nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2014‒08‒20
forty-one papers chosen by
Francisco S. Ramos
Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

  1. Carbon Dioxide reducing Environmental innovations, sector upstream/downstream integration and policy. Evidence from the EU. By Massimiliano Mazzanti; Giovanni Marin; Susanna Mancinelli; Francesco Nicolli
  2. Producing biofuels in low-income countries: An integrated environmental and economic assessment for Tanzania By Branca, Giacomo; Felix, Erika; Maltsoglou, Irini; Rincon, Luis E.; Thurlow, James
  3. What role of renewable and nonrenewable electricity consumption and output is needed to initially mitigate CO2 emissions in MENA region? By Sahbi Farhani; Muhammad Shahbaz
  4. Panel analysis of CO2 emissions, GDP, energy consumption, trade openness and urbanization for MENA countries By Sahbi Farhani; Muhammad Shahbaz; Mohamed Arouri
  5. Green Growth, Resources and Resilience Environmental Sustainability in Asia and the Pacific By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  6. Addressing Climate Change and Migration in Asia and the Pacific By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  7. Adaptation to Climate Change: The Case of A Combined Cycle Power Plant By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  8. Can Spatial Dependence Enhance Industry Sustainability? The Case of Pasture-Based Beef By Inocencio Rodriguez; Gerard D'Souza; Thomas Griggs
  9. Productivity Measurement with Natural Capital and Bad Outputs By Nicola Brandt; Paul Schreyer; Vera Zipperer
  10. Environmental campaigns and endogenous technology choice under international oligopoly By Eleni Stathopoulou
  11. Additionality in U.S. Agricultural Conservation and Regulatory Offset Programs By Claassen, Roger; Duquette, Eric; Horowitz, John; Kohei, Ueda
  12. Economic Implications of the IEA Efficient World Scenario By Jean Chateau; Bertrand Magné; Laura Cozzi
  13. Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Impacts: Conceptual Frameworks, Modelling Approaches and Research Needs By Ian Sue Wing; Elisa Lanzi
  14. The Role of Environmental and Land Transaction Regulations on Agricultural Land Price: The example of Brittany By Latruffe, Laure; Salanié, Julien; Minvie, Jean Joseph
  15. Biomass Productivity-Based Mapping of Global Land Degradation Hotspots By Le, Quang Bao; Nkonya, Ephraim; Mirzabaev, Alisher
  16. How do Housing Prices Adjust After an Environmental Shock? Evidence from a State-Mandated Change in Aircraft Noise Exposure By Almer, Christian; Boes, Stefan; Nuesch, Stephan
  17. Armenia Water Supply and Sanitation: Challenges, Achievements, and Future Directions By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; In-Ho Keum;
  19. Implications of climate change for Ghana.s economy By Arndt, Channing; Asante, Felix; Thurlow, James
  21. The Health Impacts of Severe Climate Shocks in Colombia By Dolores de la Mata; Mauricio G. Valencia-Amaya
  22. Environmental Policies and Risk Finance in the Green Sector: Cross-country Evidence By Chiara Criscuolo; Carlo Menon
  23. Rôle de l'apprentissage collectif dans l'adoption de pratiques agricoles visant à réduire l'utilisation de pesticides : une approche par les coûts de transaction appliquée à l'adoption d'une MAET-DCE sur le bassin versant Adour-Garonne By Charilaos Kephaliacos; Jean Pierre Del Corso; Geneviève N'Guyen; Henri Tavernier
  24. Assessing the Effects of Climate and Socioeconomic Factors on Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases in Latin America By Rodrigo García Ayala; Andrés Estrugo
  25. Energy prices, technological knowledge and green energy innovation: A dynamic panel analysis of patent counts By Kruse, Juergen; Wetzel, Heike
  26. Building SSPs for climate policy analysis: a scenario elicitation methodology to map the space of possible future challenges to mitigation and adaptation By Julie Rozenberg; Céline Guivarch; Robert Lempert; Stéphane Hallegatte
  27. Taxing the Rent of Non-Renewable Resource Sectors: A Theoretical Note By Julien Daubanes; Saraly Andrade de Sá
  28. The Lawless Sea? Policy Options for Voluntary Compliance Regimes in Offshore Resource Zones in the Pacific By Paul D’Arcy
  29. The hotelling model with multiple demands By GAUDET, Gérard; SALANT, Stephen W.
  30. Existence and efficiency of stationary states in a renewable resource based OLG model with different harvest costs By Birgit Bednar–Friedl; Karl Farmer
  31. Identifying sustainable diets compatible with consumer preferences By Xavier Irz; Pascal Leroy; Vincent Requillart; Louis Georges Soler; Olivier Allais
  32. The Blind Spot of Corporate Social Responsibility: Changing the legal framework of the firm By Kevin Levillain; Blanche Segrestin
  33. A Demonstration of Sustainability Arguments Using House Price Data By Kauko, Tom
  34. Fruits, légumes et pommes de terre de consommation By Francoise Dosba; Benoit Jeannequin; Daniel Plénet; Jean Marie Codron; Marie Josephe Amiot-Carlin
  35. Pesticide safety risk, food chain organization, and the adoption of sustainable farming practices. The case of Moroccan early tomatoes By Magali Aubert; Zouhair Bouhsina; Jean Marie Codron; Sylvain Rousset
  36. Delinking Land Rights from Land Use: Certification and Migration in Mexico By Marco Gonzalez-Navarro; Kyle Emerick; Elisabeth Sadoulet; Alain de Janvry
  37. Briquettes From Solid Waste: A substitute For Charcoal in Burundi By M. Mizero; Théophile Ndikumana; Céline Gisèle Jung
  38. Managing Regional Public Goods for Health: Community-Based Dengue Vector Control By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  39. Ressources cognitives et développement territorial : une analyse textuelle appliquée aux politiques locales de développement durable By Gaël Plumecocq
  40. Des pommes, des poires et des pesticides. L'impact de l'hétérogénéité réglementaire en matière de résidus de pesticides sur le commerce international By Sophie Drogue; Federica DeMaria
  41. Escolhas Possíveis, Significados de Valor: um Panorama das Atividades dos Catadores de Materiais Recicláveis no Brasil By Beatriz Judice Magalhães

  1. By: Massimiliano Mazzanti (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy) and SEEDS, Ferrara (Italy).); Giovanni Marin (CERIS-CNR, Milano (Italy).); Susanna Mancinelli (Department of Economics and Management, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy) and SEEDS, Ferrara (Italy)); Francesco Nicolli (CERIS-CNR, Milano (Italy).)
    Abstract: Eco innovations in the climate change realm require pressures and knowledge from outside the firm's and sector's boundaries. The role of policies is well known, as a tool that potentially tackles two externalities: innovation and environmental market failures. Sector integration is also increasingly relevant for understanding the economic, environmental and innovation performances of countries. We integrate these two perspectives to provide evidence on the policy effects behind the adoption of eco innovations in EU sectors. We take a sector perspective by exploiting EU CIS data over 2006-2008. By using past CO2 emission intensity (CO2 on value added) as a proxy of policy stringency, we find that emission intensive sectors are more likely to adopt CO2-related eco-innovations. The aforementioned results are valid for both the economy as a whole and for industrial sectors specifically. We additionally show that not only environmental policies are important to sustain EI adoptions. Other 'external' drivers play a role. Looking at the role of inter sector integration and knowledge sources, we observe that sectors with more emission intensive upstream 'partners' eco-innovate more to reduce their CO2 footprints. The positive and significant effect of upstream emission intensity (supplier's emission intensity) is actually stronger than the effect of 'direct' CO2 emission intensity (policy effect).
