nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2015‒01‒14
forty papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Green Growth Opportunities for Bhutan By World Bank
  2. What is the social value of second-generation biofuels ? By Hertel, Thomas W.; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Tyner, Wallace E.
  3. Investigating the impacts of technological position and European environmental regulation on green automotive patent activity By Nicolò Barbieri
  4. Optimal Profits under Environmental Regulation: The Benefits from Emission Intensity Averaging By Hampf , Benjamin; Rødseth , Kenneth Løvold
  5. Перспективы и проблемы развития "зеленых" инвестиций в России By Yakovleva, Natalia
  6. A"Delphi exercise"as a tool in Amazon rainforest valuation By Strand, Jon; Carson, Richard T.; Navrud, Stale; Ortiz-Bobea, Ariel; Vincent, Jeffrey
  7. Technology & environment : some possible damaging effects of technological change in advanced and opulent societies By Coccia M.
  8. Inferring Carbon Abatement Costs in Electricity Markets: A Revealed Preference Approach using the Shale Revolution By Joseph A. Cullen; Erin T. Mansur
  9. Define green sector: a pre-requisite to analyze China-Europe cooperation in the green industries By Federico Salvatelli
  10. Greening Household Behaviour: Cross-domain Comparisons in Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours Using Spatial Effects By Zachary Brown
  11. Greenhouse gas intensity of three main crops and implications for low-carbon agriculture in China By Wang, Wen; Guo, Liping; Li, Yingchun; Su, Man; Lin, Yuebin; De Perthuis, Christian; Ju, Xiaotang; Lin, Erda; Moran, Dominic
  12. Abating CO2 emissions in the Greek energy and industry sectors By Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos; Kourtzidis, Stavros
  13. Greening Household Behaviour: A review for Policy Makers By OECD
  14. Taxing Fossil Fuels under Speculative Storage By Semih Tumen; Deren Unalmis; Ibrahim Unalmis; D. Filiz Unsal
  15. Life satisfaction and environmental conditions in Italy: a pseudo-panel approach By Tiziana Laureti
  16. Determining the Success of Carbon Capture and Storage Projects By Dominique Thronicker; Ian Lange
  17. Modelling Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture By Ada Ignaciuk; Daniel Mason-D'Croz
  18. The Amenity Value of Climate Change Across Different Regions in the United States By Pitchayaporn Tantihkarnchana; Gregmar Galinato
  19. Summary of Hydrological modeling of sustainable land management interventions in the Mizewa watershed of the Blue Nile Basin: By Schmidt, Emily; Zemadim, Birhanu
  20. Greenhouse gas emissions and marginal abatement cost curves for the road transport in Greece By Halkos, George; Kevork, Ilias; Tziourtzioumis, Chris
  21. Driving factors and spatial scales for cluster development - The case of environmental technologies in Upper Austria By Alexander Auer; Franz Tödtling
  22. Greening Household Behaviour and Energy By Bengt Kriström; Chandra Kiran
  23. Policy packages for modal shift and CO2 reduction in Lille, France By Hakim Hammadou; Claire Papaix
  24. Greening Household Behaviour and Water By Céline Nauges
  25. The Eco-Industry and Trade Agreements By Solveig Delabroye
  26. Allocating shadow prices in a multiobjective chance constrained model By C. Caldeira; L. Dias; F. Freire; D. Kremmydas; S. Rozakis
  27. Summary of Determinants and impact of sustainable land and watershed management investments: By Schmidt, Emily; Chinowsky, Paul; Robinson, Sherman; Strzepek, Kenneth M.
  28. Accounting for enforcement is essential to improve the spatial allocation of marine restricted-use zoning systems By Davis, Katrina; Pannell, David; Kragt, Marit; Gelcich, Stefan; Schilizzi, Steven
  29. Canada – renewable energy: implications for WTO law on green and not-so-green subsidies By Steve Charnovitz; Carolyn Fischer
  30. Climate change, groundwater salinization and road maintenance costs in coastal Bangladesh By Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md. Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David
  32. A Macroeconomic Model of Biodiversity Protection By David Martin
  33. Cortiça em Marrocos. A excursão florestal de Octavio Elorriera em 1933 By Ignacio García Pereda
  34. Greening Household Behaviour and Food By Katrin Millock
  35. Rice in the Shadow of Skyscrapers : Policy Choices in a Dynamic East and Southeast Asian Setting By David Dawe; Steven Jaffee; Nuno Santos
  36. How Much Energy Do Building Energy Codes Really Save? Evidence from California By Arik Levinson
  37. Biodiversity Prioritisation and Gender By David Martin
  38. Land rights knowledge and conservation in rural Ethiopia: Mind the gender gap: By Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Kumar, Neha
  39. The development push of refugees: Evidence from Tanzania: By Maystadt, Jean-François; Duranton, Gilles
  40. Entre libre marché, retrait de l’État et impacts environnementaux :la desserte internationale de Bruxelles By Frédéric Dobruszkes

  1. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases Environmental Economics and Policies Economic Theory and Research Environment - Wildlife Resources Transport Economics Policy and Planning Transport Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Date: 2014–08
