniques économétriques. Ce rapport complète la synthèse des données de l’enquête présentée dans l’ouvrage OCDE (2014). L’analyse vise à cerner les déterminants des choix effectués par les ménages concernant les aspects suivants : utilisation de moyens de déplacement alternatifs, motorisation, consentement à payer pour acquérir un véhicule électrique et importance relative des facteurs environnementaux lors de l’achat d’une voiture. Il en ressort que le recours à des modes de transport non motorisés est étroitement lié à la proximité de la destination et que les variables comportementales ne jouent qu’un rôle mineur. Il en va de même en ce qui concerne l’utilisation des transports publics. On relève généralement un consentement à payer pour acquérir un véhicule électrique supérieur chez les ménages qui déclarent faire confiance aux informations ayant trait à l’impact environnemental des produits, qui sont mieux sensibilisés aux répercussions du transport privé et qui sont favorables aux mesures prises par les pouvoirs publics afin de réduire les émissions de CO2.
    JEL: C51 D11 D12 R41 R48
    Date: 2014–12–11
  22. By: Klier, Thomas H. (Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago); Linn, Joshua (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: Many countries are tightening passenger vehicle fuel economy standards. The literature on passenger vehicle standards has used structural models to estimate their welfare effects. This paper provides the first empirical evidence on the effects of recently tightened fuel economy standards on technology adoption. Specifically, it investigates changes in the rate and direction of technology adoption, that is, the extent to which technology is used to increase fuel economy at the expense of other vehicle attributes. We find that recent U.S. and European standards have both increased the rate of technology adoption and affected the direction of technology adoption. Producers reduced horsepower and torque compared to a counterfactual in which fuel economy standards remained unchanged. We estimate opportunity costs from reduced horsepower and torque to be of similar magnitude as the gains from fuel savings.
    Keywords: passenger vehicles; U.S. greenhouse gas emissions rate standards; European carbon dioxide emissions rate standards; technology adoption
    JEL: L62 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2014–09–01
  23. By: Magali A. Delmas; Matthew E. Kahn; Stephen Locke
    Abstract: In the absence of a national carbon tax, household driving and electricity consumption impose social costs. Suburbanites drive more and consume more electricity than center city residents. If more suburbanites purchase electric vehicles (EV) and install solar panels, then their greenhouse gas emissions would sharply decrease. Using several data sets from California, we study the demand for electric vehicles and solar panels. We focus on the Tesla given its status as the highest quality EV. We investigate the joint distribution of the stock returns of Tesla and leading solar panel sellers to test for whether investors anticipate a complementarity in sales between these products. Finally, we use current and past vehicle quality and price data to explore trends in EV quality improvements due to industry competition between brands.
    JEL: Q42 Q5 Q54 R4
    Date: 2014–12
  24. By: Slobodan Cvetanoviæ, Miljan Jovanoviæ (University of Niš, Faculty of Economics)
    Abstract: The increasing use of renewable energy sources is of great importance in the light of the imperatives of the realisation of the sustainable development concept, as the paradigm of the economic, environmental, and social development. It is, therefore, important that the Republic of Serbia follows the model of the European Union, and establish an appropriate regulatory framework for their use. One of the most important aspects of the regulatory framework of the use of renewable energy sources is related to the existence of economic incentives for their growing use. In the group of economic stimuli to the increased use of renewable energy sources, the central place belongs to the obligation to purchase electricity from preferential producers at feed-in tariffs.
    Keywords: renewable energy sources, regulatory framework, financial incentives, feed-in tariffs
    JEL: Q40 Q42 Q48
    Date: 2014–09
  25. By: Kishore, Avinash; Joshi, Pramod Kumar; Pandey, Divya
    Abstract: This study was undertaken to assess if various drought-proofing and drought-relief programs are effective in mitigating the impact of droughts on crop production and household consumption in rural Bihar, India. This study is relevant as Bihar has experienced four drought years since 2009. The drought in 2009 led to an increase in the number of poor people in the state from 2004-2005 to 2009-2010, in spite of rapid growth of gross domestic product in this period. The government of Bihar runs a number of drought-proofing and drought-relief programs to mitigate the impact of drought, but with little effect. The two largest social safety net programs-the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) and the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS)-provide little relief to drought-affected families in rural Bihar. Additional subsidy on diesel to irrigate Kharif crops in drought-affected areas does not reach many farmers. Delays, uncertainties, and high transaction costs in its disbursal to farmers further reduce the subsidy’s effectiveness. Public tubewells and subsidy on private wells and pump-sets fail to provide wide-scale relief for the drought-stricken area. The results of our year-long study of 160 farmers with access to cheap irrigation from solar powered pump-sets in Bihar showed that these farmers grew paddy in all their land in Kharif in 2013, in spite of low rainfall.