    Keywords: environmental innovations, sector integration, induced effects, innovation adoption, NAMEA, Input output, EU, carbon abatement.
    JEL: O13 Q55
    Date: 2014–08
  2. By: Branca, Giacomo; Felix, Erika; Maltsoglou, Irini; Rincon, Luis E.; Thurlow, James
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the greenhouse gas emissions and economic impacts from producing biofuels in Tanzania. Sequentially-linked models capture natural resource constraints; emissions from land use change; economywide growth linkages; and household poverty
    Keywords: biofuels, economic growth, greenhouse gas emissions, poverty, Tanzania
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Sahbi Farhani; Muhammad Shahbaz
    Abstract: This study attempts to explore the causal relationship between renewable and nonrenewable electricity consumption, output and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions for 10 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries over the period of 1980–2009. The results from panel Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) and Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) estimates show that renewable and non-renewable electricity consumption add in CO2 emissions while output (real Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita) exhibits the inverted U-shaped relationship with CO2 emissions, i.e. environment Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis is validated. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality running from renewable and non-renewable electricity consumption and output to CO2 emissions. In the long-run, there appears to be bidirectional causality between electricity consumption (renewable and non-renewable) and CO2 emissions. The findings suggest that future reductions in CO2 emissions might be achieved at the cost of economic growth.
    Keywords: Electricity consumption; Output; CO2 emissions; MENA region.
    Date: 2014–07–24
  4. By: Sahbi Farhani; Muhammad Shahbaz; Mohamed Arouri
    Abstract: This paper empirically parallels two approaches: The first one follows the studies of Halicioglu (2009), Jalil and Mahmud (2009), and Jayanthakumaran et al. (2012) which attempt to introduce energy consumption and trade into the environmental function (related carbon dioxide ‘CO2’ emissions to Gross Domestic Product ‘GDP’); whereas the second approach extends the single work of Hossain (2011) which attempts to introduce urbanization as a means to circumvent omitted variable bias. For 11 Middle East and North African (MENA) countries over the period 1980-2009, the empirical results appear to be relevant in light of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) literature based on the cointegrated and causal relationship. Policy implications indicate that: i) more energy use, higher GDP and greater trade openness tend to cause more CO2 emissions; ii) the inclusion of urbanization in the environmental function improves the final results and positively affects the pollution level; and iii) MENA countries should search the best policy which can stabilize the rise of growth GDP and trade openness, and which can also control the continuous increase in the use of energy.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) literature, Panel data analysis, Middle East and North African (MENA) countries
    Date: 2014–07–24
  5. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Regional and Sustainable Development Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: This report—Green Growth, Resources, and Resilience—describes an evolving policy landscape characterized by a changing economic reality, rising demand for resources, increasingly apparent impacts of environmental and climate change, and increased risk and uncertainty. The report provides new insights into Asian and Pacific resource use trends and outlines key actions, including reforming economic incentives and promoting more inclusive and adaptive governance approaches, that governments can pursue to help bring economic growth strategies in closer alignment with the objective of sustainable development. It also provides examples of strategies for improving resilience to help deal with the increasing levels of risk faced by societies and economies. The report is the product of a combined effort by three institutions: the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). It is the sixth in a series of reports prepared by ESCAP for successive Ministerial Conferences on Environment and Development in Asia and the Pacific, and is the third in ADB’s Asian Environment Outlook series. It is also in line with the mandate of UNEP to keep the state of the environment under review. The report provides timely support to policymakers and other stakeholders as they prepare for the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio +20) and as they continue work to address persistent and emerging challenges on their way to more sustainable development.
    Keywords: adb, asian development bank, asdb, asia, pacific, poverty asia, environment, sustainable development, environmental sustainability, natural resources, environmental resources, use of natural resource, environmental resilience
    Date: 2012–02
  6. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Regional and Sustainable Development Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: Climate change will increase the frequency of extreme weather events, making more geographic places inhospitable to human habitation and secure livelihoods. This report presents a detailed picture of the potential impacts of climate change on migration in Asia and the Pacific. It draws upon a wealth of research to provide policy makers with informed analysis of an emerging phenomenon requiring urgent attention by governments and the international community. The report also suggests that climate-induced migration should be seen not only as a threat to human well-being but also as a potential tool to promote human adaptation to climate change.
    Keywords: adb, asian development bank, asdb, asia, pacific, poverty asia, climate change, climate change adaptation, climate change mitigation, migration, climate change induced migration, climate change effect on migration
    Date: 2012–03
  7. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Regional and Sustainable Development Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: This report aims to demonstrate how a rapid climate change impact assessment can be used to identify the possible impacts of climate change on a thermal power investment project. For this demonstration, the O MON IV Combined Cycle Power Station Project in Southern Viet Nam is used for illustrative purposes.
    Keywords: adb, asian development bank, asdb, asia, pacific, poverty asia, climate change, climate change impacts, climate impact assessment, climate change threats, climate change adaptation, energy, power plants, combined cycle power plants, energy projects, climate change impact assessments, power stations, energy investments
    Date: 2012–06
  8. By: Inocencio Rodriguez (Division of Resource Management, West Virginia University); Gerard D'Souza (Division of Resource Management, West Virginia University); Thomas Griggs (Division of Plant & Soil Sciences, West Virginia University)
    Abstract: Can sustainability be enhanced by maximizing the sum of private and social benefits from an industry? This might take place, for example, by identifying production options that increase profitability side-by-side with societal goals such as renewable energy production and carbon sequestration, healthier communities, environmental quality, and economic development. We explore this issue for pasture based beef (PBB), a nascent industry where industry profitability, community development, and quality of life can be enhanced by explicitly linking the PBB supply chain spatially and intertemporally, thereby increasing the sum of private and social benefits. We develop a framework based on optimal control theory that integrates a spatial component in which the production of PBB and alternative energy production as well as greenhouse gas emission reduction enhances private as well as social wealth. This model provides a basic foundation for developing agglomeration economies in a spatially dependent industry in which other locations are able to supply resources to given locations as a way of improving regional economic and environmental conditions. The framework is subsequently employed to identify possible industry conditions and configurations that demonstrate how profits, economic development, and environmental improvement can be created through increased pasture-beef production in a region where economic activities across locations play a crucial role across the spatial domain. Of course, the intensification of benefits derived from the agglomeration economies require coordination and cooperation among the key players within the impacted region.
