nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2014‒05‒09
twenty-two papers chosen by
Francisco S.Ramos
Federal University of Pernambuco

  1. Transition to clean capital, irreversible investment and stranded assets By Rozenberg, Julie; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stephane
  2. CO2-Emissions and Economic Growth - A bounds-testing cointegration analysis for German industries By Parlow, Anton; von Hauff, Michael
  3. A comparison of the global warming effects of wood fuels and fossil fuels taking albedo into account By Bjart Holtsmark
  4. Revisiting Environmental Kuznets Curves through the energy Price lenses By Miguel Rodríguez; Yolanda Pena-Boquete
  5. Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture: Evidence from China By Chen, Shuai; Chen, Xiaoguang; Xu, Jintao
  6. The Effect of Beijing’s Driving Restrictions on Pollution and Economic Activity By V. Brian Viard; Shihe Fu
  7. 基于非径向BML-DEA模型的中国地区工业环境绩效测度 By Tang, Liwei; Hu, Zongyi; Zhang, Yongjun
  8. Auction Mechanisms for Allocating Subsidies for Carbon Emissions Reduction: An Experimental Investigation By He, Haoran; Chen, Yefeng; Last Name, First Name
  9. Greenhouse Gas and Cyclical Growth By Lance Taylor; Duncan Foley
  10. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to cancer risk and cancer mortality in Norway By Edwin Leuven; Erik Plug; Marte Rønning
  11. Global Financial Structure and Climate Change By John Whalley; Yufei Yuan
  12. The causal factors of international inequality in CO2 emissions per capita: A regression-based inequality decomposition analysis. By Juan Antonio Duro; Jordi Teixidó-Figueras; Emilio Padilla Rosa
  13. Spatial polarization of the ecological footprint distribution By Teixidó Figueras, Jordi Josep; Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio
  14. Calculations of gaseous and particulate emissions from German agriculture 1990 - 2012: Report on methods and data (RMD) Submission 2014 By Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus; Dämmgen, Ulrich; Poddey, Eike; Freibauer, Annette; Wulf, Sebastian; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Döhler, Helmut; Schreiner, Carsten; Bauer, Beate; Osterburg, Bernhard
  15. Deep and Shallow Uncertainty in Messaging Climate Change By Cooke, Roger M.
  16. Supra-Regional vs. Regional Regulators in the Water Pollution Mitigation: Optimal Exemption Policies. By François DESTANDAU; Anne ROZAN; Sandrine SPAETER
  17. A Multi-Entity Input Output (MEIO) Approach to Sustainability - Water-Energy-GHG (WEG) Footprint Statements in Use Cases from Auto and Telco Industries By Reza Farrahi Moghaddam; Fereydoun Farrahi Moghaddam; Mohamed Cheriet
  18. Business environmental constraints for Egyptian firms By María Dolores Parra; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso; Celestino Suarez-Burguet
  19. Water management in New Zealand : A road map for understanding water value By Kaye-Blake, Bill; Schilling, Chris; Nixon, Chris; Destremau, Killian
  20. ¿Es posible la regulación de emisiones de CO2 y su mercado en países euromediterráneos? By Rocío Urbanos
  21. From sustainable consumption to sustainable practices By Daniel, M.; Sirieix, L.
  22. Les services dans l’économie verte au Maroc. Opportunités de création d’emplois et défis d’innovation By Fatima Arib

  1. By: Rozenberg, Julie; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Hallegatte, Stephane
    Abstract: This paper uses a Ramsey model with two types of capital to analyze the optimal transition to clean capital when polluting investment is irreversible. The cost of climate mitigation decomposes as a technical cost of using clean instead of polluting capital and a transition cost from the irreversibility of pre-existing polluting capital. With a carbon price, the transition cost can be limited by underutilizing polluting capital, at the expense of a loss in the value of polluting assets (stranded assets) and a drop in income. In contrast, policy instruments that focus on redirecting investments -- such as feebates or environmental standards -- prevent underutilization of existing capital, avoid stranded assets, and reduce short-term losses; but they reduce emissions more slowly and increase the intertemporal cost of the transition. The paper investigates inter- and intra-generational distributional impacts and the political acceptability of climate change mitigation policy instruments.