    Keywords: Droughts, Water use, Climate change, rural areas, Irrigation, social safety nets, social protection, public tubewells, solar pumps, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee, Targeted Public Distribution System,
    Date: 2014
  26. By: Claire Etrillard; Michel Pech
    Abstract: [paper in French] Compensation measures require a developer to offset the negative effects of the project. Two types of approaches are possible. The first one is based on the compensation claim: in this case the developer looks for surfaces on which he can offset its grip. The second focuses on offering compensation: in this approach the service provider secures land through acquisition or long term contracts. We describe the game rules and procedures for the implementation of ecological compensation, and we emphasize the need for consistency of these measures with land based policies. The property aspects, the concept of expectation and the consultation with the agricultural sector are for us the main determinants of the effectiveness of such measures.
    Keywords: agriculture, environment, land, ecological mitigation, biodiversity offsets
    JEL: K11 K12 K32 Q21 Q31 Q38
    Date: 2014
  27. By: Daniel A. Brent
    Abstract: The system of prior appropriation in the Western Unites States prioritizes property rights for water based on the establishment of beneficial use, creating a hierarchy where rights initiated first are more secure. I estimate the demand for security in water rights through their capitalization in agricultural property markets using spatially explicit water rights data in the Yakima River Basin, a major watershed in Washington State. The Yakima River watershed, like many Western watersheds, satisfies all water claims during an average year so the benefits of secure water rights stem from protection against water curtailment during drought years. Thus the relative value of secure property rights is a function of water supply volatility because the costs of droughts are predominantly born by those with weak rights. Bayesian model averaging and boundary discontinuity specifications of the hedonic price model indicate that the premium for more secure water rights is not statistically different from zero.
    Keywords: water rights; hedonic valuation; water volatility; agricultural economics, Bayesian model averaging, boundary discontinuity
    JEL: Q21 Q25 Q54
    Date: 2014–09
  28. By: Lykke E. Andersen (Center for Environmental-Economic Modeling and Analysis, Institute for Advanced Development Studies); Dorte Verner (Office of Evaluation and Oversight, Inter-American Development Bank); Manfred Wiebelt (Kiel Institute for the World Economy)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes gender differences in vulnerability and resilience to shocks, including climate change and climate variability, for Peru, Brazil and Mexico, which together account for more than half the population in Latin America. Vulnerability and resilience indicators are measured by a combination of the level of household incomes per capita and the degree of diversification of these incomes. Thus, households which simultaneously have incomes which are below the national poverty line and which are poorly diversified (Diversification Index below 0.5) are classified as highly vulnerable, whereas households which have highly diversified incomes above the poverty line are classified as highly resilient. The analysis shows that female headed households in all three countries tend to be less vulnerable and more resilient than male headed households, despite the fact that the former usually have lower education levels.
    Keywords: Livelihood diversification, resilience, vulnerability, external shocks, Mexico, Brazil and Peru
    JEL: D13 I32 O54
    Date: 2014–11
  29. By: Nidhi R. Santen; Mort D. Webster; David Popp; Ignacio Pérez-Arriaga
    Abstract: This paper explores cost-effective low-carbon R&D and capital investment portfolios for the electricity generation sector through 2060. We present a novel method for long-term planning by combining an economic model of endogenous non-linear technical change and a generation capacity planning model with key features of the electricity system. The model captures the complementary nature of technologies in the power sector; physical integration constraints; and the opportunity to build new knowledge capital as a non-linear function of R&D and accumulated knowledge, which reflects the diminishing marginal returns to research characteristic of the energy innovation process. We show portfolios for future scenarios with and without carbon emission limits, and demonstrate the importance of including various features by comparing results from a reference version of the model to results from alternative versions that omit these features. Our results caution that using economic frameworks that do not incorporate critical electricity and innovation system features may over- or under-estimate the value of emerging technologies, and therefore the cost-effectiveness of R&D opportunities.