    Keywords: spatial optimal control, pasture-based beef, on-farm energy, sustainability
    JEL: C21 Q4 Q5 Q56
    Date: 2013–04
  9. By: Nicola Brandt; Paul Schreyer; Vera Zipperer
    Abstract: This paper presents a productivity growth measure that explicitly accounts for natural capital as an input factor and for undesirable goods, or “bads”, as an output of the production process. The discussion focuses on the extension of productivity measurement for bad outputs and estimates of their shadow prices, while the inclusion of natural capital is discussed in more depth in a companion paper. As bad outputs are the target of environmental policies, a productivity measure that does not take bad outputs into account will underestimate productivity growth, whenever countries devote some inputs to reducing bad outputs, thus improving the environmental impact of their production processes, rather than to increasing the production of goods and services. An adjusted productivity measures is needed in an analysis of the effect of bad outputs on productivity growth as otherwise the effectiveness of environmental policies in promoting production processes that make more efficient use of the environment will be wrongly assessed. Results suggest that the adjustment of the traditional productivity growth measure for bad outputs is small. While this partly hinges on the fact, that due to a lack of more comprehensive data, only a limited set of bad outputs are considered in this paper, namely CO2, SOX and NOX emissions, the relatively small adjustment of the traditional productivity growth measure is good news for two reasons. First, it implies that ignoring the bad outputs considered in this paper results in a relatively small bias of productivity measurement, and thus analysis based on traditional measures should be relatively reliable in this regard. Second, it also implies that the acceleration in productivity growth that would help to substantially reduce the bad outputs considered in this paper, without reducing output growth, should be possible to achieve. Une mesure de productivité avec capital naturel et des produits indésirables Ce rapport présente une mesure de croissance de la productivité qui inclut explicitement le capital naturel et des produits non-désirables, ou des « bads », comme outputs du processus de production. La discussion se focalise sur l’extension de la mesure de croissance de productivité qui provient des « bad outputs » et sur l’estimation des leurs prix virtuels, alors que l’inclusion du capital naturel est discuté plus en détail dans un autre papier. Une mesure de productivité qui ne prend pas en compte des produits non-désirés est susceptible de sous-estimer la croissance de productivité chaque fois qu’un pays dédie quelques entrants à la réduction de ces produits non-désirables, pour ainsi améliorer l’impact environnemental de ses processus de production, plutôt qu’à la croissance de la production des biens (désirables) et des services. Comme les produits non-désirables sont la cible de la politique environnementale, une analyse de comment celle-ci impacte sur la croissance de productivité requiert une mesure qui inclut les « bad outputs «, comme celle présentée dans ce papier. Sinon, il y a peu d’espoir d’obtenir une évaluation correcte de l’impact des politiques environnementales sur la promotion des processus de production qui utilisent l’environnement avec plus d’efficacité. Les résultats présentés dans ce papier suggèrent que l’ajustement de la mesure traditionnelle de croissance de productivité pour des produits non-désirables est faible. Ceci est en partie dû au fait que, faute d’avoir accès à des donnés plus complètes, les produits non-désirables inclut dans ce papier se limitent aux émissions des dioxydes de carbon (CO2), des oxydes de soufre (SOX) et des oxydes d’azote (NOX). Néanmoins, l’ajustement relativement faible de la mesure de croissance de productivité est une bonne nouvelle pour deux raisons. Premièrement, ceci implique qu’ignorer les produits non-désirables considérés dans ce papier mène à un biais de la mesure de croissance de productivité relativement faible et donc les analyses basées sur des mesures traditionnelles de croissance de productivité devraient être assez fiables. Deuxièmement, ce résultat implique aussi que l’accélération de la croissance de productivité qui contribuerait à réduire substantiellement les produits non-désirables considérés dans ce papier, sans pour autant réduire la croissance de la production des biens et des services, devrait être atteignable.
    Keywords: natural capital stock, emission shadow prices, multi-factor productivity, nitrogen oxide emissions, sulphur oxide emissions, carbon dioxide emissions, green productivity, total factor productivity, productivité globale des facteurs, productivité verte, stock de capital naturel, émissions dioxydes de carbon, émissions des oxydes d’azote., productivité multifacteurs, prix sous-jacents des émissions, émissions oxydes de soufre
    JEL: D24 O47 Q3 Q52 Q53
    Date: 2014–07–24
  10. By: Eleni Stathopoulou
    Abstract: In an international duopoly context, where two goods are produced by two firms located in two separate countries, F and NF, we study the issue of firms' environmental technology choice. When consumers in country F are environmentally aware, in the sense that they care about emissions in their own country, it is shown that the firm in country F adopts a cleaner technology compared to the firm in country NF. Moreover, leakage appears, as the demand by consumers in country F shifts to the good produced by the firm in country NF. This, in turn, provides a rationale for raising awareness among consumers in country F about the effects of their consumption on pollution in country NF. Thereby, this paper adds to the existing literature by analysing how this increased awareness may affect consumers' demand for the domestic and the foreign good and, therefore, firms' endogenous technology choice. Also, changes in each country's and aggregate pollution are examined in order to assess whether having domestic consumers aware of foreign emissions could be considered as an option for tackling leakage.
    Date: 2014–07
  11. By: Claassen, Roger; Duquette, Eric; Horowitz, John; Kohei, Ueda
    Abstract: Conservation payments lead to improvement in environmental quality only if farmers and ranchers who receive them adopt conservation practices that would not have been adopted without the payment. When a voluntary payment causes a change in practice(s) that lead(s) to improved environmental quality, these changes are “additional.” We estimate this “additionality” for a number of common conservation practices that are frequently supported by existing conservation programs. We find that the level of additionality varies by practice and that additionality is high for structural and vegetative practices while the risk of nonadditionality appears to be higher for management practices. While the risk of nonadditionality cannot be completely eliminated, it can be reduced. We discuss a number of approaches to managing nonadditionality in both conservation programs and environmental offset programs.
    Keywords: Additionality, conservation programs, conservation practices, conservation payments, offsets, greenhouse gas, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2014–07
  12. By: Jean Chateau; Bertrand Magné; Laura Cozzi
    Abstract: In its 2012 edition of the World Energy Outlook, the International Energy Agency (IEA) produced an Efficient World Scenario (IEA, 2012) to assess how implementing only economically viable energy efficiency measures would affect energy markets, investment and greenhouse emissions (GHG). The IEA analysis found that in order to halve global primary energy demand over 2010-2035, additional investments of USD 11.8 trillion in more efficient end-use technologies would be necessary. Using the OECD ENV-Linkages macro-economic model, this report simulates the economic and environmental impacts which the IEA Efficient World Scenario implies... Dans son Edition 2012 du « World Energy Outlook », l’Agence Internationale de l’Énergie a élaborée un Scénario pour un monde plus efficace (IEA, 2012) visant à déterminer comment des mesures d’efficacité énergétiques viable affecteront les marchés de l’énergie, les investissements et les émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES). L’analyse de l’IEA indique que pour diminuer de moitié la demande d’énergie primaire sur l’horizon 2010-2035, près de 11.8 trillions USD d’investissement supplémentaires dans les technologies plus efficace en énergie sont nécessaires. Utilisant le modèle ENV-Linkages de l’OCDE, ce rapport détaille les conséquences économiques et environnementales du Scénario pour un monde plus efficace.
    Keywords: computable general equilibrium, climate change policy, macroeconomic, energy efficiency, efficacité énergétique, équilibre général calculable, macroéconomique, politique du changement climatique
    JEL: D58 E2 Q43 Q54
    Date: 2014–06–11
  13. By: Ian Sue Wing; Elisa Lanzi
    Abstract: This paper presents a framework to include feedbacks from climate impacts on the economy in integrated assessment models. The proposed framework uses a production function approach, which links climate impacts to key variables and parameters used in the specification of economic activity. The key endpoints within climate impact categories are linked to the relevant connections for a range of sectors in the economy. The paper pays particular attention to the challenges of distinguishing between damages and the costs of adapting to climate change. The paper also reviews existing studies and available data that can be used to establish linkages between climate impacts and key variables within economic models. There is considerable heterogeneity across the timing and geographic distribution of changes in climatic variables, the consequent changes in key physical and biogeochemical “endpoints” that might occur over time and space, and the magnitude of the resulting damages that these effects are likely to impose on the range of sectors in the economy. The review underlines the uncertainty involved in each of these dimensions and the research needs for the future. Le présent document expose une méthodologie visant à inclure, de façon systématique, les effets économiques consécutifs aux impacts du changement climatique dans les modèles d'évaluation intégrée. La méthode proposée se fonde sur le concept de la fonction de production, en reliant les différents impacts environnementaux associé au changement climatiques à leurs effets sur les variables et les paramètres clés des modèles utilisées pour décrire les mécanismes et interactions économiques. Il s’agit d’associer les principaux impacts environnementaux aux différentes activités économiques qu’ils sont appelés à impacter. Le document accorde une attention particulière à la difficulté de distinguer les coûts de l'adaptation au changement climatique des dégâts dus à ce changement. Le document passe également en revue les études existantes ainsi que les données disponibles qui peuvent être utilisées pour établir des liens entre les impacts climatiques et les variables clés dans les modèles économiques. Cette revue de littérature souligne les très fortes disparités spatiales et chronologiques des modifications environnementales dues au changement climatique, et par conséquent une forte hétérogénéité que ces impacts physiques et biogéochimiques sont susceptibles de poser à l'ensemble des secteurs de l'économie, tant dans leur amplitude que sur le plan géographique ou temporel. L’analyse souligne l'incertitude liée à chacune de ces dimensions et les besoins de la recherche pour l'avenir.