    Keywords: Political Economy,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Climate Change Economics,Economic Theory&Research,Investment and Investment Climate
    Date: 2014–05–01
  2. By: Parlow, Anton; von Hauff, Michael
    Abstract: We model pollution as an input in the production process and test the long-run relationship between pollution and growth at the industry level. Most empirical studies, especially based on the environmental Kuznets curve, use highly aggregated data. Arguably, the results found may not be generalized for all industries in a given country. Using CO-2 emissions and GDP data for 47 industries observed over the period 1995-2010, we find a long-run relationship between pollution and growth only for a few German industries, e.g. the energy-generating-, the aviation- and agricultural industry. For these industries CO-2 emissions have a negative effect on growth, e.g. through environmental taxes and pollution allowances.
    Keywords: Growth, GDP, CO2 Emissions, Pollution, Bounds-testing
    JEL: Q0 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2014–04–30
  3. By: Bjart Holtsmark (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Traditionally, wood fuels, like other bioenergy sources, have been considered carbon neutral because the amount of CO2 released can be offset by CO2 sequestration due to the regrowth of the biomass. Thus, until recently, most studies assigned a global warming potential (GWP) of zero to CO2 generated by the combustion of biomass (biogenic CO2). Moreover, emissions of biogenic CO2 are usually not included in carbon tax and emissions trading schemes. However, there is now increasing awareness of the inadequacy of this way of treating bioenergy, especially bioenergy from boreal forests. Holtsmark (2014) recently quantified the GWP of biogenic CO2 from slow-growing forests (GWPbio), finding it to be significantly higher than the GWP of fossil CO2 when a 100-year time horizon was applied. Hence, the climate impact seems to be even higher for the combustion of slow-growing biomass than for the combustion of fossil carbon in a 100-year timeframe. The present study extends the analysis of Holtsmark (2014) in three ways. First, it includes the cooling effects of increased surface reflectivity after harvest (albedo). Second, it includes a comparison with the potential warming impact of fossil fuels, taking the CO2 emissions per unit of energy produced into account. Third, the study links the literature estimating GWPbio and the literature dealing with the carbon debt, and model simulations estimating the payback time of the carbon debt are presented. The conclusion is that, also after these extensions of the analysis, bioenergy from slow-growing forests usually has a larger climate impact in a 100-year timeframe than fossil oil and gas. Whether bioenergy performs better or worse than coal depends on a number of conditions.
    Keywords: Bioenergy; Boreal forests; Climate change; Carbon; Albedo; Fossil fuels
    JEL: Q23 Q32 Q42
    Date: 2014–04
  4. By: Miguel Rodríguez; Yolanda Pena-Boquete
    Abstract: The goal of this paper is to provide new insights to make clear cut on the ambiguous evidence in favour of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. We contribute with an original explanation to dismiss the EKC based on relative energy prices. For the first time in the empirical literature, the econometric analysis includes the prices for coal, oil products and natural gas. We may conclude that there is evidence for a decoupling process between GDP and CO2 but without reaching any turning point on that relationship. Accordingly, the presence of relative energy price changes in the econometric specification confirms a monotonic and positive relationship between CO2 and GDP. Otherwise, we will eventually end up with distorted empirical evidence for EKC in our database, as long as we neglect energy substitution effects from price changes. The policy implications are straightforward: any international climate change agreement that eventually includes restrictions on developing countries might abate their legitimate ambitions for further economic development
    Date: 2014–04
  5. By: Chen, Shuai; Chen, Xiaoguang; Xu, Jintao (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: We estimate the link between corn and soybean yields and weather in China, while controlling for other variables that could affect crop yields, such as socioeconomic and climate adaptation variables. We find that: (i) there are nonlinear and asymmetric relationships between corn and soybean yields and weather variables; (ii) expansion of corn and soybean production to land types not previously used for these two crops had detrimental effects on average yields for both crops; (iii) climate change led to a net economic loss of about $200 million to China’s corn and soybean sectors in the past decade; (iv) corn and soybean yields are projected to decline by 4-14% and 8-21% by 2100.
