nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2014‒07‒13
fourteen papers chosen by
Francisco S.Ramos
Federal University of Pernambuco

  1. The global carbon budget:a conflicting claims problem By Giménez Gómez, José M. (José Manuel); Teixidó Figueras, Jordi Josep; Vilella Bach, Misericòrdia
  2. Climate change, industrial transformation, and"development traps" By Golub, Alexander; Toman, Michael
  3. The environmental implications of Russia's accession to the world trade organization By Bohringer, Christoph; Rutherford, Thomas F.; Tarr, David G.; Turdyeva, Natalia
  4. The Cultural Transmission of Environmental Preferences: Evidence from International Migration By Anastasia Litina; Simone Moriconi; Skerdilajda Zanaj
  5. Moving to Greener Societies: Moral Motivation and Green Behaviour. By Lorenzo Cerda Planas
  6. Output-based rebating of carbon taxes in the neighbor’s backyard. Competitiveness, leakage and welfare By Christoph Böhringer; Brita Bye; Taran Fæhn; Knut Einar Rosendahl
  7. Perceptions to climatic changes and cooperative attitudes toward flood protection in Bangladesh By Moinul Islam; Koji Kotani
  8. Labour Market Policy and Environmental Fiscal Devaluation: A Cure for Spain in the Aftermath of the Great Recession? By Kurt Kratena; Mark Sommer
  9. Faktencheck Agrarpolitik: Beitrag der EU-Agrarreform zur Bewirtschaftung organischer Böden im Einklang mit Natur- und Klimaschutz - Möglichkeiten und Grenzen By Röder, Norbert; Osterburg, Bernhard; Liebersbach, Horst; Bormann, Kristin
  10. The impact of the increasing demand for biofuels in the EU on the possibility to conduct collective action for reaching a common good: The changes in the community-based management of the common pastures in Ethiopia By Miteva, Pavlina
  11. Illegal Trade in Natural Resources: Evidence from missing ports By Pierre-Louis Vezina
  12. Paradoxes of sustainable food and consumer coping strategies By Moruzzi, R.; Sirieix, L.
  13. Measuring the effect of internet adoption on paper consumption By Andres, Luis; Zentner, Alejandro; Zentner, Joaquin
  14. Gestión de los recursos pesqueros. El modelo bioeconómico de Gordon-Schaefer By Lupín, Beatriz; Keogan, Lucía; Muñoz, Agustina

  1. By: Giménez Gómez, José M. (José Manuel); Teixidó Figueras, Jordi Josep; Vilella Bach, Misericòrdia
    Abstract: Despite global environmental governance has traditionally couched global warming in terms of annual CO2 emissions (a flow), global mean temperature is actually determined by cumulative CO2 emissions in the atmosphere (a stock). Thanks to advances of scientific community, nowadays it is possible to quantify the \global carbon budget", that is, the amount of available cumulative CO2 emissions before crossing the 2oC threshold (Meinshausen et al., 2009). The current approach proposes to analyze the allocation of such global carbon budget among countries as a classical conflicting claims problem (O'Neill, 1982). Based on some appealing principles, it is proposed an efficient and sustainable allocation of the available carbon budget from 2000 to 2050 taking into account different environmental risk scenarios. Keywords: Carbon budget, Conflicting claims problem, Distribution, Climate change. JEL classification: C79, D71, D74, H41, H87, Q50, Q54, Q58.