    Keywords: integrated assessment modelling, adaptation, climate change, changement climatique, adaptation, modélisation de l’évaluation intégrée
    JEL: Q50 Q54 Q59
    Date: 2014–06–11
  14. By: Latruffe, Laure; Salanié, Julien; Minvie, Jean Joseph
    Abstract: Using data from individual transactions for the period 1994-2010 in the French NUTS2 region Brittany, the authors investigated how environmental regulations and transaction land regulations influence the price of sold plots. Regressions on three sub-samples of buyers were performed in order to assess whether different buyers have different attitudes or plans regarding the farmland purchased: a sub-sample including only farmer-buyers, a sub-sample including non-farmer individual buyers, and a sub-sample including non-farmer non-individual buyers. Estimations were performed ignoring and accounting for spatial interactions (model SARAR). Results indicate that the price of land decreases when buyers are farmers, that the nitrate surplus area zoning increases the price of land, even more so for farmer-buyers. Regarding land transaction regulations, there is a negative effect, on land price, of the purchaser being the current tenant or being the land regulating public body SAFER. Estimating the model on different sub-samples depending on the buyers’ type shed light on the factors that are more important for each buyer.
    Keywords: land, environmental regulations, land transactions, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2013–06–17
  15. By: Le, Quang Bao; Nkonya, Ephraim; Mirzabaev, Alisher
    Abstract: Land degradation is a global problem affecting negatively the livelihoods and food security of billions of people, especially farmers and pastoralists in the developing countries. Eradicating extreme poverty without adequately addressing land degradation is highly unlikely. Given the importance and magnitude of the problem, there have been recurring efforts by the international community to identify the extent and severity of land degradation in global scale. As discussed in this paper, many previous studies were challenged by lack of appropriate data or shortcomings of their methodological approaches. In this paper, using global level remotely sensed vegetation index data, we identify the hotspots of land degradation in the world across major land cover types. In doing so, we use the long-term trend of inter-annual vegetation index as an indicator of biomass production decline or improvement. Besides the elimination of technical factors, confounding the relationship between the indicator and the biomass production of the land, we apply a methodology which accounts for masking effects of both inter-annual rainfall variation and atmospheric fertilization. We also delineate the areas where chemical fertilization could be hiding the inherent land degradation processes. Our findings show that land degradation hotpots cover about 29% of global land area and are happening in all agro-ecologies and land cover types. Land degradation is especially massive in grasslands. About 3.2 billion people reside in these degrading areas. However, the number of people affected by land degradation is likely to be higher as more people depend on the continuous flow of ecosystem goods and services from these affected areas. As we note in the paper, this figure, although, does not include all possible areas with degraded lands, it identifies those areas where land degradation is most acute and requires priority actions in both in-depth research and management measures to combat land degradation. Our findings indicate that, in fact, land improvement has also occurred in about 2.7% of global land area during the last three decades, providing a support that with appropriate actions land degradation trend could be reversed, and that the efforts to address land degradation need to be substantially increased, at least by a factor, to attain the vision of Zero Net Land Degradation. We also identify concrete aspects in which these results should be interpreted with caution, the limitations of this work and the key areas for future research.
    Keywords: land degradation hotspots, mapping, carbon fertilization, Economics of Land Degradation, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade, Land Economics/Use, Q01, Q15, Q23, Q24, Q56,
    Date: 2014–07
  16. By: Almer, Christian; Boes, Stefan; Nuesch, Stephan
    Date: 2013
  17. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Regional and Sustainable Development Department, ADB); In-Ho Keum;
    Abstract: Climate change will increase the frequency of extreme weather events, making more geographic places inhospitable to human habitation and secure livelihoods. This report presents a detailed picture of the potential impacts of climate change on migration in Asia and the Pacific. It draws upon a wealth of research to provide policy makers with informed analysis of an emerging phenomenon requiring urgent attention by governments and the international community. The report also suggests that climate-induced migration should be seen not only as a threat to human well-being but also as a potential tool to promote human adaptation to climate change.
    Keywords: adb, asian development bank, asdb, asia, pacific, poverty asia, water, water supply, sanitation, water supply and sanitation, water resources, water sector
    Date: 2011–10
  18. By: Rigoberto A. Lopez (University of Connecticut; University of Connecticut); Nataliya Plesha (University of Connecticut)
    Abstract: This report, produced at the request of the Dairy Committee of the Connecticut Farm Bureau Association, assess es the economic and dairy farm sustainability impacts of Connecticut’s Public Act 09 - 229 . Th e Act established a dairy farm sustainability and safety net program by providing payments to dairy farmers when ever the federal milk price falls below a minimum sustainable monthly cost of production . The Act has provide d $ 1 6. 72 million in payments between 2010 and 2012. T o this end, three supportive objectives are pursued: 1) to examine recent trends in Connecticut dairy farming and policies; 2) to assess the impact of the Act on dairy farming sustainability; and 3) to assess the economic impact of payments under the Act. The focus is on dairy farming and does not take into account impacts beyond the farm gate or impacts on open space and other environmental benefits.
    Date: 2013–04
  19. By: Arndt, Channing; Asante, Felix; Thurlow, James
    Abstract: Long-run economic development in Ghana is potentially vulnerable to anthropogenic climate change given the country.s dependence on rainfed agriculture, hydropower, and unpaved rural roads. We use a computable general equilibrium model, informed by detaile
    Keywords: climate change, economic impacts, CGE model, Ghana
    Date: 2014
  20. By: Olexandr Petushyns’ky (Powislanska School); Karolina Oszwa (Powislanska School)
    Abstract: This article attempts to present ecological consequences of human activities in the context of exploration and future extraction of shale gas. This topic is at the present time very timely because of the implementation of the exploration wells in Pomerania and Lublin Region, the prevailing unrest in the areas of concessions, as well as the lack of scientific basis and sufficient legal – economics basis to enter into the production phase. The article dare the argument that the potential environmental damage from the extraction of shale gas using hydraulic fracturing are not explored enough to take the risk of industrial production. The paper used the method of literature analysis, case studies, statistical analysis based on GUS and PIG data, induction-deduction analysis, analysis-synthesis and comparisons analysis. Based on the U.S. experience, mentioned in the text, as well as current research on the introduction of other methods of extracting shale gas and recommendations of the European Union cannot be concluded that the production of unconventional gas in Poland will not cause adverse environmental and health effects.