    JEL: Q40 Q42 Q55
    Date: 2014–12
  30. By: Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md. Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David
    Abstract: This paper quantifies the impact of inundation risk and salinization on the family structure and economic welfare of coastal households in Bangladesh. These households are already on the"front line"of climate change, so their adaptation presages the future for hundreds of millions of families worldwide who will face similar threats by 2100. The analysis is based on a household decision model that relates spatial deployment of working-age, migration-capable members to inundation and salinization threats. The analysis uses appropriate estimation techniques, including adjustments for spatial autocorrelation, and finds that households subject to high inundation and salinization threats have significantly higher out-migration rates for working-age adults (particularly males), dependency ratios, and poverty incidence than their counterparts in non-threatened areas. The findings indicate that the critical zone for inundation risk lies within four kilometers of the coast, with attenuated impacts for coastal-zone households at higher elevations. The results paint a sobering picture of life at the coastal margin for Bangladeshi households threatened by inundation and salinization, particularly households that are relatively isolated from market centers. They respond by"hollowing out,"as economic necessity drives more working-age adults to seek outside earnings. Those left behind face a far greater likelihood of extreme poverty than their counterparts in less-threatened areas. The powerful results for market access, coupled with previous findings on salinity and road maintenance, suggest that infrastructure investment may offer a promising option. Road improvements that reduce travel times for isolated settlements compensate them for an increase in salinity. Thus, road improvement may warrant particular attention as an attractive adaptation investment in coastal Bangladesh.
    Keywords: Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Water Resources Assessment,Housing&Human Habitats,Scientific Research&Science Parks,Science Education
    Date: 2014–12–01
  31. By: Alexandre BERTHE; Luc ELIE
    Abstract: Le renforcement actuel des inégalités économiques, souvent considéré comme intrinsèquement néfaste, est de plus en plus reconnu comme générateur d’effets secondaires, par exemple sur la santé ou la croissance. Face à la persistance de la crise environnementale contemporaine, le rôle de ces inégalités dans la dégradation de l’environnement se pose également de manière exacerbée. Malgré un nombre important de contributions, ce phénomène ne fait l’objet d’aucun consensus tant sur le plan théorique qu’empirique. Le premier apport de cet article est de proposer un cadre d’analyse permettant de révéler la diversité des mécanismes envisagés théoriquement et de les positionner les uns par rapport aux autres. Il apparaît que les conclusions des auteurs sur ce sujet dépendent des hypothèses qu’ils posent concernant 1) la relation entre revenu individuel et pression environnementale individuelle, 2) l’impact des inégalités sur les normes sociales influençant les comportements individuels de consommation, 3) l’intérêt des groupes sociaux à la dégradation ou la protection de l’environnement, 4) la façon dont ces intérêts se révèlent en demande politique et 5) la façon dont les demandes politiques se confrontent pour se traduire en une décision politique. Le second apport de notre travail est d’identifier les contributions et les limites des analyses empiriques traitant du sujet. Bien que permettant de tester la nature générale de la relation causale entre inégalité et environnement, la méthode utilisée ne permet pas une prise en compte de la diversité des mécanismes théoriques. Dans cette perspective, nous proposons un programme de recherche reposant sur l’investigation empirique des cinq hypothèses précédemment mentionnées par une approche récursive.
    Keywords: Inégalités économiques, pressions environnementales, politiques environnementales
    JEL: O13 O15 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2014
  32. By: Elena Galán del Castillo
    Abstract: Understanding the replacement of the nutrients removed by harvests helps us understand the influence of humans on fertility. In this paper we compare two previous studies on the nutrient balance of the cropland area in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, which run circa 1860 and 1920. Although in this region livestock densities per cropland area were insufficient to balance the extraction of three macronutrients—N, P and K—, a diverse range of fertilising sources managed to reach equilibrium at regional level. The vineyard played a key role, not because of the great area occupied, but by its relatively low nutrient requirements. Albeit due to the availability of historical sources the scale of analysis differs, the comparison of the two cases shows two different steps of the Socio-Ecological Transition of agricultural metabolism. Finally, the results take us to consider the relationship between fertility and inequality in the highly polarized Catalan rural world at the late nineteenth century.