    Keywords: Teoria de jocs, Elecció social, Decisió de grup, Béns públics, Economia del medi ambient, Escalfament global, Política del medi ambient, 33 - Economia, 504 - Ciències del medi ambient,
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Golub, Alexander; Toman, Michael
    Abstract: This paper examines the possibility of environmental"development traps,"or"brown poverty traps,"caused by interactions between the impacts of climate change and increasing returns in the development of"clean-technology"sectors. A simple specification is used in which the economy can produce a single homogeneous consumption good with two different technologies. In the"old"sector, technology has global diminishing returns to scale and depends on the use of fossil energy that gives rise to long-lived, damaging climate change. In the"new"sector, the technology has convex-concave production and is not dependent on the polluting energy input. If the new sector does not grow fast enough to move through the phase of increasing returns, then the economy may linger at a low level of income indefinitely or it may achieve greater progress but then get driven back down to a lower level of income by environmental degradation. Stimulating growth in the new sector thus may be a key element for avoiding an environmental poverty trap and achieving higher, sustained income levels.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Economic Theory&Research,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Climate Change Economics,Economic Growth
    Date: 2014–06–01
  3. By: Bohringer, Christoph; Rutherford, Thomas F.; Tarr, David G.; Turdyeva, Natalia
    Abstract: This report investigates the environmental impacts of Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization. A 10-region, 30-sector model of the Russian economy is developed. The model is innovative and more accurate empirically in that it contains foreign direct investment, imperfectly competitive sectors, and endogenous productivity effects triggered by World Trade Organization accession along with environmental emissions data in Russia for seven pollutants that are tracked for all 30 sectors in each of the 10 regions. The decomposition analysis shows that despite the fact that World Trade Organization accession allows Russia to import better technologies and reduce pollution from the"technique effect,"on balance World Trade Organization accession alone will increase environmental pollution in Russia through a shift toward dirty industries (the"composition effect") and the expansion of output with its associated increase in pollution ("scale effect"). The paper assesses the costs of three types of environmental regulations to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 20 percent. The paper simultaneously implements a central case scenario with each of the carbon dioxide emission reduction policy initiatives. The analysis finds that the welfare gains of World Trade Organization accession are large enough to pay for the costs of any of the three environmental abatement policies, while leaving a net welfare gain. But the political economy implications are that the non-market-based policies are more costly and the command and control policy, which is not well targeted, is very costly. Based on a constant returns to scale model, the estimated welfare gains are insufficient to finance the costs of environmental regulation.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Climate Change Economics,Economic Theory&Research,Environment and Energy Efficiency
    Date: 2014–06–01
  4. By: Anastasia Litina (CREA, Université de Luxembourg); Simone Moriconi (Università Cattolica di Milano, Italy); Skerdilajda Zanaj (CREA, Université de Luxembourg)
    Abstract: This paper theoretically and empirically advances the hypothesis that differences in environmental preferences can be traced to cultural differences. In particular, we argue that environmental attitudes such as the willingness to pay for the environment are not solely the effect of local environmental conditions on individual attitudes. On the contrary, we establish that they can also be accounted for by cultural differences accross countries. To establish our hypothesis we exploit the natural experiment of international migration flows and establish that the environmental culture of migrants, as has been formed in their country of origin and transmitted accross generations, is still prevalent in the host country. Interestingly these culture differences with respect to environmental awareness are prevalent despite the fact that all migrants in a host country are exposed to the same local environment. In the presence of multiple environmental problems that require collective action, comprehending the driving forces behind the formation of an environmental culture, a potential driver of environmental policies, is critical.
    Keywords: Cultural Transmission, Migration, Environmental Preferences
    JEL: Q50 Q58 R23
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Lorenzo Cerda Planas (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper intends to provide an alternative explanation of why societies behave differently from an environmental point of view. To do so, I use a Kantian moral approach at a microeconomic level. Under this premise, I show that two identical societies (according to income and political system) might follow different paths with respect to their "green" behaviour. Additionally, I identify tipping points that could nudge a society from a polluting behaviour to a green one. I find that environmental perception as well as how governments are elected can be important factors in this shift.
    Keywords: Environmental motivation, Kantian morale, green behaviour, tipping points.