  2. By: Hertel, Thomas W.; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Tyner, Wallace E.
    Abstract: What is second-generation biofuel technology worth to global society? A dynamic, computable partial equilibrium model (called FABLE) is used to assess changes in global land use for crops, livestock, biofuels, forestry, and environmental services, as well as greenhouse gas emissions, with and without second-generation biofuels technology. The difference in the discounted stream of global valuations of land-based goods and services gives the value of second-generation technology to society. Under baseline conditions, this to amounts to $64.2 billion at today's population or an increase of roughly 0.3 percent in the valuation of the world's land resources. This gain arises despite the fact that, in the baseline scenario, the technology does not become commercially viable until 2035. Alternative scenarios considered include: diminished crop yield growth owing to adverse climate impacts, flat energy prices, low economic growth, and high population growth, as well as greenhouse gas regulation. The most important factor driving second-generation valuation is greenhouse gas regulation, which more than doubles the social value of this technology. Flat energy prices essentially eliminate the value of second-generation technology to society, and high population growth reduces its value because of the heightened competition for land for food production.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Climate Change Economics,Energy Production and Transportation,Energy and Environment
    Date: 2014–12–01
  3. By: Nicolò Barbieri (University of Bologna, Italy; Ingenio CSIC-UPV, Valencia, Spain.)
    Abstract: Using patent data on 355 applicants patenting to the European patent offices from 1998 to 2010 on environmental road transport technologies, we investigate under what conditions the European environmental transport policy portfolio and the intrinsic characteristics of assignees’ knowledge boost worldwide green patent production. Our findings suggest that post-tax fuel prices, environmental vehicle taxes, CO2 standards and European emission standards, introduced in the empirical model through an innovative methodology based on Self-Organising Maps (SOM) (Kohonen, 1990; 2001), positively influence the creation of environmental inventions. Most importantly, we advocate that assignees anticipate the introduction of those emission standards, filing patents before the effective implementation of regulations when legislations are announced. Furthermore, we provide evidence that in a technological space (which measures the applicants’ technological proximity), closely located organisations enhance their patent output through the exploitation of technological knowledge produced by others. This means that the greater the proximity between assignees, the higher their likelihood of taking advantage of the knowledge produced by others. Finally, we observe that dynamic changes (both in quantity and in the number of technological fields engaged) in assignees’ patent portfolios spur inventive performances.
    Keywords: Environmental patents, environmental policies, Self-Organising Maps, road transport technologies, European emission standards, fuel prices
    JEL: O31 O38 Q55 L62
    Date: 2014–12
  4. By: Hampf , Benjamin; Rødseth , Kenneth Løvold
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze the economic effects of implementing EPA’s newly proposed regulations for carbon dioxide (CO2) on existing U.S. coal-fired power plants using nonparametric methods on a sample of 144 electricity generating units. Moreover, we develop an approach for evaluating the economic gains from averaging emission intensities among the utilities’ generating units, compared to implementing unit-specific performance standards. Our results show that the implementation of flexible standards leads to up to 2.7 billion dollars larger profits compared to the uniform standards. Moreover, we find that by adopting best practices, current profits can be maintained even if an intensity standard of 0.88 tons of CO2 per MWh is implemented. However, our results also indicate a trade-off between environmental and profit gains, since aggregate CO2 emissions are higher with emission intensity averaging than with uniform standards.
    Keywords: JEL classification: D24, L50, Q54; Environmental regulation, profit maximization, emission intensity averaging, nonparametric effciency analysis
    Date: 2014–12–10
  5. By: Yakovleva, Natalia
    Abstract: The article describes the situation in the industry of the «green» technologies in the world, the perspectives of the development of the «green» investments in Russia, the main problems of implementation and use environmentally friendly technologies, and provides solutions to these problems.
    Keywords: «green» technologies, investment, «green» investments, environmental investments, alternative energy, renewable energy, innovations.
    JEL: Q57
    Date: 2014–12–23
  6. By: Strand, Jon; Carson, Richard T.; Navrud, Stale; Ortiz-Bobea, Ariel; Vincent, Jeffrey
    Abstract: The Amazon rainforest, the world's largest and most biodiverse, represents a global public good of which 15 percent has already been lost. The worldwide value of preserving the remaining forest is today unknown. A"Delphi"exercise was conducted involving more than 200 environmental valuation experts from 36 countries, who were asked to predict the outcome of a survey to elicit willingness to pay for Amazon forest preservation among their own countries'populations. Expert judgments of average willingness-to-pay levels, per household per year, to fund a plan to protect all of the current Amazon rainforest up to 2050, range from $4 to $36 in 12 Asian countries, to near $100 in Canada, Germany, and Norway, with other high-income countries in between. Somewhat lower willingness-to-pay values were found for a less strict plan that allows a 12 percent further rainforest area reduction. The elasticity of experts'willingness-to-pay assessments with respect to own-country per capita income is slightly below but not significantly different from unity when results are pooled across countries and income is adjusted for purchasing power parity.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Economic Theory&Research,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Knowledge for Development,Wildlife Resources
    Date: 2014–12–01
  7. By: Coccia M. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: An interesting problem is the analysis of effects of the predominant impact of technological change on the health of societies. This study considers technological change as the human activity that generates a huge impact on societies and causes environmental disorders affecting the health of population. In particular, technical innovations support the industrialisation and human development, which by a social change based on population growth, mass production and consumption, and resources depletion, engenders pollution and several environmental carcinogens. This study shows that a main effect of the critical impact of technological change on societies is the high cancer incidence of population living in industrialised areas of opulent and advanced countries. Vital empirical evidence and linkages between observed facts endeavour to explain the major relationships concerning the interactions among technology, ecosystems and the health of societies.