    Keywords: extraction of shale gas, ecological consequences,
    Date: 2013–02
  21. By: Dolores de la Mata; Mauricio G. Valencia-Amaya
    Abstract: This paper studies the link between severe weather shocks in Colombia and municipality-level incidence of dengue and malaria. The unexpectedly high variability of the 2010 rainfalls relative to previous periods and their regional heterogeneity are exploited as an identification strategy. A differences-indifferences DD) strategy is thereby implemented where the period 2007-2009 is defined as the pre-treatment period and 2010-2011 as the post-treatment period. The treatment group is all municipalities that experienced higher intra-year rain variability in 2010 than in 2007-2009. The results from the different specifications confirm that the relationship between climate events and vector-borne diseases is intricate. The 2010 weather shocks are associated with not only an increase in the number of dengue cases, in the case of high variability (but not extreme) yearly rain, but also a decrease in its incidence, in particular in the presence of extreme rain events. Floods seem to have decreased the number of dengue cases.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Human health, Climate variability, Weather shocks, Vector-borne diseases, Dengue
    Date: 2014–07
  22. By: Chiara Criscuolo; Carlo Menon
    Abstract: Start-up firms play a crucial role in bringing to the market the innovations needed to move to a greener growth path. Risk finance is essential for allowing new ventures to commercialise new ideas and grow, especially in emerging sectors. Still, very little is known about the drivers and the characteristics of risk finance in the green sector. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a detailed description of risk finance in the green sector across 29 OECD and BRIICS countries over the period 2005-2010 and identifying the role that policies might have in shaping high-growth investments in this sector. Results are drawn from a comprehensive deal-level database of businesses seeking financing in the green industry combined with indicators of renewable policies and government R&D expenditures. The results suggest that both supply-side policies and environmental deployment policies, designed with a long-term perspective of creating a market for environmental technologies, are associated with higher levels of risk finance relative to more short-term fiscal policies, such as tax incentives and rebates. In addition, when focusing on renewable energy generation, the results confirm the positive association of generous feed-in tariffs (FITs) with risk-finance investment. However in the solar sector excessively generous FITs tend to discourage investment. Politiques de l'environnement et financement par capital-risque dans le secteur vert : Données internationales Les jeunes entreprises jouent un rôle fondamental dans la mise sur le marché des innovations nécessaires à l’évolution vers une trajectoire de croissance plus respectueuse de l’environnement. Le financement par capital-risque est essentiel pour leur permettre de croître et de commercialiser de nouvelles idées, notamment dans les secteurs émergents. Pourtant, les déterminants et les caractéristiques de ce financement dans le secteur vert sont toujours en grande partie méconnus. Le présent document vise à combler cette lacune en décrivant de façon détaillée le financement par capital-risque dans le secteur vert dans 29 pays de l’OCDE et BRIICS au cours de la période 2005-2010, et en mettant en évidence l’influence qu’ont pu avoir les politiques publiques sur la configuration des investissements dans les entreprises à forte croissance de ce secteur. Les résultats proviennent d’une vaste base de données des transactions des entreprises du secteur vert à la recherche de financements, qui a été croisée avec des indicateurs des politiques relatives aux énergies renouvelables et des dépenses publiques de R-D. Ils donnent à penser qu’aussi bien les politiques agissant sur l’offre que les politiques de déploiement conçues dans une perspective à long terme pour créer un marché pour les technologiques environnementales donnent lieu à un volume plus important de financement par capital-risque que des mesures budgétaires à plus court terme comme les incitations fiscales et les allégements d’impôts. En outre, les résultats concernant la production d’énergie renouvelable confirment la corrélation positive entre tarifs d’achat généreux et investissements en capital-risque. Cela étant, les tarifs d’achat excessivement généreux dans la filière solaire ont tendance à décourager l’investissement.
    Date: 2014–03–31
  23. By: Charilaos Kephaliacos (LEREPS Laboratoire d'Etude et de Recherche sur l'Economie, les Politiques et les Systèmes Sociaux - 2 Rue du Doyen-Gabriel-Marty 31042 Toulouse FR, Université Toulouse - Capitole (Toulouse 1)); Jean Pierre Del Corso (LEREPS Laboratoire d'Etude et de Recherche sur l'Economie, les Politiques et les Systèmes Sociaux - 2 Rue du Doyen-Gabriel-Marty 31042 Toulouse FR, Université Toulouse - Capitole (Toulouse 1)); Geneviève N'Guyen (INRA -  FR, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique); Henri Tavernier
    Abstract: Le dernier rapport d'expertise de l'INRA-CEMAGREF met en avant la nécessité, d'une part, de référencer les différentes pratiques alternatives utiles pour réduire les impacts environnementaux liés à l'emploi de pesticides, et d'autre part, de considérer les conditions d'adoption et de mise en oeuvre de ces pratiques tant au niveau de l'exploitation agricole qu'au niveau de son environnement économique et social. Notre étude s'inscrit dans le cadre d'un projet de recherche PSDR/CCRDT Midi-Pyrénées visant à analyser les conditions d'adoption de techniques alternatives et innovantes en matière d'utilisation de phytosanitaires en agriculture. Nous nous sommes intéressés plus précisément au processus de la transmission de l'information technique qui accompagne la mise en oeuvre d'un projet innovant de MAET-DCE portée par une coopérative située sur un bassin versant de Midi-Pyrénées. Ce processus en cours a été analysé en mobilisant l'économie institutionnaliste. Pour aborder la question de la gestion des risques d'adoption des nouvelles pratiques par les acteurs parties prenantes nous avons préalablement mobilisé des approches traitant de l'incertitude (typologie des situations d'incertitude) et des modalités actuelles du conseil en agriculture (cadrage technique). Du point de vue économique et à partir du cas étudié, nous avons proposé une nouvelle interprétation des phénomènes pouvant avoir lieu lors de la mise en oeuvre des politiques environnementales visant le changement des pratiques de production et touchant de fait un ensemble de partenaires comme ceux intervenant dans une filière de production agroalimentaire. L'action de la coopérative est au centre de la création conjointe de plusieurs catégories de biens via plusieurs types des coordinations entre les acteurs concernés, individuels, collectifs ou d'organismes privés ou publics. Ce type de production jointe va au delà des phénomènes déjà identifiée dans la littérature économique à propos de la multifonctionnalité de l'agriculture et la gestion des ressources naturelles en général. Ils concernent plus particulièrement les processus d'apprentissage et la création multi-partenariale de connaissances nécessaires au changement technique mais aussi institutionnel qui est proposé ou imposé dans une optique de développement durable.
    Abstract: Adoption of pesticides reducing agricultural practices. The role of collective learning Based on an original multi-partnership experience of agri-environmental measure (MAET-DCE) carried by a cooperative, this study aims to analyse the role of collective learning on the reduction of risks associated with the adoption of alternative agricultural practices. The process of transmission of technical information and the associated forms of coordination have been analysed using a conceptual framework inspired by works done in institutional economics on uncertainty and extension service in agriculture. The analysis shows that the cooperative is at the center of the joint production of different categories of goods, based on different types of informational transactions
    Keywords: apprentissage collectif, conseil, coûts de transaction, incertitude, mesures agri-environnementales, produits phytosanitaires, bassin versant Adour-Garonne, collective learning, extension service, transaction costs, uncertainty, agri-environmental measures, pesticides, the Adour-Garonne River Basin
    Date: 2013
  24. By: Rodrigo García Ayala; Andrés Estrugo
    Abstract: Climate change is imposing a large burden on the most vulnerable populations, particularly in the developing world. Establishing consistent causal relationships, however, is difficult because a multiplicity of climatic, economic and sociodemographic elements are combined to create the conditions for an outbreak of vector-borne disease. Based on a two-step procedure, this paper presents and tests an approach to estimating the effects of epidemic outbreaks on health vulnerability. The model proposed is empirically tested for five countries in Latin America where dengue is a national health priority. Using data from national censuses, satellite climate information and data from a newly developed disease outbreak surveillance online platform, the paper finds that climate has nonnegligible effects on health vulnerability. The evidence found and the vulnerability index constructed can be used to analyze the main determinants of vulnerability in order to address policy concerns.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Human health, Vulnerability, Climate change, Socioeconomic conditions, Vectorborne diseases, Factor analysis
    Date: 2014–07
  25. By: Kruse, Juergen (Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln); Wetzel, Heike (Energiewirtschaftliches Institut an der Universitaet zu Koeln)
    Abstract: We examine the effect of energy prices and technological knowledge on innovation in green energy technologies. In doing so, we consider both demand-pull effects, which induce innovative activity by increasing the expected value of innovations, and technology-push effects, which drive innovative activity by extending the technological capability of an economy. Our analysis is conducted using patent data from the European Patent Office on a panel of 26 OECD countries over the period 1978-2009. Utilizing a dynamic count data model for panel data, we analyze 11 distinct green energy technologies. Our results indicate that the existing knowledge stock is a significant driver of green energy innovation for all technologies. Furthermore, the results suggest that energy prices have a positive impact on innovation for some but not all technologies and that the effect of energy prices and technological knowledge on green energy innovation becomes more pronounced after the Kyoto protocol agreement in 1997.