    Keywords: Social Metabolism, Socio-Ecological Transition, Regional Nutrients Balance, Industrial Agriculture, Agricultural Change
    JEL: N33 D63 I12 I31
    Date: 2014–11
  33. By: Alexandre BERTHE; Sylvie FERRARI
    Abstract: En s’appuyant sur les théories contemporaines de la justice, la contribution vise à apporter un éclairage sur l’identification des situations de justice associées à des espaces insulaires soumis au risque de submersion. En considérant le cas d’un seul Etat constitué de deux îles, puis celui d’un monde à deux Etats insulaires, l’analyse des principes de justice réalisée à partir de deux visions de la justice - une justice située et une justice globale - permet de définir les contours d’une justice écologique intergénérationnelle.
    Keywords: justice écologique, territoires insulaires, principes de justice, adaptation.
    JEL: D63 Q56
    Date: 2014
  34. By: Fabrizio Mazzonna (Università della Svizzera Italiana (USI) and MEA (Munich Center for the Economics of Ageing) at Max Planck Institute for Social law and Social Policy); Paola Salari (Università della Svizzera Italiana (USI))
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the causal negative effect of environmental tobacco exposure on health by exploiting the time and geographical variation in public-place smoking bans implemented in Switzerland between 2007 and 2011. Using monthly data from the universe of Swiss hospitals between 2004 and 2012, we show that the incidence of acute myocardial infarction hospitalizations decreases by about 10-12% immediately after the law implementation. We also find evidence of heterogeneity by age and sex and across income and education groups. In particular, the policy affected mainly men aged 50+ and the regions characterized by a lower level of income and education.
    Keywords: smoking bans, policy evaluation, infarction, hospital data, health inequality
    JEL: C23 H75 H77 I14 I18
    Date: 2014–12
  35. By: Fabrizio Carmignani
    Keywords: Spatial resource curse, income regressions, growth regressions
    JEL: O13 C31 O11 O40
    Date: 2014–05
  36. By: Lykke E. Andersen (Center for Environmental-Economic Modeling and Analysis, Institute for Advanced Development Studies); Anna Sophia Doyle (Institute for Advanced Development Studies); Dorte Verner (Office of Evaluation and Oversight, Inter-American Development Bank); Manfred Wiebelt (Kiel Institute for the World Economic)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes gender and ethnic differences in vulnerability and resilience to external shocks and stresses in Mexico. Vulnerability and resilience are measured by a combination of the level of household incomes per capita and the degree of diversification of these incomes. Thus, households which have poorly diversified incomes falling below the national poverty line are classified as highly vulnerable, whereas households which have highly diversified incomes above the poverty line are classified as highly resilient. The analysis shows that both gender and ethnicity are almost irrelevant as explanatory factors of vulnerability whereas education levels, dependency ratios and the age of the head of household are very important. Determining the true factors that affect vulnerability is important in order to devise effective policies to reduce vulnerability.
    Keywords: Livelihood diversification, resilience, vulnerability, external shocks, gender, ethnicity, Mexico
    JEL: D13 I32 O54
    Date: 2014–11
  37. By: Andrés C. ÁLVAREZ ESPINOSA; Silvia Liliana CALDERÓN; German David ROMERO; Daniel Alejandro ORDOÑEZ
    Abstract: Este artículo presenta los efectos potenciales del cambio climático sobre la economía del país. A partir de datos sobre los efectos del clima futuro en la productividad de componentes de los sectores agrícola, forestal, pesquero, ganadero y de transporte se estima el impacto agregado del cambio climático en la economía del país, utilizando el Modelo de Equilibrio General Computable de Cambio Climático para Colombia (MEG4C). Los resultados muestran que el impacto sería negativo con pérdidas promedio anuales en el PIB del 0,49% en el periodo 2011 al 2100.
    JEL: Q54 E17
    Date: 2014–12–10

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