    Keywords: Health and Economic Development; Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes; Environment and Growth; Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling;
    JEL: O33 O44 I15 Q53
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Joseph A. Cullen; Erin T. Mansur
    Abstract: This paper examines how much carbon emissions from the electricity industry would decrease in response to a carbon price. We show how both carbon prices and cheap natural gas reduce, in a nearly identical manner, the historic cost advantage of coal-fired power plants. The shale revolution has resulted in unprecedented variation in natural gas prices that we use to estimate the short-run price elasticity of abatement. Our estimates imply that a price of $10 ($60) per ton of carbon dioxide would reduce emissions by 4% (10%). Furthermore, carbon prices are much more effective at reducing emissions when natural gas prices are low. In contrast, modest carbon prices have negligible effects when gas prices are at levels seen prior to the shale revolution.
    JEL: Q4 Q5
    Date: 2014–12
  9. By: Federico Salvatelli (University of Macerata)
    Abstract: This work-in-progress paper suggests a classification of environmental codes. It is one of the first output of a wider research project analyzing Chinese inward and outward FDI in the green industries. This study compares already existing methodological resources and proposes an original taxonomy of green sectors. The literature confirms the absence of a clear classification on different environmental activities (products and services). In many cases goods and services can only be partly categorized as environmental. The study shows a first categorization of economic activities through a codes list where it is possible understand which types of goods and services are considered green. As we review, there are some goods and services that are considered as partly green and it will be necessary to analyze in depth each code. Not all environmental activities could be classified with the highest precision, as there are some activities that do not fully qualify as green activities. In order to have a more reliable assessment, it is necessary to test all items of the taxonomy using the macro or industry/firm level quantitative data. This is a work-in-progress study and it represents a first step to a wider research agenda funded by the European Union. Scholars, practitioners and policy makers can have a clearer definition on environmental products/services.
    Keywords: China, environmental activities, foreign direct investment (FDI), green sector, taxonomy of Green industries
    Date: 2014–12
  10. By: Zachary Brown
    Abstract: Discussions of the importance of public attitudes in shaping policy often lack clear evidence on causal relations between stated attitudes and observed behaviours. The 2011 OECD Survey of over 12,000 households allows analysing households’ environmental attitudes and behaviours in five different domains (electricity, food, transport, waste and water). Using econometric analysis, we investigate the relationship between stated environmental attitudes and indicators of civic engagement, such as voting in local elections, charity membership and membership in environmental organisations...<BR>La réflexion sur le rôle des attitudes du public dans l’élaboration des politiques manque souvent d’éléments probants au sujet du lien de causalité existant entre les attitudes déclarées et les comportements observés. L’enquête réalisée par l’OCDE en 2011 auprès de plus de 12 000 ménages permet d’analyser leurs attitudes et comportements environnementaux dans cinq domaines distincts (électricité, alimentation, transports, déchets et eau). Sur la base d’une analyse économétrique, on étudie ce qui lie les attitudes environnementales déclarées à différentes formes d’engagement civique, telles que voter aux élections locales, s’impliquer au sein d’une oeuvre caritative et être membre d’une association de défense de l’environnement.
    Keywords: household survey, behavioural economics, GIS, environmental attitudes, civic engagement, engagement civique, enquête auprès des ménages, attitudes envers l'environnement, SIG, économie comportementale
    JEL: C51 D10 D11 D12 D64 D71 H89 Q50 Q58
    Date: 2014–12–10
  11. By: Wang, Wen; Guo, Liping; Li, Yingchun; Su, Man; Lin, Yuebin; De Perthuis, Christian; Ju, Xiaotang; Lin, Erda; Moran, Dominic
    Abstract: China faces significant challenges in reconciling food security goals with the objective of becoming a low-carbon economy. Agriculture accounts for approximately 11 % of China’s national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with cereal production representing a large proportion (about 32 %) of agricultural emissions. Minimizing emissions per unit of product is a policy objective and we estimated the GHG intensities (GHGI) of rice, wheat and maize production in China from 1985 to 2010. Results show significant variations of GHGIs among Chinese provinces and regions. Relative to wheat and maize, GHGI of rice production is much higher owing to CH4 emissions, and is more closely related to yield levels. In general, the south and central has been the most carbon intensive region in rice production while the GHGI of wheat production is highest in north and northwest provinces. The southwest has been characterized by the highest maize GHGI but the lowest rice GHGI. Compared to the baseline scenario, a 2 % annual reduction in N inputs, combined with improved water management in rice paddies, would mitigate 17 % of total GHG emissions from cereal production in 2020 while sustaining the required yield increase to ensure food security. Better management practices will entail additional gains in soil organic carbon further decreasing GHGI. To realize the full mitigation potential while maximizing agriculture development, the design of appropriate policies should accommodate local conditions.
    Keywords: food security; low-carbon agriculture; greenhouse gas intensity; China;
    JEL: Q15 Q24 Q54 Q18
    Date: 2015
  12. By: Halkos, George; Tzeremes, Nickolaos; Kourtzidis, Stavros
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to construct the abatement cost curve for the Greek Energy and Industry sectors. To achieve our goal we present and analyze the abatement options available in the sector of energy and in the industrial subsectors of petroleum and gas refinery, cement and iron and steel. Next, we estimate and present the costs and abatement potentials for each abatement option in each sector. We also present the cost-effective options for individual energy and industrial sources. Finally, the marginal abatement cost curve is constructed and the policy implications are discussed. Our analysis reveals a promising potential for pollution reduction and a wide range of cost-effective abatement options.
    Keywords: Abatement cost curve; air pollution; energy and industry sectors.