    Keywords: Green energy technologies; innovation; patents; demand-pull; technology-push; dynamic count data model
    JEL: C33 O31 Q40 Q42 Q55
    Date: 2014–07–31
  26. By: Julie Rozenberg (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Céline Guivarch (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Robert Lempert (RAND Corp - RAND Corp); Stéphane Hallegatte (SDN - Sustainable Developpment Network - The World Bank)
    Abstract: The scientific community is now developing a new set of scenarios, referred to as Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) that will be contrasted along two axes: challenges to mitigation, and challenges to adaptation. This paper proposes a methodology to develop SSPs with a "backwards" approach based on (i) an a priori identification of potential drivers of mitigation and adaptation challenges; (ii) a modelling exercise to transform these drivers into a large set of scenarios; (iii) an a posteriori selection of a few SSPs among these scenarios using statistical cluster-finding algorithms. This backwards approach could help inform the development of SSPs to ensure the storylines focus on the driving forces most relevant to distinguishing between the SSPs. In this illustrative analysis, we find that energy sobriety, equity and convergence prove most important towards explaining future difference in challenges to adaptation and mitigation. The results also demonstrate the difficulty in finding explanatory drivers for a middle scenario (SSP2). We argue that methodologies such as that used here are useful for broad questions such as the definition of SSPs, and could also be applied to any specific decisions faced by decision-makers in the field of climate change.
    Keywords: socio-economic scenarios, scenario discovery, mitigation, adaptation
    Date: 2014–01–01
  27. By: Julien Daubanes; Saraly Andrade de Sá
    Abstract: This study analyses the economic rent generated by the exploitation of a non-renewable resource, and the taxation of this rent. We present a synthetic model of a non-renewable-resource sector where deposits must be costly developed before they are exploited; the analysis emphasizes the effect of resource taxation on the discouragement to the development of new reserves. We discuss the limitations of neutral profit-taxation schemes and examine the distortions caused by various resource-taxation systems on the rent and its allocation: tax evasion, royalty-induced distortions, imperfect tax commitment, agency issues... We also discuss the measurement of resource rents for taxation purposes, and issues with the management of the resource tax income. Taxer la rente d'exploitation des ressources non renouvelables : Une note théorique Cette étude analyse la rente générée par l'exploitation d'une ressource non renouvelable, ainsi que la taxation de cette rente. Dans un modèle simple, nous représentons une industrie minière dont les gisements de ressource non renouvelable, pour être exploités, requièrent des efforts de développement ; l'analyse porte principalement sur les effets néfastes de la taxation sur la production de nouvelles ressources. Nous évoquons les limites à la possibilité théorique de ponctionner les profits de manière neutre, puis examinons les distorsions impliquées par les systèmes de taxation existants : évasion fiscale, capacité d'engagement limitée, redevances distorsives, problèmes d'agence... Nous discutons également les manières d'évaluer les rentes à taxer, et les problèmes relatifs à la gestion des revenus fiscaux issus des secteurs miniers.
    Keywords: resource rents, tax distortions, non-renewable resources, tax income management, ressources non renouvelables, rentes minières, distorsions fiscales, gestion des revenus fiscaux
    JEL: H20 Q30
    Date: 2014–07–21
  28. By: Paul D’Arcy
    Abstract: Pacific open ocean fisheries are classic examples of the tragedy of the commons where a lack of defined ownership results in competitive overexploitation by multiple parties. Such circumstances exist over most Pacific seas beyond site of land due to scarce monitoring resources. Voluntary conservation regimes are not working, as fisheries decline substantially. The Pacific has diverse management regimes and approaches, gaps between recommended principles of management and certain practices, and a need for more comprehensive data on assumptions underlying management regimes, especially marine protected areas. Compliance regimes can be enhanced through greater consultation and incorporation of stakeholders in policy-making and enforcement, devoting more resources to monitoring and enforcement, and integrating sustainable management regimes with national economic development needs. The focus of ocean policy primarily on fisheries issues needs to be broadened to include consideration of the compatible use of seabed minerals and biota with medicinal benefit.
    Keywords: Pacific Islands; offshore resource zones; voluntary compliance regimes
  29. By: GAUDET, Gérard; SALANT, Stephen W.
    Abstract: The purpose of this chapter is to provide an elementary introduction to the non-renewable resource model with multiple demand curves. The theoretical literature following Hotelling (1931) assumed that all energy needs are satisfied by one type of resource (e.g. ‘oil’), extractible at different per-unit costs. This formulation implicitly assumes that all users are the same distance from each resource pool, that all users are subject to the same regulations, and that motorist users can switch as easily from liquid fossil fuels to coal as electric utilities can. These assumptions imply, as Herfindahl (1967) showed, that in competitive equilibrium all users will exhaust a lower cost resource completely before beginning to extract a higher cost resource: simultaneous extraction of different grades of oil or of oil and coal should never occur. In trying to apply the single-demand curve model during the last twenty years, several teams of authors have independently found a need to generalize it to account for users differing in their (1) location, (2) regulatory environment, or (3) resource needs. Each research team found that Herfindahl's strong, unrealistic conclusion disappears in the generalized model; in its place, a weaker Herfindahl result emerges. Since each research team focussed on a different application, however, it has not always been clear that everyone has been describing the same generalized model. Our goal is to integrate the findings of these teams and to exposit the generalized model in a form which is easily accessible.
    Date: 2013
  30. By: Birgit Bednar–Friedl (University of Graz); Karl Farmer (University of Graz)
    Abstract: Harvest costs can reduce the incentive to overexploit a renewable resource stock, particularly when costs are stock dependent. This paper compares different types of harvest costs in a renewable resource based overlapping generations (OLG) model in which resource harvest competes with commodity production for labor. We analyze under which conditions a stationary state market equilibrium exists and whether this equilibrium is intergenerationally efficient. We find that stock dependent harvest costs favor the existence of an equilibrium and that a positive own rate of return on the resource stock is no longer necessary for intergenerational efficiency. Whether constant or inversely stock dependent, harvest cost in general equilibrium necessitate the inquiry of a positive resource stock price to ensure the existence of a stationary state market equilibrium.