    JEL: Q50 D64 H41 C62
    Date: 2014–01
  6. By: Christoph Böhringer; Brita Bye; Taran Fæhn; Knut Einar Rosendahl (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: We investigate how carbon taxes combined with output-based rebating (OBR) in an open economy perform in interaction with the carbon policies of a large neighboring trading partner. Analytical results suggest that whether the purpose of the OBR policy is to compensate firms for carbon tax burdens or to maximize welfare (accounting for global emission reductions), the second-best OBR rate should be positive in most cases. Further, it should fall with the introduction of carbon taxation in the neighboring country, particularly if the neighbor refrains from OBR. Numerical simulations for Canada with the US as the neighboring trading partner, indicates that the impact of US policies on the second-best OBR rate will depend crucially on the purpose of the domestic OBR policies. If the aim is to restore the competitiveness of domestic emission-intensive, trade exposed (EITE) firms at the same level as before the introduction of its own carbon taxation for a given US carbon policy, we find that the domestic optimal OBR rates are relatively insensitive to the foreign carbon policies. If the aim is to compensate the firms for actions taken by the US following a Canadian carbon tax, the necessary domestic OBR rates will be lower if also the US regulates its emissions, particularly if the US refrains from OBR. If the goal is rather to increase the efficiency of Canadian policies in an economy-wide sense by accounting for carbon leakage, the US policies have but a minor reducing impact on domestic optimal OBR rates.
    Keywords: Carbon leakage; Second-best optimal carbon policies; Output-based rebates
    JEL: Q43 Q54 H2 D61
    Date: 2014–06
  7. By: Moinul Islam (Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Japan); Koji Kotani (International University of University)
    Abstract: Bangladesh is vulnerable to climatic changes, and there has been a serious debate about the occurrence and the relationship with the frequency of flooding. For example, in Dhaka, further flood controls are claimed to be necessary due to a change of climatic patterns and more frequent flood events. Despite the importance of this topic, it has received little research attention. Thus, we examine (i) whether a temporal change in climate variables is occurring, (ii) local people's perceptions to climate and (iii) cooperative attitudes toward flood controls. We conducted face-to-face surveys with 1,011 respondents of different social and demographic strata and seven experts in Bangladesh. Using these data, we first derive a temporal trend of climate variables and analyze how closely people's perceptions align with the climate data. Second, we examine the willingness to pay for flood controls as a proxy of cooperative attitudes, and characterize the determinants in relation to perceptions to climate as well as socio-economic characteristics. We obtain the following principal results. First, some climate variables are identified to exhibit clear upward or downward trends, but most people correctly perceive such temporal changes. More specifically, people's perceptions and our statistical analysis are identical in the qualitative changes of climate. Second, people who correctly perceive climatic changes tend to express a higher WTP than those who do not. Overall, these findings suggest that accurate climate perceptions are keys to increasing cooperation into managing climate change and related disasters.
    Keywords: Climate change, perception, willingness to pay, flood
    Date: 2014–06
  8. By: Kurt Kratena (WIFO); Mark Sommer (WIFO)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates different options of labour market policy and tax reform with payroll tax reductions for the Spanish economy in the current situation of high unemployment and debt constraints for public and private households. The Spanish economy in the aftermath of the Great Recession is characterised by household debt de-leveraging, continuous public spending cuts and stagnation in output and employment. A disaggregated dynamic New Keynesian (DYNK) model covering 59 industries and five income groups of households is used to evaluate the macroeconomic and labour market impact of the following policy options: 1. subsidising "green jobs" and reduction of hours worked as an active labour market policy measure, 2. environmental fiscal devaluation (reductions in social security contributions balanced by an environmental consumption tax). The results show a significant output and employment multiplier effect of these policies, given the public budget constraint.