    JEL: Q42 Q52 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2014–12
  13. By: OECD
    Abstract: Personal behaviour and choices in daily life, from what we eat to how we get to work or heat our homes, have a significant – and growing – effect on the environment. But why are some households greener than others? And what factors motivate green household choices? <P>Answering these questions is vital for helping governments design and target policies that promote “greener” behaviour. The OECD’s Environmental Policy and Individual Behaviour Change (EPIC) survey is designed to do just that. This large-scale household survey explores what drives household environmental behaviour and how policies may affect household decisions. It focuses on five areas in which households have significant environmental impact: energy, food, transport, waste and water. This policy paper is based on the second round of the EPIC survey, carried out in 2011 (the first was in 2008). The survey collected information from more than 12 000 households in Australia, Canada, Chile, France, Israel, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.
    Date: 2014–12–17
  14. By: Semih Tumen; Deren Unalmis; Ibrahim Unalmis; D. Filiz Unsal
    Abstract: This paper investigates the mechanisms through which environmental taxes on fossil fuel usage can affect the main macroeconomic variables in the short-run. We concentrate on a particular mechanism: speculative storage. The existence of forward-looking speculators in the model improves the effectiveness of tax policies in reducing fossil fuel usage. Improved policy effectiveness, however, is costly: it drives inflation and interest rates up, while impeding output. Based on this tradeoff, we seek an answer to the question how monetary policy should interact with environmental tax policies in our DSGE model of fossil fuel storage.
    Keywords: Fossil fuels;Environmental taxes;Tax policy;General equilibrium models;Fossil fuel; environmental taxes; speculative storage; DSGE
    Date: 2014–12–18
  15. By: Tiziana Laureti
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the relationship between subjective well-being and environmental conditions in Italy. Using a pseudo-panel approach, based on cohort data from the ISTAT multipurpose survey “Aspect of Daily Life” for the years 2010-2012, this paper aims at investigating the role of subjective and objective measures of environmental quality on life satisfaction by using fixed effects models taking into account regional heterogeneity and generational effects. A robust negative impact of air pollutions on self-reported life satisfaction is found. With respect to personal characteristics and control variables, the paper finds that the economic conditions and the perception of personal health status play important roles in explaining life satisfaction while car density, relative poverty risk and unemployment rates affect life satisfaction negatively.
    Keywords: Environmental quality, subjective well-being, pseudo-panel.
    JEL: C23 I31 Q53
    Date: 2014–12–01
  16. By: Dominique Thronicker (Division of Economics, University of Stirling); Ian Lange (Division of Economics and Business, Colorado School of Mines)
    Abstract: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is regarded as one of the most important technologies to mitigate climate change while providing fossil-fuel based energy security. During the past decade, projects in support of the development and deployment of the technology have been initiated across the globe. However, a considerable number of these projects have later been put on hold or cancelled. Currently, there is little understanding of what characteristics may have led to these undesirable outcomes. Using data on planned, cancelled and operational CCS projects to date, this paper aims to elicit technological, economic and policy characteristics that render CCS projects more or less likely to become operational. The results consistently find that confirmation of storage site and capture processes that are pre-combustion, industrial separation, or natural gas separation increase the probability of project success, while presence of a carbon policy and non-commercial storage of CO2 are negatively linked to project success.
    Keywords: Carbon Capture and Storage, Regression Analysis, Carbon Policy, Technological Change
    JEL: L51 Q5 H3
    Date: 2014–12
  17. By: Ada Ignaciuk; Daniel Mason-D'Croz
    Abstract: This paper investigates how climate change can affect agricultural production and proposes some adaptation measures that could be undertaken to mitigate the negative effects of climate change while enhancing the positive ones. The paper stresses the importance of planned adaptation measures and highlights possible strategies for reducing risk and improving resilience. To quantify the possible effects of climate change and the effects of adaptation measures this study uses the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT). The analysis first explores the potential effects of climate change on yields and prices. It then goes on to analyse the potential impacts of two distinctive sets of adaptation strategies on yields, prices, and food security, namely: i) research and development (to develop new crop varieties that are better suited to changed climate conditions) and ii) changes in irrigation technology. Last, the analysis in this paper estimates the public and private investment needs in research and development (R&D) for developing new crop varieties, and further develops estimates of the cost of improving irrigation technologies in OECD countries.
    JEL: Q18 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2014–12–22
  18. By: Pitchayaporn Tantihkarnchana; Gregmar Galinato (School of Economic Sciences, Washington State University)
    Abstract: This article estimates the amenity value from climate change by analyzing the effect of climatic variables on house prices near ski resorts in different regions in the United States using a hedonic model. We find that higher average winter temperatures tend to increase house price near ski resorts at a decreasing rate. Using the implicit value of average winter temperature, we estimate its demand and find that the crossing point temperature, where the homeowner’s consumer surplus from average winter temperature moves from positive to negative, varies in each region. The highest crossing point temperature is in the Western region at 46ºF and lowest is in the Midwest at 8ºF. The consumer surplus from average winter temperature for the median home owner is negative in the Midwest and Northeastern regions where the crossing point temperatures are lowest and it is positive for the West and Mountain regions where the crossing point temperatures are highest.
    Keywords: climate change; house price; ski resort; amenity value; hedonic price
    JEL: Q51 Q54
    Date: 2014–12
  19. By: Schmidt, Emily; Zemadim, Birhanu
    Abstract: This analysis utilizes recent hydrological and meteorological data collected from the Mizewa watershed in Fogera woreda in order to better understand the physical impact of sustainable land and watershed management (SLWM) investments. The effectiveness of the simulated conservation practices (terraces, bunds, and residue management) are evaluated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model taking into account investment decisions on different terrain types. Simulations compare the limited investments that currently exist with increases in terracing and residue management activities within the watershed. The results suggest mixed impacts on surface run-off and erosion depending on terrain and management practices. However, the type and amount of investment (and therefore costs) in SLWM have different implications with respect to labor input and utilization of agricultural land, and the consequent socio-economic effects on households.