    Keywords: climate, China, corn, soybean, yields, land
    JEL: Q54 Q10
    Date: 2014–04–18
  6. By: V. Brian Viard; Shihe Fu
    Abstract: We evaluate the environmental and economic effects of Beijing’s driving restrictions. Based on daily data from multiple monitoring stations, air pollution falls 19% during every-other-day and 8% during one-day-per-week restrictions. Based on hourly viewership data, the number of television viewers during the restrictions increases 1.7 to 2.3% for workers with discretionary work time but is unaffected for workers without, consistent with the restrictions’ higher per-day commute costs reducing daily labor. Causal effects are identified from both time-series and spatial variation in air quality and intra-day variation in viewership. We provide possible reasons for the policy’s success, including evidence of high compliance based on parking garage entrance records. Our results contrast with previous findings of no pollution reductions from driving restrictions and provide new evidence on commute costs and labor supply
    Keywords: Driving restrictions; externalities; environmental economics; pollution
    JEL: H23 D62 L51 J22 R41
    Date: 2013–10–14
  7. By: Tang, Liwei; Hu, Zongyi; Zhang, Yongjun
    Abstract: Combining the characteristics of BM direction distance function, non- radial DEA model and Luenberger productivity indicators, we develop a non-radial BML-DEA model to measure Environmental Performance. And by using the panel data of 30 provinces from 1997 to 2011 in China, we measure and analysis the regional industrial eco-efficiency. The results show that the overall growth of industrial Environmental Performance of the region comes mainly from technological progress rather than efficiency improvements, the highest average annual growth rate of areas are Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Guangdong. The effect from three pollutants on industrial Environmental Performance by descending is SO2, CO2 and Smoker, and the contribution of the three pollutants deal more balanced. There are significant differences among industrial Environmental Performance and its decomposition ingredients in different regions. The growth rate of industrial Environmental Performance in east is significantly higher than other regions, but the growth rate of efficiency is not superior to the center and west, and even slightly lower than the center. Therefore, regions need to enhance the efficiency in using the resources.
    Keywords: Environmental Performance; infeasible solution; slacks; non- radial BML-DEA model
    JEL: C61 O44 Q01 Q5
    Date: 2014–01–06
  8. By: He, Haoran; Chen, Yefeng; Last Name, First Name
    Abstract: One method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is to subsidize emissions-reducing activities. The question is how to allocate such subsidies. Allocation through auctions is an emerging mechanism. In a controlled experimental market setting, we compare the effects of a variety of auction mechanisms for allocating subsidies for carbon emissions reduction in China. Besides the conventional auction mechanisms, we place particular focus on testing the actual performance of the auction mechanism proposed by Erik Maskin (2011). We find that, while the Maskin auction mechanism spends the most from a fixed subsidy budget and leads to the largest emissions reduction, its per-unit emissions reduction cost is higher than that of discriminatory and uniform-price auction mechanisms. Both the Maskin and uniform-price auctions outperform discriminatory auctions in price discovery. Furthermore, from the government’s perspective, the Maskin auctions exhibit the strongest improvement tendency with repeated auctions.
    Keywords: auctions, subsidy allocation, carbon dioxide, greenhouse gases, emissions reduction
    JEL: C91 C93 D64
    Date: 2014–04–18
  9. By: Lance Taylor; Duncan Foley
    Abstract: A growth model incorporating dynamics of capital per capita, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and labor and energy productivity is described. In the “medium run” output and employment are determined by effective demand in contrast to most models of climate change. In a “long run” of several centuries the model converges to a stationary state with zero net emissions of CO2. Properties of dismal and non-dismal stationary states are explored, with a latter requiring a relatively high level of investment in mitigation of emissions. Without such investment under “business as usual” output dynamics are strongly cyclical in numerical simulations. There is strong output growth for about eight decades, then a climate crisis, and output crash.
    Date: 2014–02
  10. By: Edwin Leuven; Erik Plug; Marte Rønning (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Using Norwegian cancer registry data we study twin and non-twin siblings to decompose variation in cancer at most common sites and cancer mortality into a genetic, shared environment and individual (unshared environmental) component. Regardless the source of sibling variation, our findings indicate that genes dominate over shared environment in explaining relatively more of the variation in cancer at most common cancer sites (but lung and skin cancer) and cancer mortality. The vast majority of the variation in cancer and cancer mortality, however, is explained by individual (unshared environmental) factors.