    Keywords: natural resources; harvest costs; overlapping generations; existence; efficiency
    JEL: Q20 D90 C62
    Date: 2014–07
  31. By: Xavier Irz (MTT Agrifood Research Finland); Pascal Leroy (Alimentation et Sciences Sociales, INRA); Vincent Requillart (Groupe de Recherche en Economie Mathématique et Quantitative, INRA); Louis Georges Soler (Alimentation et Sciences Sociales, INRA); Olivier Allais (Alimentation et Sciences Sociales, INRA)
    Abstract: Because food choices have important implications for human health and the environment, consumers are increasingly urged to modify their purchasing and eating habits so as to comply with a set of norms (e.g., eat at least five portions of fruits & vegetables a day; reduce meat consumption). However, the effect of compliance with those norms on the composition of the entire diet is uncertain because of potentially complex substitutions. To lift this uncertainty, we propose a model which extends the theory of the consumer under rationing to the case of multiple linear constraints. The effect on the diet of compliance with norms is derived from information on consumer preferences (price and expenditure elasticities of demand), consumption levels, and technical coefficients for each food (e.g., nutritional composition, GHG emissions). The model is then used to simulate how the French diet would respond to a five percent increase in fruit and vegetable consumption, as well as the related changes in diet quality and greenhouse gas emissions.
    Keywords: food choice, sustainability, rationing, sustainable diet, france
    Date: 2013
  32. By: Kevin Levillain (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Blanche Segrestin (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: CSR research is generally based on the assumption that responsible behaviour is compatible with the legal framework of the firm and its standard strategic approaches. Could this hypothesis be misleading? This paper exhibits some recent practical innovations in the USA that have had to move away from the CSR research framework to provide a more constructive approach to social and environmental impacts. The new legal provisions in question revise the legal framework of firms and their corporate purposes. Such innovations suggest that management science research should study how to improve interactions between the well-acknowledged 'strategic attention' and often overlooked legal contracts, with a view to imagining new forms of collective action.
    Date: 2014–06
  33. By: Kauko, Tom
    Abstract: Real estate is today seen through the widespread sustainability discourse where buildings and land use occupies a core position. Land and buildings are also subject to sustainability evaluations along environmental, social, cultural and economic dimensions. In this paper cross-sectional data on house prices and sales volumes from Budapest, Hungary, for the period 2000-09 are analysed using time-windows generated by the self-organizing map (SOM) algorithms. In particular, upper-market cases are related to sustainable innovations insofar as such exist, which is examined using interviews and field inspection. The results however suggest that such features are largely absent in the period of data collection, although future markets are likely to be different in this respect.
    Date: 2013
  34. By: Francoise Dosba (Amélioration Génétique et Adaptation des Plantes méditerranéennes et Tropicales, INRA); Benoit Jeannequin (Domaine Expérimental Alénya-Roussillon, INRA); Daniel Plénet (Unité de recherche Plantes et Systèmes de Culture Horticoles, INRA); Jean Marie Codron (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA); Marie Josephe Amiot-Carlin (Nutrition, Obésité et Risque Thrombotique , INRA)
    Abstract: Pour répondre à la problématique de l’amélioration des performances économiques et environnementales des systèmes de culture de fruits, légumes et pomme de terre, le contexte macro-économique sera présenté dans un premier temps afin de situer leur importance et leur positionnement sur le plan de la compétitivité économique. Dans un deuxième temps, seront analysés les impacts des systèmes de culture sur l’environnement et les leviers d’actions techniques à mettre en Å“uvre pour conjuguer performances économiques et écologiques. La dernière partie identifiera les leviers organisationnels à développer pour favoriser l’adoption de ces systèmes de production durables.
    Keywords: france, europefruit et légume, pomme de terre, filière, système de culturecompétitivitéagriculture durable, mode de productionrisque environnemental
    Date: 2013
  35. By: Magali Aubert (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA); Zouhair Bouhsina (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA); Jean Marie Codron (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA); Sylvain Rousset (UR ADBX, Institut National de Recherche en Sciences et Technologies pour l'Environnement et l'Agriculture)
    Abstract: Fresh produce pesticide safety risk has grown into a major concern of North European consumers and governments for the last twenty years. Our study expands on safety control issues and gives insights into how fresh vegetable chains organize to comply with retail private safety standards and thus get access to export and modern domestic markets. Most studies on the adoption of good agricultural practice certifications and integrated pest management overlook the influence of food chain organization. Building on Transaction Cost Economics, our paper aims to fill this gap by studying the influence of vertical linkages, more precisely the incentives and managerial procedures crafted by packing stations in order to control farmers'behavior and manage the pesticide safety risk. Two surveys have been conducted to that purpose in the Moroccan SoussMassa-Drâa region. Our first survey of thirty tomato packers provides only mixed results about our first hypothesis: that the more the supply chain is integrated (from contracted growers to full ownership) the more the control of pesticide safety risk is achieved through direct supervision rather than outcome-based incentives. Our second survey of 86 producers confirms that integrated chains are more efficient in safeguarding specific investments in safety management, which results in greater diffusion of biocontrol and good agricultural practice certification within the greenhouses that are owned by private packers rather than independent farmers.
    Abstract: La sécurité sanitaire pour les fruits et légumes frais est depuis une vingtaine d’années une préoccupation majeure pour les consommateurs et les gouvernements, notamment ceux du Nord de l’Europe. Notre étude s’intéresse au contrôle de la sécurité sanitaire pour les filières de légumes frais. Elle précise notamment comment s’organisent ces filières pour se conformer aux standards privés de la grande distribution et ainsi pouvoir accéder aux marchés d’exportation et aux marchés nationaux dits modernes. La plupart des travaux traitant de l’adoption de référentiels certifiés de bonnes pratiques agricoles ou de techniques de protection intégrée ne prennent pas en compte l’organisation de la filière et les interactions entre les acteurs de cette filière. Pour pallier ce manque, l’article analyse l’influence des relations verticales en se basant sur la Théorie des Coûts de Transaction. Plus précisément, on considère les incitations et les procédures de gestion mises en Å“uvre par les stations de conditionnement pour contrôler les producteurs et gérer le risque lié aux pesticides. Deux enquêtes ont été réalisées dans la région du Souss-Massa-Drâa au Maroc. La première considère trente stations spécialisées en tomate. Elle fournit des résultats contrastés quant à l’hypothèse selon laquelle, plus la filière est intégrée et plus le contrôle est réalisé à travers une supervision directe, et moins à travers la mise en Å“uvre d’un système incitatif. La seconde enquête considère 86 producteurs. Elle confirme que les filières les plus intégrées sont les plus efficaces en termes de protection des investissements spécifiques dans la production raisonnée. L’adoption de la lutte biologique et des référentiels de bonnes pratiques agricoles est ainsi plus importante lorsque les serres sont détenues par des stations privées, plutôt que par des producteurs indépendants des stations.
    Keywords: food safety, pesticides, integrated pest management, IPM, good agricultural practices, gap, transaction costs, vertical organization, fresh vegetables, sécurité sanitaire, norme, protection intégréefruit, legume frais, produit frais, intégration verticale, filière fruits et légumes, tomatepesticidecoût de transactionmaroc
    Date: 2013
  36. By: Marco Gonzalez-Navarro (University of Toronto); Kyle Emerick (UC Berkeley); Elisabeth Sadoulet (University of California at Berkeley); Alain de Janvry (University of California at Berkeley)
    Abstract: We show that removing the link between active land use and ownership through certification can result in increased outmigration. Using the rollout of the Mexican land certification program from 1993 to 2006 we find that households obtaining land certificates were subsequently 28% more likely to have a migrant member. This response was differentiated by initial land endowments, land quality, outside wages, and initial land security, as predicted by our model. Effects on land under cultivation were heterogeneous: in high land quality regions land under cultivation increased while in low quality ones it declined.