    Keywords: Sustainability, Land management, Water management, Irrigation,
    Date: 2014
  20. By: Halkos, George; Kevork, Ilias; Tziourtzioumis, Chris
    Abstract: In the current technical report, we consider for the Greek road transport various policies of emission control for the period 2014-2030, and for the first time we estimate the related greenhouse gas emissions expressed in CO2 equivalent and the total costs. These policies result from the high penetration rate of the most recent Euro standards (e.g. Euro 5,6) to the fleet of various vehicle classifications which will be in circulation at the end of each year for the specific period. For each vehicle classification, the shares of vehicles with different technology standards result from the continuation of 2000-2013 trends regarding the number of vehicles adjusted according to a conservative scenario of GDP growth after 2014. The vehicle classifications are differentiated according to (a) engine capacity for passenger cars and motorcycles-mopeds and maximum weight for trucks and buses, and (b) type of fuel (gasoline, diesel, liquefied petroleum gas). To calculate the greenhouse gas emissions, we adopt the Tier 2 method, which uses for each vehicle classification the number of vehicles, the annual average mileage per vehicle and the emission factors of each pollutant. For the calculation of total cost we consider four elements: capital, operation, maintenance and fuel costs. Having available the reductions in CO2 emissions and the increases/decreases in the corresponding costs, marginal abatement cost curves are constructed first for specific vehicle classifications and second for general vehicle categories.
    Keywords: Transport sector; passenger cars; tier 2 method; abatement costs; emissions.
    JEL: C53 M21 Q50 Q53 Q54 Q58 R40
    Date: 2014–12
  21. By: Alexander Auer; Franz Tödtling
    Date: 2014
  22. By: Bengt Kriström; Chandra Kiran
    Abstract: This report focuses on demand for renewable energy and energy efficiency. It presents the results of follow-up of econometric analysis of the 2011 OECD Survey on Environmental Policy and Individual Behaviour Change (EPIC). The report complements the overview of the survey data provided in the 2014 OECD publication “Greening Household Behaviour: Overview from the 2011 Survey”...<BR>Ce rapport porte sur la demande d’énergie renouvelable et d’efficacité énergétique. Il présente les résultats de travaux d’analyse économétrique qui s’inscrivent dans le prolongement de l’enquête sur la politique de l’environnement et le comportement individuel (EPIC) réalisée par l’OCDE en 2011. Ce rapport complète la synthèse des données de l’enquête présentée dans l’ouvrage « Vers des comportements plus environnementaux: vue d'ensemble de l'enquête 2011 », OCDE (2014).
    Date: 2014–12–16
  23. By: Hakim Hammadou; Claire Papaix
    Abstract: This paper proposes a second-best approach to cutting CO2 emissions caused by the urban mobility of passengers. We develop policy scenarios that compare the first-best tool of carbon tax, to a combination of second-best tools, not originally aimed at reducing CO2 (i.e. congestion charging, parking charges, and public transport services). We study their efficiency in attaining a CO2 target, through a change in the modal split. In our model, modal choices depend on individual characteristics, journey features (including the effects of policy tools), and land use at origin and destination zones. Personal “CO2 emissions budgets” resulting from the journeys observed in the metropolitan area of Lille (France) in 2006 are calculated and compared to the situation related to the different policy scenarios. We find that an increase of 50% in parking charges combined with a cordon toll of €1.20 and a 10% travel time decrease in public transport services (made after recycling toll-revenues) is the winning scenario. The combined effects of all the policy scenarios are superior to their separate effects.
    Keywords: CO2, urban mobility, second-best instruments, cost-efficiency, mode choice model.
    Date: 2014
  24. By: Céline Nauges
    Abstract: This report focuses on households’ behaviour in relation to water use. It presents the results of follow-up analysis of the 2011 OECD Survey on Environmental Policy and Individual Behaviour Change (EPIC) where econometric techniques are applied. This report complements the overview of the survey data provided in the publication OECD (2014). The analysis shows that households whose bill depends on actual water use are unambiguously more likely to exhibit pro-environmental behaviours in terms of water use, including undertaking water-saving behaviours, purchasing water-efficient devices, and taking water efficiency into account when purchasing such equipment. The results also confirm that the effect of social norms, attitudes, and opinions about the environment in general do matter in explaining households’ behaviour and investment decisions. The main policy recommendations that can be derived from this study are: to charge households for water based on their actual water use and to pursue individuals’ sensitisation to environmental issues by promoting water-conservation behaviours through campaigns and advertising, primarily targeting male and young adults.<BR>Ce rapport est consacré au comportement des ménages en matière de consommation d’eau. Il présente les résultats de travaux d’analyse qui s’inscrivent dans le prolongement de l’enquête sur la politique de l’environnement et le comportement individuel (EPIC) réalisée par l’OCDE en 2011, et qui ont donné lieu à l’application de techniques économétriques. Ce rapport complète la synthèse des données de l’enquête présentée dans l’ouvrage OCDE (2014). L’analyse des résultats de l’enquête montre que les ménages dont les factures dépendent de leur consommation réelle ont nettement plus de chances de faire preuve d’un comportement soucieux de l’environnement, en décidant de faire des économies, en investissant dans des appareils à faible consommation d’eau et en prenant en compte la consommation d’eau lors de l’achat d’appareils. Les résultats confirment également que les normes sociales, les attitudes et les opinions relatives à l’environnement en général ont leur importance dans l’explication du comportement des ménages et de leurs décisions d’investissement. Les principales recommandations d’action que l’on peut tirer de l’étude sont les suivantes : faire payer aux ménages leur consommation réelle et continuer de sensibiliser les individus aux questions d’environnement en encourageant les comportements économes en eau par des campagnes publicitaires et autres, ciblant surtout les hommes et les jeunes adultes.