    Keywords: Cancer; Twins; Heritability; Environment
    JEL: I12 J62
    Date: 2014–04
  11. By: John Whalley; Yufei Yuan
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the medium to long-term implications of global warming for the evolution of global financial structures. Stern (2007) and other related scientific literature reports that greenhouse gas emissions generated by human activities will very possibly lead to global temperature increase of 1-5 degrees C by 2050. This will cause a dramatic increase in global risks to human life. The response to this will be the seeking-out of financial innovation by major forms, primarily in the area of insurance, but also in the diversification of asset holdings. We suggest in this paper that, with modest climate changes of 1-2 degrees C, the global insurance market will expand dramatically. However, under more extreme climate change scenarios, the entire global financial structure will undergo major changes, with a re-focusing of major financial activity away from intermediation between borrowers and lenders and the facilitation of the accumulation of assets, and towards a focus on insurance arrangements and the diversification of risks associated with climate change.
    JEL: G21 Q54
    Date: 2013–10–14
  12. By: Juan Antonio Duro (Departament d’Economia and CREIP, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus. Spain.); Jordi Teixidó-Figueras (Departament d’Economia and CREIP, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus. Spain.); Emilio Padilla Rosa (Departament d'Economia Aplicada, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona.)
    Abstract: This paper uses the possibilities provided by the regression-based inequality decomposition (Fields, 2003) to explore the contribution of different explanatory factors to international inequality in CO2 emissions per capita. In contrast to previous emissions inequality decompositions, which were based on identity relationships (Duro and Padilla, 2006), this methodology does not impose any a priori specific relationship. Thus, it allows an assessment of the contribution to inequality of different relevant variables. In short, the paper appraises the relative contributions of affluence, sectoral composition, demographic factors and climate. The analysis is applied to selected years of the period 1993–2007. The results show the important (though decreasing) share of the contribution of demographic factors, as well as a significant contribution of affluence and sectoral composition.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions, international emissions inequality, regression-based decomposition
    JEL: C19 D39 Q43
    Date: 2014–04
  13. By: Teixidó Figueras, Jordi Josep; Duro Moreno, Juan Antonio
    Abstract: The international allocation of natural resources is determined, not by any ethical or ecological criteria, but by the dominance of market mechanisms. From a core-periphery perspective, this allocation may even be driven by historically determined structural patterns, with a core group of countries whose consumption appropriates most available natural resources, and another group, having low natural resource consumption, which plays a peripheral role. This article consists of an empirical distributional analysis of natural resource consumption (as measured by Ecological Footprints) whose purpose is to assess the extent to which the distribution of consumption responds to polarization (as opposed to mere inequality). To assess this, we estimate and decompose different polarization indices for a balanced sample of 119 countries over the period 1961 to 2007. Our results points toward a polarized distribution which is consistent with a core-periphery framework. Keywords: Polarization, Core-Periphery, Ecological Footprint
    Keywords: Recursos naturals -- Gestió, Consum (Economia) -- Aspectes ambientals, Medi ambient -- Indicadors, Home -- Influència sobre la natura, 33 - Economia,
    Date: 2014
  14. By: Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus; Dämmgen, Ulrich; Poddey, Eike; Freibauer, Annette; Wulf, Sebastian; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Döhler, Helmut; Schreiner, Carsten; Bauer, Beate; Osterburg, Bernhard
    Abstract: The report at hand (including a comprehensive annex of data) serves as additional document to the National Inventory Report (NIR) on the German green house gas emissions and the Informative Inventory Report (IIR) on the German emissions of air pollutants (especially ammonia). The report documents the calculation methods used in the German agricultural inventory model GAS-EM as well as input data, emission results and uncertainties of the emission reporting submission 2014 for the years 1990 - 2012. In this context the sector Agriculture comprises the emissions from animal husbandry and the use of agricultural soils. As required by the guidelines, emissions from activities preceding agriculture, from the use of energy and from land use change are reported elsewhere in the national inventories. The calculation methods are based in principle on international guidelines for emission reporting and have been continuingly improved during the past years. This concerns especially the calculation of energy requirements, feeding and the N balance of the most important animal categories. In addition, technical mitigation measures such as air scrubbing and digestion of slurry have been taken into account. [...] -- Der vorliegende Berichtsband einschließlich des umfangreichen Datenanhangs dient als Begleitdokument zum National Inventory Report (NIR) über die deutschen Treibhausgas-Emissionen und zum Informative Inventory Report (IIR), über die deutschen Schadstoffemissionen (insbesondere Ammoniak). Er dokumentiert die im deutschen landwirtschaftlichem Inventarmodell GASEM integrierten Berechnungsverfahren sowie die Eingangsdaten, Emissionsergebnisse und Unsicherheiten der Berichterstattung 2014 für die Jahre 1990 bis 2012. Der Bereich Landwirtschaft umfasst dabei die Emissionen aus der Tierhaltung und der Nutzung landwirtschaftlicher Böden. Emissionen aus dem Vorleistungsbereich, aus der Nutzung von Energie sowie Landnutzungsänderungen werden den Regelwerken entsprechend an anderer Stelle in den nationalen Inventaren berichtet. Die Berechnungsverfahren beruhen in erster Linie auf internationalen Regelwerken zur Emissionsberichterstattung und wurden in den vergangenen Jahren beständig weiterentwickelt. Dies betrifft im Wesentlichen die Berechnung des Energiebedarfs, der Fütterung und der tierischen N-Bilanz bei den wichtigen Tierkategorien. Zusätzlich wurden technische Minderungsmaßnahmen wie Abluftreinigung und Güllevergärung berücksichtigt. [...]