    Keywords: New Keynesian model, labour market policy, fiscal devaluation
    Date: 2014–07–07
  9. By: Röder, Norbert; Osterburg, Bernhard; Liebersbach, Horst; Bormann, Kristin
    Abstract: Die vorliegende Studie baut auf den im Dezember 2013 veröffentlichen Basisrechtsakten zur künftigen Gemeinsamen Agrarpolitik (GAP) der EU auf und nimmt die möglichen Auswirkungen dieses Politikpaketes auf den Moorschutz in den Blick. Einführend werden dazu die Ziele des Natur- und Klimaschutzes auf Moorböden kurz dargestellt. In Kapitel 3 werden die relevanten Elemente der künftigen GAP beschrieben. Kapitel 4 geht auf drei andere Finanzquellen für Moorschutzmaßnahmen ein, das Programm für Umwelt- und Klimapolitik (LIFE), den Europäischen Fonds für regionale Entwicklung (EFRE) und den Waldklimafonds. In Kapitel 5 werden Maßnahmenoptionen für den Schutz und einer standortangepassteren Nutzung organischer Böden vorgestellt. Kapitel 6 beschreibt Konflikte zwischen den verschiedenen Förderzielen der GAP bzw. von Schutzzielen des Naturschutzes, die bei der Umsetzung von Moorschutzmaßnahmen zu berücksichtigen sind. Kapitel 7 beleuchtet den Einfluss anderer Politikfelder auf die Chancen zur Umsetzung von Moorschutzprogrammen. Daran schließen Empfehlungen zur besseren Berücksichtigung von Aspekten des Moorschutzes bei der Ausgestaltung und Umsetzung der GAP in Deutschland an. Dem 'schnellen Leser' wird die Lektüre der Kapitel 5 und 8 empfohlen. Im Zusammenhang mit der GAP-Reformdebatte hat das Thünen-Institut verschiedene Publikationen und Stellungnahmen vorgelegt, auf die in dieser Stellungnahme aufgebaut wird und auf die daher verwiesen wird (vgl. die in der Einleitung, Kapitel 1, genannten Quellen). -- This working paper is based on the reform debate on the future Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the EU and the legal acts published in December 2013. The focus is on the impact of this policy package on the protection of peatland. First, we briefly present the climate policy and na-ture conservation targets with relevance for the protection of peatlands. In Chapter 3, we briefly describe the relevant elements of the future CAP. In Chapter 4, we analyse the potential of three other funding sources for the implementation of peatland conservation projects. These are the European LIFE program, the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the national forest climate fund. In Chapter 5 we present different measures for a sustainable use of organic soils. In Chapter 6 we briefly highlight the potential conflicts between different objectives within CAP and nature conservation and those which should be kept in mind when implementing a peatland con-servation project. Chapter 7 highlights the importance of some other policy issues (non-CAP, non-funding related) for the chances to successfully implement peatland protection programs. Finally, we give recommendations for a better integration of peatland protection in the design and im-plementation of the CAP in Germany. For 'quick readers', the reading of Chapters 5 and 8 is rec-ommended. In the context of the CAP reform, the Thünen-Institute has published different posi-tion and working papers, upon which this paper builds (see the references listed in Chapter 1).
    Keywords: Gemeinsame Agrarpolitik,EU,Klimaschutz,Naturschutz,Moore,Common Agricultural Policy,EU,climate protection,nature conservation,peatland
    JEL: Q18 Q24 Q54 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2014
  10. By: Miteva, Pavlina
    Abstract: The negative impact of EU biofuel policy on the agricultural markets, carbon emissions and global land use has been evidenced through many studies. Besides the often affirmed negative implications, the paper suggests that in countries targeted by land investments for biofuel production, there are further implications for the social structure of their societies i.e., for the institutionalized relationships among the individuals living in those societies. More specifically, the paper suggests that there are implications for those relationships that command the conducting of collective action for reaching a common good, such as the successful management of a common-pool resource (CPR). For this purpose, the paper chooses to focus on the community-based management of the pastures in Ethiopia. The paper analyzes the changes that the traditional institutions for pasture management in Ethiopia are experiencing by applying Elinor Ostrom's design principles, while trying to determine whether and how the increased demand for biofuels affects these changes. The paper concludes that the increased areas under biofuels, by affecting the size and functionality of the pastures, provokes the formation of clearly defined boundaries of these resources and of their appropriators and causes inconsistencies between the rules that govern this resource and the local conditions. The increased demand for biofuels also incentivises governmental actions that further threaten the rights of the pastoralists to manage their resources. The justification of the paper is to add value to EU policies that attempt to mitigate negative impacts of the biofuel policy, so the paper ends with recommendations in this direction. --
    Keywords: biofuels,design principles,Ethiopia,pastures,institutions for CPR management
    JEL: D7 F5 Q15 Q28
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Pierre-Louis Vezina
    Abstract: Countries restrict the export of natural resources to lower domestic prices, stimulate downstream industries, earn rents on international markets, or on environmental grounds. This paper provides empirical evidence of evasion of such export barriers. Using tools from the illicit trade literature, I show that exports of minerals, metals, or wood products are more likely to be missing from the exporter's statistics if they face export barriers such as prohibitions or taxes. Furthermore, I show that this relationship is significantly higher in countries with high levels of corruption and bribes at customs. The results have implications for the design of trade policies and environmental protection.