    Keywords: water quality, labelling, household survey, tap water, water-saving behaviour, environmental attitudes, investment in water-efficient devices, étiquetage, comportement d'économie d'eau, qualité de l'eau, attitudes envers l'environnement, eau du robinet, investissement dans des dispositifs économes en eau, enquête auprès des ménages
    JEL: C51 D11 D12 Q25 Q58
    Date: 2014–12–10
  25. By: Solveig Delabroye
    Abstract: The eco-industry is a key sector for our future, both economically (the industry accounts for 3% of GDP in most developed countries) and as a tool to tackle ecological challenges. For the past decade, international organizations such as the WTO and OECD have pledged for a swift liberalization targeting Environmental Goods and Services (EGS), which are still characterized by high tariffs and non-tariffs barriers and a low level of competition. In spite of many political declarations, no international trade agreements directed specifically at this industry has been reached except from the one adopted by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) in 2012. This report examines the reasons for the apparent failure of international negotiations on this issue, specifically focusing on the idiosyncrasies of the eco-industry regarding custom regulations and on what are stakes for each party. Indeed, strategic trade analysis of the respective interests of developing and developed countries reveals asymmetric incentives, which sheds some light on the discrepancies between enthusiastic political statements and the lack of actual agreements. Finally, some past bilateral and regional trade and environmental agreements and the solutions they propose in relation to the current situation in international trade of EGS are considered, and the relevance of global trade agreements as a tool of EGS policy is discussed. <P>L’industrie environnementale est un secteur-clé pour notre futur, à la fois sur le plan économique (le secteur représente environ 3% du PIB dans les pays développés) et comme instrument pour répondre aux défis écologiques croissants. Durant la dernière décennie, les organisations internationales (OCDE, OMC) ont appelé à une libéralisation rapide des Biens et Services Environnementaux, qui se distinguent aujourd’hui par des barrières douanières et règlementaires importantes et une concurrence relativement faible. Malgré de nombreuses déclarations politiques, aucun accord de commerce international spécifique à ce secteur n’a été conclu à l’exception de celui ratifié au sein de la Coopération Economique pour l’Asie-Pacifique (APEC) en 2012. Ce rapport se penche sur les raisons de ce qui semble pour l’instant être un échec des négociations internationales, en s’attachant aux spécificités de l’éco-industrie en terme de régulations douanières, mais aussi aux enjeux de ces négociations pour les différentes parties prenantes. Une analyse stratégique des intérêts commerciaux respectifs des pays développés et en développement révèlera des incitations asymétriques et expliquera en partie l’écart entre les déclarations d’intentions et l’absence d’accords effectifs. Enfin, nous examinerons quelques exemples d’accords bilatéraux ou régionaux concernant le commerce ou l’environnement pour voir quelles solutions peuvent être apportées, et interrogerons la pertinence d’accords de commerce en tant qu’outil de facilitation du commerce international des biens et services environnementaux.
    Keywords: Eco-industry, internatioal market, trade agreements, Industrie environnementale, marché international, accord de commerce international
    Date: 2014–12–01
  26. By: C. Caldeira (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, Portugal); L. Dias (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, Portugal); F. Freire (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, Portugal); D. Kremmydas (Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens); S. Rozakis (Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens)
    Abstract: Biodiesel production sustainability relates to decision making on blending involving economic and environmental criteria. Several feedstocks candidate in European countries biodiesel industry, namely different vegetable origin oils. The present research aims at assessing the impact of technological constraints allocated to the decision objectives taking into account inherent uncertainty. For this purpose chance?constrained programming is used in order to maintain tolerance towards fuel quality.
    Keywords: Biodiesel blends, Uncertainty, Chance constrained programming, Shadow prices, Multiobjective programming, GHG emissions
    JEL: C61 Q29 Q42
    Date: 2014
  27. By: Schmidt, Emily; Chinowsky, Paul; Robinson, Sherman; Strzepek, Kenneth M.
    Abstract: Ongoing debate over water resource management and land degradation suggests a need for efficient sustainable land management mechanisms to improve agricultural output in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. Numerous econometric and hydrological models have been developed to assess the effects of sustainable land and watershed management (SLWM) investments. However, these models fail to address the trade-offs faced by rural farmers in maintaining such structures. This study combines household survey data that evaluates the economic determinants of program sustainability with a detailed hydrological model that explores location specific effects of SLWM structures. Simulations suggest that more comprehensive investments (such as SLWM with increased fertilizer application) may reap more economically significant increases in household income. Cost benefit analysis suggests that a packaged investment approach is needed in order to outweigh the opportunity costs (foregone labor, particularly) of investing in SLWM infrastructure at farm level.