    Date: 2014
  37. By: M. Mizero; Théophile Ndikumana; Céline Gisèle Jung
    Abstract: In Burundi, the problem of solid waste management is acute as dependence on wood and charcoal as solid fuel is creating a major problem of deforestation [1]. The purpose of this work is to promote material and energy valorization of solid waste in Bujumbura where a preliminary study has been realized showing the inventory with the composition and the quantification of MSW (0.6 kg/day.capita). The present work is especially devoted the characterization of the briquettes made by using specific solid waste in a process developed by Bioernergy Burundi enterprise [2]. A random sampling of 3 briquettes from a 5kg package is used for the determination of their characteristics to meet the criteria to be used as solid fuel substitute. Materials to be characterized in this work are briquettes manufactured by Bionergy Burundi Enterprise [2] and their ashes. The process is using a specific solid waste mixture. The mixture consists of residues of charcoal, dry Eragrostis grass, sawdust and wood shavings from the furniture manufacturing workshops, rice hulls from the husking units and MSW (partially sorted). The mixture, in well-known proportions of the listed waste, is then heated (mainly dried), milled and introduced into a mould to produce the briquettes (L~20 cm and Φ~ 7cm). Results on proximate analysis of the briquettes are detailed in this work. The mean humidity content is in the order of 20%. Results on dry matter show an ash content of 44%, a high volatile matter of 42%. The value of the fixed carbon content is presented and is very depended on the sampling method. Fixed carbon content lies between 13% and 26%. The calorimetric bomb method (ISO 1928) has been used to evaluate the gross calorific value. The lower calorific value is then calculated (LCV~11 MJ/kg). On the other hand, to be able to use safely the briquettes as substituted solid fuel, further investigation was made to evaluate the presence of pollutants. XRF and XRD measurements were performed on the briquettes and their ashes respectively. Elemental analysis and detection of crystallized compounds are presented showing only traces of pollutants. The main conclusion of this work is that preliminary results on Bioenergy Burundi briquettes are encouraging and would incited to consider this path for the valorization of some solid waste as substitution solid fuel for charcoal. Currently, in the city of Bujumbura, energy needs for a growing population are real and the use of these briquettes as a substitution solid fuel could be one of the alternate routes.
    Keywords: waste, substitution fuel, briquettes, energy valorisation
    Date: 2014–06–16
  38. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Southeast Asia Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: The threat from dengue has grown dramatically. The World Health Organization estimates that there may be up to 100 million infections each year worldwide. Approximately 500,000 people are hospitalized, and many thousands die because of dengue each year. Controlling mosquitoes is the only available dengue prevention strategy, but dengue control activities tend to be limited to responses to outbreaks. This report documents a promising, feasible, low-cost measure for controlling Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the primary household-associated dengue vector. The intervention involved encouraging local communities in Cambodia and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic to use small fish called guppies to devour mosquito larvae in household water containers; this was accompanied by intense communication activities. The result was significant reductions in the number of containers with mosquito larvae and of mosquito pupae per person. The approach is being considered for expansion to other areas of Cambodia and the Lao People’s Democratic Republic and is also being taken to countries in the South Pacific, with a view to assessing its wider suitability.
    Keywords: cambodia, lao pdr, laos, dengue, dengue fever, dengue prevention, hemorrhagic fever, aedes aegypti, dengue epidemic, vector control, health, integrated vector strategy, epidemiology, mosquito, larvae, pupae, guppy fish, tropical disease, water sanitation, climate change
    Date: 2013–09
  39. By: Gaël Plumecocq (AGIR - AGrosystèmes et développement terrItoRial - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) : UMR1248, LEREPS - Laboratoire d'Etude et de Recherche sur l'Economie, les Politiques et les Systèmes Sociaux - Université des Sciences Sociales - Toulouse I : EA4212 - École Nationale de Formation Agronomique - ENFA - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Toulouse - Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II)
    Abstract: Cet article étudie comment un développement régional cohérent nécessite la mobilisation de ressources cognitives partagées. Dans le cas étudié - la région Nord Pas-de-Calais, cette proximité cognitive se construit via les politiques locales, sur la base du référentiel de développement durable. Pour saisir la manière dont les collectivités de la région activent cette ressource, nous avons mobilisé les outils d'analyse textuelle sur une trentaine d'entretiens auprès des acteurs publics du développement durabe. Les résultats mis en évidence suggèrent que cette proximité cognitive repose sur deux éléments fondamentaux : d'une part la mise en valeur d'un patrimoine infrastructurel territorialisé, et d'autre part la reconstruction d'une identité territoriale. Les politiques locales prennent ainsi appui sur les valeurs qui sous-tendent ces éléments ainsi que sur des modalités rhétoriques, pour impulser en profondeur une dynamique de changement, plus malaisée à mettre en œuvre partir des outils politiques habituels.
    Keywords: Analyse textuelle ; Développement durable ; Patrimoine ; Proximité cognitive ; Territoire
    Date: 2012–12–01
  40. By: Sophie Drogue (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA); Federica DeMaria (Dipartimento di Economia e Statistica, Università degli Studi della Calabria)
    Abstract: En matière de sécurité sanitaire, les règles qui gouvernent la production et le commerce des aliments sont de plus en plus contraignantes. Dans le cas des pesticides utilisés en agriculture, leurs effets potentiellement négatifs sur la santé a conduit le législateur à réglementer la teneur en résidus de pesticides dans les produits d’origine agricole en fixant des Limites Maximales de Résidus (LMR). Ces LMR s’appliquent indifféremment aux produits domestiques et étrangers. Elles induisent un coût de mise en conformité pour le producteur ou pour l’exportateur qui influence directement le prix du produit au niveau du consommateur final. Cette mise en conformité est difficile dans la mesure où les LMR ne sont pas harmonisées au niveau international et que coexistent presque autant de réglementations que de nations. Il existe bien une « réglementation internationale » établie par le Codex Alimentarius mais en la matière elle n’a aucun caractère obligatoire et les nations conservent leur souveraineté. Nous étudions ici l’impact des réglementations en matière de limites maximales de résidus de pesticides sur le commerce international. Une analyse empirique réalisée sur une quarantaine de pays exportateurs et/ou importateurs de pommes, de poires et de produits de leur transformation montre que globalement l’hétérogénéité réglementaire peut constituer un frein aux échanges et qu’une harmonisation mondiale des LMR de pesticides aurait un impact positif sur le commerce. Mais l’analyse au cas par cas montre qu’adopter une réglementation unique n’aurait pas un impact positif pour tous les pays indistinctement. L’harmonisation aurait même un impact négatif sur les exportations de pommes et de poires du Japon et des Etats-Unis.
    Keywords: pomme, poire, fruit, commerce international, réglementationpesticide, résidu de pesticidesécurité sanitaire, limite maximale de résidus
    Date: 2013
  41. By: Beatriz Judice Magalhães (IPC-IG)
    Abstract: Por muitos anos e em diversos lugares do mundo, os catadores de materiais recicláveis têm realizado a coleta seletiva e, assim, atuado como protagonistas na transformação do lixo em mercadoria. No Brasil, eles vêm se organizando em associações, cooperativas e movimentos sociais desde o fim da década de 1980. Mais recentemente, eventos importantes ? como a criação do Movimento Nacional de Catadores de Materiais Recicláveis, em 2001, e a aprovação da Lei Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos, em 2010 ? contribuíram para que os catadores fossem colocados em evidência para gestores de políticas públicas, para o marketing social de algumas empresas e para organizações não governamentais.
    Keywords: Escolhas Possíveis, Significados de Valor: um Panorama das Atividades dos Catadores de Materiais Recicláveis no Brasil
    Date: 2014–05

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