    Date: 2014
  15. By: Cooke, Roger M. (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: Deep and shallow uncertainty are defined and contrasted with regard to messaging the uncertainty about climate change. Deep uncertainty is often traced back to the writings of Frank Knight, where in fact it simply meant subjective probability. Although Knight envisioned a scientifically grounded quantification of subjective uncertainty, deep uncertainty is frequently invoked to disable uncertainty quantification, with attendant problems in communicating and propagating uncertainty through chains of reasoning. These issues, together with science-based uncertainty quantification, are illustrated with recent applications to ice sheet dynamics. The issues of performance assessment and validation are addressed.
    Keywords: deep uncertainty, Knightian uncertainty, risk, expert judgment, climate change
    Date: 2014–04–25
  16. By: François DESTANDAU; Anne ROZAN; Sandrine SPAETER
    Abstract: Through the Water Framework Directive, the European Commission urges its Mem- ber states to reach a level of "good status" of water for 2015. This level can be different from the regional first-best. Neither the supra-regional regulator (European Commission) nor the regional regulator (Member State) knows perfectly this firstbest. Each region can estimate it thanks to a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). If the estimated first-best is lower than the "good status" level, the region can ask to be exempted from reaching the latter. In this paper, we show that regional regulators do not always invest largely in CBA in optimum, although under-investment increases the probability of being urged to reach the highest level of water quality. Besides, the optimal exemption policy announced by the supra-regional regulator, which depends on the CBA's investment, shall also depend on the local risk preferences and environmental vulnerability. If the exemption policy is uniform across the regions, we obtain that more risk averse and/or more environmentally vulnerable populations invest less in the CBA, contrary to the first intuition. Policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Supra-Regional Regulator, Regional Regulators, Exemption Policy, Imperfect Estimation, Local Préférences.
    JEL: D8 Q25 Q28
    Date: 2014
  17. By: Reza Farrahi Moghaddam; Fereydoun Farrahi Moghaddam; Mohamed Cheriet
    Abstract: A new Input-Output model, called the Multi-Entity Input-Output (MEIO) model, is introduced to estimate the responsibility of entities of an ecosystem on the footprint of each other. It assumed that the ecosystem is comprised of end users, service providers, and utilities. The proposed MEIO modeling approach can be seen as a realization of the Everybody-in-the-Loop (EitL) framework, which promotes a sustainable future using behaviors and actions that are aware of their ubiquitous eco-socio-environment impacts. In this vision, the behavioral changes could be initiated by providing all actors with their footprint statement, which would be estimated using the MEIO models. First, a naive MEIO model is proposed in the form of a graph of actions and responsibility by considering interactions and goods transfers among the entities and actors along four channels. Then, the unnormalized responsibility and also the final responsibility among the actors are introduced, and then are used to re-allocate immediate footprint of actors among themselves. The footprint in the current model is limited to three major impacts: Water, Energy, and GHG emissions. The naive model is then generalized to Provider-perspective (P-perspective) and End User-perspective (E-perspective) MEIO models in order to make it more suitable to cases where a large number of end users are served by a provider. The E-perspective modeling approach particularly allows estimating the footprint associated to a specific end user. In two use cases from the auto and Telco industries, it has been observed that the proposed MEIO models are practical and dependable in allocating footprint to the provider and also to the end user, while i) avoiding footprint leakage to the end users and ii) handling the large numbers end users. In addition, it will be shown that the MEIO models could be sued to integrate Scope-3 and LCA approaches.