    Keywords: Watershed management, Sustainability, Land management,
    Date: 2014
  28. By: Davis, Katrina; Pannell, David; Kragt, Marit; Gelcich, Stefan; Schilizzi, Steven
    Abstract: Growing industrial and consumer demands are negatively affecting fish stocks, which are increasingly extracted above sustainable levels. Successful management of marine resources through restricted use zoning systems such as reserves and territorial user rights schemes relies on support from marine stakeholders; particularly coastal fishing communities. Restricted use zoning results in both management costs and benefits to stakeholders. To increase support for management decisions these need to be taken into account when designing optimal marine management. A linear spatial optimisation model was developed to identify zoning solutions which maximize fishers’ revenue, while meeting conservation targets. Targets were based on maximum population abundance levels for two invertebrate and three reef fish species in Chile. Revenue was maximised by allocating the study area to different management zones: no-take, territorial user rights for fishing (TURFs), or open access. Costs are incurred to enforce no-take and TURF areas; but enforcement results in higher species abundance by preventing poaching and overfishing. Several scenarios were analysed to determine the impact of enforcement on revenue. Results demonstrated net benefits from enforcement: revenue under scenarios with enforcement was approximately 50% higher than under scenarios without it; and enforced-TURF areas were preferentially selected over other zones. Enforcement costs are one of the chief reasons that fishers in the study area stop actively managing TURFS. However, our analysis demonstrates that the often hidden benefits of enforcement far exceed the visible costs. These findings highlight the importance of accounting for both the benefits and costs of management in marine spatial design; particularly as they relate to marine stakeholders.
    Keywords: Spatial optimization, conservation planning, linear programming, marine stakeholders, reserve design, territorial user rights, Environmental Economics and Policy, Q57,
    Date: 2014–01–09
  29. By: Steve Charnovitz; Carolyn Fischer
    Abstract: In the first dispute on renewable energy to come to WTO dispute settlement, the domestic content requirement of Ontario’s feed-in tariff was challenged as a discriminatory investment-related measure and as a prohibited import substitution subsidy. The panel and Appellate Body agreed that Canada was violating the GATT and the TRIMS Agreement. But the SCM Article 3 claim by Japan and the European Union remains unadjudicated, because neither tribunal made a finding that the price guaranteed for electricity from renewable sources constitutes a ‘benefit’ pursuant to the SCM Agreement. Although the Appellate Body provides useful guidance to future panels on how the existence of a benefit could be calculated, the most noteworthy aspect of the new jurisprudence is the Appellate Body’s reasoning that delineating the proper market for ‘benefit’ analysis entails respect for the policy choices made by a government. Thus, in this dispute, the proper market is electricity produced only from wind and solar energy.
    Keywords: renewable energy, subsidies, environment, WTO, dispute settlement
    Date: 2014–12
  30. By: Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md. Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David
    Abstract: The potentially-adverse impact of salinity on paved roads is well-established in the engineering literature. The problem seems destined to grow, as climate-related changes in sea level and riverine flows drive future increases in groundwater salinity. However, data scarcity has prevented systematic analysis for poor countries. This paper assesses the impact of groundwater salinity on road maintenance expenditures in the coastal region of Bangladesh. The assessment draws on new panel measures of salinity from 41 stations in coastal Bangladesh, and road maintenance expenditures, income, road network length, and road surfaces from 20 coastal municipalities. In a model relating maintenance expenditure for paved roads to groundwater salinity, municipal income, and road network length, large and significant effects are found for salinity. The regression model is used to predict the effect of within-sample salinity variation on road maintenance expenditure share, holding municipal income and road length constant at sample mean values. Increasing salinity from its sample minimum to its sample maximum increases the predicted road maintenance expenditure share by 252 percent. The implied welfare impact may also be substantial, particularly for poor households, if diversion of expenditures to road maintenance reduces support for community sanitation, health, and other infrastructure related programs.
    Keywords: Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Water Conservation,Roads&Highways,Rural Roads&Transport,Water Resources Assessment
    Date: 2014–12–01
  31. By: Biljana Iliæ, Dragan Mihajlovic (Faculty of Management in Zajecar, Megatrend University, Belgrade)
    Abstract: Tourism is integral part of modern business, and also part of green economy. Tourism spas must be seen as a major part of the tourism in the countries that are rich in spas. In this case it must be considered as tool of achieving important economic goals. The paper proposes an evaluation model based on TOPSIS, and ELECTRE mathematical methods to help the decision makers in selection of the optimal strategy for Gamzigrad spa development. AHP method is used as ancillary method to determine the weights of criteria. A real case study is used for determination of the development strategies, towards green economy.
    Keywords: modern society, economic goals, green economy, TOPSIS, ELECTRE.
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2014–09
  32. By: David Martin (Department of Economics, Davidson College)
    Abstract: Many biodiversity researchers have responded to the financial constraints faced by policy makers to develop models based upon the “Noah’s Ark” metaphor, implying that society can save only a limited amount of biodiversity. Unfortunately, as Herman Daly (Land Economics, 1991) pointed out, such microeconomic rules can allow an ark to sink albeit in some optimal fashion. So, I step back to look at the macroeconomic question, how big should the ark be? I start with Norgaard’s (Ecological Economics, 2010) framework, which is based upon the concept of a production possibility frontier combined with a sustainability criterion. I develop a model from that starting point by shifting to an isoquant framework while maintaining the strong sustainability criterion. I demonstrate how this model allows for identifying and addressing the key biodiversity protection policy criteria at the macroeconomic level. One key conclusion from this modeling is that Daly’s analysis remains remarkably prescient. Publication Status: Published in Theoretical Economics Letters, 2013, 3(5A):39-44.