    Keywords: natural resources, illegal trade, trade barriers
    JEL: F13 O17 O19
    Date: 2014
  12. By: Moruzzi, R.; Sirieix, L.
    Abstract: This study aims to approach consumers’ behaviours towards the paradoxes of sustainable food. A qualitative research was carried out with non engaged individuals in France and Italy and, in a second step, with consumers who have already engaged in the local purchase network. Results show different coping strategies among non engaged French and Italian consumers in compliance with the environmental and cultural conditions; on the contrary engaged participants evocate a supranational culture, as well as the same practices and representations. ....French Abstract : Cette étude s’intéresse aux comportements des consommateurs face aux paradoxes de l’Alimentation durable. Une recherche qualitative a été menée auprès d’individus non engagés en France et en Italie puis, auprès de consommateurs engagés dans les circuits courts. Les résultats mettent en évidence des stratégies de coping différentes en France et en Italie pour les individus non engagés ; en revanche, les participants engagés évoquent une culture supranationale avec des représentations et des pratiques similaires.
    JEL: D18 M31
    Date: 2014
  13. By: Andres, Luis; Zentner, Alejandro; Zentner, Joaquin
    Abstract: A large fraction of the total supply of paper is produced with technologies that have serious adverse consequences on the environment and cause significant health problems, such as cancer. This paper reports on how Internet adoption affects paper consumption. The study used country-level panel data on Internet penetration and paper consumption disaggregated into various paper categories. The empirical strategy is to use fixed-effect models to study whether countries with faster Internet penetration growth have experienced faster declines in paper consumption. The analysis finds that Internet penetration significantly decreases aggregate paper consumption. Further, the estimates show that Internet growth reduces consumption for the paper categories that are more likely to be affected by the diffusion of the Internet (paper used to print newspapers and books and magazines), whereas the growth of the Internet does not have a statistically significant impact on a paper category unlikely to be affected by the Internet (such as sanitary paper).
    Keywords: Pulp&Paper Industry,Technology Industry,Environmental Economics&Policies,Nonformal Education,Sanitation and Sewerage
    Date: 2014–07–01
  14. By: Lupín, Beatriz; Keogan, Lucía; Muñoz, Agustina
    Abstract: La Asignatura "Matemática para Economistas II" integra el ciclo profesional de la Carrera Licenciatura en Economía que se cursa en la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Sociales de la Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata. Durante el cursado de la misma, se realizan intervenciones pedagógicas tendientes a acercar al alumno a ámbitos y a situaciones reales, en donde deba poner en práctica los conocimientos adquiridos. Una de las aplicaciones que se presenta es el Modelo de Gordon-Schaefer (1954), herramienta clásica para el estudio de la gestión de los recursos pesqueros. El mismo permite abordar el problema de la sobrepesca en pesquerías no reguladas. Supone condiciones simultáneas de equilibrio biológico y económico en una población pesquera a fin de deducir la curva de rendimiento sostenible a largo plazo, en función del esfuerzo. Parte de la ecuación diferencial indicada por Verhulst (1838) acerca del crecimiento logístico de una población. Luego del desarrollo teórico del Modelo, la estrategia de enseñanza propuesta se completa con el análisis matemático-estadístico y económico de investigaciones empíricas por parte de los alumnos, con el soporte del software InfoStat Profesional®. En la Ciudad de Mar del Plata, el Sector Pesquero cuenta con una amplia tradición cultural y es uno de los sectores productivos de mayor dinamismo económico. Participa con alrededor del 50% de las toneladas capturadas de peces y mariscos por la pesca marítima de altura en el país (INDEC, 2012) y con el 69% del Producto Bruto Geográfico de la actividad primaria local (Atucha et al., 2012).
    Keywords: Modelos Económicos; Explotaciones Pesqueras; Recursos Pesqueros; Enseñanza; Matemáticas;
    Date: 2014–06

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