    Date: 2014–04
  18. By: María Dolores Parra; Inmaculada Martínez-Zarzoso; Celestino Suarez-Burguet
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the main obstacles that Egyptian enterprises face to do business in their country and investigates to what extent the constraints affect firm performance. Firm’s performance is measured as Total Factor Productivity (TFP), which is obtained using Levinsohn and Petrin (2003) methodology. Our analysis evaluates the effects of the different business indicators obtained from the World Bank Enterprise Survey using firm level data from manufacturing firms on TFP. A number of control variables commonly used in the empirical literature are also included in the model. To check the robustness of our result alternative measures of firm performance are used, namely total sales and the average number of workers. The main results indicate that access and cost to finance, tax rates, regulatory policy uncertainty, the price of land and basic infrastructures, such as access to water and electricity, are among the most relevant factors. These findings have important policy implications, in particular for policy makers and will help them decide what sort of specific actions can be taken to reduce the main obstacles and consequently to pave the way for manufacturing Egyptian firms to become more competitive.
    Keywords: firms, total factor productivity, business environment constraints, Egypt, investment climate
    Date: 2014–03
  19. By: Kaye-Blake, Bill (New Zealand Institute of Economic Research); Schilling, Chris (New Zealand Institute of Economic Research); Nixon, Chris (New Zealand Institute of Economic Research); Destremau, Killian (New Zealand Institute of Economic Research)
    Abstract: This paper has been prepared as part of NZIER’s public good programme to provide independent advice on water policy. We explore the current and expected future challenges facing water management, and review the history of water policy in New Zealand. We note that there is a broad consensus that the current approach under the Resource Management Act is flawed, and there is momentum to develop a multi-faceted framework that examines those challenges to assist stakeholders in thinking about what needs to be done for freshwater policy.
    Keywords: Water Resource Management; Water Policy; New Zealand; Legislation; Freshwater Policy
    JEL: Q25 Q28
    Date: 2014–03–17
  20. By: Rocío Urbanos
    Date: 2014–03
  21. By: Daniel, M.; Sirieix, L.
    Abstract: This study examines the sustainable practices adopted by private individuals. Ten households observation, twenty-two face to-face interviews and three hundreds questionnaires highlight a number of daily practices combining sustainability-oriented and individualistic motivations. Three spheres of sustainable practices (purchases, habits and share/transmission) three patterns (occasional adoption, integration and compensation) and different consumer clusters appear. Recommendations for sustainable marketing are provided. ....French Abstract : Cet article étudie les pratiques durables adoptées quotidiennement par les individus. L'observation de 10 ménages, 22 interviews en face-à-face et 300 questionnaires permettent de comprendre la diversité des pratiques durables des individus oscillant entre motivations tournées vers le développement durable et tournées vers des intérêts plus personnels. Trois sphères de pratiques durables (achats, usages et transmission), trois régimes de pratiques (adoption ponctuelle, intégration et compensation) ainsi que différentes classes d'individus identifiées selon leurs pratiques motivées apparaissent. Cet article se termine par des recommandations pour le marketing durable.
    JEL: D1 M31 Q01
    Date: 2014
  22. By: Fatima Arib
    Abstract: Le Maroc est confronté à des défis complexes. L’économie verte pourrait lui offrir un nouveau cadre pour repenser son développement économique de manière stratégique et durable. Cette économie incite à utiliser la contrainte environnementale comme levier pour le développement durable, à travers notamment la relance de l'activité économique et de l'emploi, l'amélioration du bien-être des individus et la réduction des inégalités sociales. Cet article s’appuie sur le cas du Maroc, pour analyser les opportunités des éco-activités en général, et des éco services en particulier en termes de création d’emploi. Nous discutons également les différentes opportunités d’innovation qu’offrent ces services, pour promouvoir les interactions sociales, écologiques et économiques, dont l’objectif est le développement d’une économie verte. Nous nous attardons sur les conditions de mobilisation de ces opportunités pour en tirer profit dans la création de richesses et d’emplois au Maroc.
    Keywords: Maroc, économie verte, services, environnement, emploi, innovation.
    Date: 2014–03

This nep-env issue is ©2014 by Francisco S.Ramos. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.