    Keywords: Biodiversity Protection; Natural Capital; Conservation; Macroeconomics; Sustainable Development
    JEL: Q57
    Date: 2013–05
  33. By: Ignacio García Pereda
    Abstract: This work uses information available in forest reviews and some Spanish Archives to describe the works made by the Spanish and French forest engineers, in Morocco, in the 1930s. In the colonizing efforts of the Spanish government the foresters provided an essential expertise. The forestry activities deal with cartography, forest management, taxonomic and economic botany and a host of related matters. A visit of the forester Elorrieta, who wrote a chronicle of the trip in the review Montes e Industrias, let us to make a description of the forest works in the cork-oak forests of Morocco.
    Keywords: Octavio Elorrieta, foresters, Morocco, Cork-oak forests, cork
    JEL: A22 N57 O13 O14 Q23
    Date: 2014–12
  34. By: Katrin Millock
    Abstract: This report focuses on households’ behaviour in relation to food consumption. It presents the results of follow-up econometric analysis of the 2011 OECD Survey on Environmental Policy and Individual Behaviour Change (EPIC). This report complements the overview of the survey data provided in the publication OECD (2014). It studies expenditure and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for organic food and food labelled as taking animal welfare into account...<BR>Ce rapport est consacré au comportement des ménages en matière d’alimentation. Il présente les résultats de travaux d’analyse économétrique qui s’inscrivent dans le prolongement de l’enquête sur la politique de l’environnement et le comportement individuel (EPIC) réalisée par l’OCDE en 2011. Ce rapport complète la synthèse des données de l’enquête présentée dans l’ouvrage OCDE (2014). Il est centré sur l’étude des dépenses réalisées et du consentement à payer (CAP) pour acquérir des aliments biologiques ou étiquetés comme respectant le bien-être des animaux.
    Keywords: labelling, household survey, attitudes, organic fruits and vegetables, animal welfare, behaviour, willingness-to-pay, fruits et légumes biologiques, attitudes, consentement à payer (CAP), bien-être animal, comportement, enquête auprès des ménages, étiquetage
    JEL: C51 D11 D12 Q18 Q58
    Date: 2014–12–10
  35. By: David Dawe; Steven Jaffee; Nuno Santos
    Keywords: Crops and Crop Management Systems Agriculture - Agricultural Research Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Food and Beverage Industry Industry
    Date: 2014
  36. By: Arik Levinson
    Abstract: Construction codes that regulate the energy efficiency of new buildings have been a centerpiece of US environmental policy for 40 years. California enacted the nation’s first energy building codes in 1978, and they were projected to reduce residential energy use—and associated pollution—by 80 percent. How effective have the building codes been? I take three approaches to answering that question. First, I compare current electricity use by California homes of different vintages constructed under different standards, controlling for home size, local weather, and tenant characteristics. Second, I examine how electricity in California homes varies with outdoor temperatures for buildings of different vintages. And third, I compare electricity use for buildings of different vintages in California, which has stringent building energy codes, to electricity use for buildings of different vintages in other states. All three approaches yield the same answer: there is no evidence that homes constructed since California instituted its building energy codes use less electricity today than homes built before the codes came into effect.
    JEL: Q48
    Date: 2014–12
  37. By: David Martin (Department of Economics, Davidson College)
    Abstract: Because the financial commitments to preserve biodiversity fall short of what is needed, the elements of biodiversity must be prioritised so that limited funds can be used most effectively. The key issue I address here is the weaknesses of such prioritisation mechanisms with respect to gender concerns. I begin by defining biodiversity and how species are prioritised for preservation. Next, I utilise theories from the existing literature to analyse how each component of the prioritisation is likely biased when ignoring the linkages between biodiversity, gender, and economic development. Finally, I conclude by demonstrating that the net impacts of those biases could lead to either a deflation or an inflation of the ranking for species valued by women and by discussing the implications of that complexity.
    Keywords: Biodiversity, Noah’s Ark, Gender, Women, Development
    JEL: Q57 J16 O13
    Date: 2013–05
  38. By: Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Kumar, Neha
    Abstract: Using the 2009 round of the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey, this paper examines the medium-term impact of the land registration on investment behavior by households, particularly the adoption of soil conservation techniques and tree planting. It investigates whether men’s and women’s knowledge of their property rights under the land registration (as measured by answers to a list of questions regarding the provisions of the registration, covering such areas as tenure security, land transfer rights, and rights related to gender equity and inheritance) has an impact on these investments.
    Keywords: Land rights, Land ownership, Soil conservation, Gender, Women, assets, households, conservation agriculture, Land degradation, legal knowledge, soil conservation practices,
    Date: 2014
  39. By: Maystadt, Jean-François; Duranton, Gilles
    Abstract: Every year, thousands of people flee their country of origin to seek protection mainly in neighboring countries. Understanding better the consequences of temporary population shocks on hosting economies should help to guide policies to enhance resilience in emergency situations. This study exploits a 1991–2010 Tanzanian household panel to assess the effects of the temporary refugee inflows originating from Burundi (1993) and Rwanda (1994). We find that the refugee presence has had a persistent and positive impact on the welfare of the local population. We investigate the possible channels of transmission, underscoring the importance of a decrease in transport costs as a key driver of this persistent change in welfare. We interpret these findings as the ability of a temporary shock to induce a persistent shift in the equilibrium through subsequent investments rather than a switch to a new equilibrium in a multiple-equilibrium setting.
    Keywords: Refugees, Migration, roads, infrastructure, Economic development, transportation, Poverty, Climate, population shocks, resilience, multiple equilibrium,
    Date: 2014
  40. By: Frédéric Dobruszkes
    Date: 2014

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