nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2013‒12‒29
25 papers chosen by
Francisco S.Ramos
Federal University of Pernambuco

  1. Environmental regulation of a global pollution externality in a bilateral trade framework: The case of global warming, China and the US By Gwatipedza, Johnson; Barbier, Edward B.
  2. The Effect of Public Policies on Consumers' Preferences : Lessons from the French Automobile Market By Xavier d'Haultfoeuille; Isis Durrmeyer; Philippe Février
  3. Local consumption and territorial based accounting for CO2 Emissions By Kristinn, Hermannsson; Stuart G., McIntyre
  4. Tail-effect and the Role of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control By In Chang Hwang; Richard S.J. Tol; Marjan W. Hofkes
  5. Environmental policies in competitive electricity markets. By Langestraat, R.
  6. Policy-induced environmental technology and inventive efforts: Is there a crowding out? By Hottenrott, Hanna; Rexhäuser, Sascha
  7. Unilateral Emissions Mitigation, Spillovers, and Global Learning By Chatterji, Shurojit; Ghosal, Sayantan; Walsh, Sean; Whalley, John
  8. North-South Convergence and the Allocation of CO2 Emissions By Humberto Llavador; John E. Roemer; Joaquim Silvestre
  9. The Impact of Green Innovation on Employment Growth in Europe By Georg Licht; Bettina Peters
  10. Effluent Limits, Ambient Quality, and Monitoring By Arguedas, Carmen; Earnhart, Dietrich; Rousseau, Sandra
  11. Per-capita Income as a Determinant of International Trade and Environmental Policies By James R. Markusen
  12. Environmental Federalism: A Survey of the Empirical Literature By Millimet, Daniel L.
  13. Green Growth and Poverty Reduction: Policy Coherence for Pro-poor Growth By Michael King
  14. Economic incentives for biodiversity conservation: What is the evidence for motivation crowding? By Rode, Julian; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Krause, Torsten
  15. Emissions embodied in Chinese exports taking into account the special export structure of China By Matthias Weitzel; Tao Ma
  16. A constructive technology assessment of stationary energy storage systems: prospective life cycle orientated analysis By Manuel Johann Baumann
  17. Environmental Policies and Productivity Growth: A Critical Review of Empirical Findings By Tomasz Koźluk; Vera Zipperer
  18. How Green are Exporters? By Sourafel Girma; Aoife Hanley
  19. Governança das Políticas Ambientais no Brasil: Desafios à Construção de um Sistema Integrado de Avaliação By Adriana Maria Magalhães de Moura
  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis in reducing nutrient loading in Baltic and Black Seas: A review By Halkos , George
  21. Might electricity consumption cause urbanization instead? Evidence from heterogeneous panel long-run causality tests. By Liddle, Brantley; Lung, Sidney
  22. The benefits of solar home systems :an analysis from Bangladesh By Samad, Hussain A.; Khandk, Shahidur R.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Yunus, Mohammad
  23. Mitigating Long-run Health Effects of Drought: Evidence from South Africa By Taryn Dinkelman
  24. Handlungsoptionen für den Klimaschutz in der deutschen Agrar- und Forstwirtschaft By Osterburg, Bernhard; Rüter, Sebastian; Freibauer, Annette; de Witte, Thomas; Elsasser, Peter; Kätsch, Stephanie; Leischner, Bettina; Paulsen, Hans Marten; Rock, Joachim; Röder, Norbert; Sanders, Jürn; Schweinle, Jörg; Steuk, Johanna; Stichnothe, Heinz; Stümer, Wolfgang; Welling, Johannes; Wolff, Anne
  25. Auswirkungen der Biogaserzeugung auf die Landwirtschaft By Gömann, Horst; de Witte, Thomas; Peter, Günter; Tietz, Andreas

  1. By: Gwatipedza, Johnson; Barbier, Edward B.
    Abstract: Bilateral trade and capital flows have increased substantially between the United States and China yielding economic gains to both countries. However, these beneficial bilateral relations also bring about global environmental consequences including greenhouse gas emissions. We develop a footloose capital model of international trade between the North (United States) and the South (China) in the presence of a global pollution externality. Each country's share of global pollution depends on its share of world capital. We show that, if the disutility of pollution in the United States is high, there will be pressure on the US to raise environmental regulations on industry. Capital will move to China. Because the increased pollution in China has global effects, the US may not benefit from the environmental restrictions and a joint regulation of pollution by both parties may be a preferred outcome. We also show that the implementation of differential control policies by the parties may also be optimal. --
    Keywords: global pollution externality,agglomeration,environmental regulation,global warming,greenhouse gas emissions
    JEL: D43 Q54 F18
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Xavier d'Haultfoeuille (CREST); Isis Durrmeyer (University of Mannheim); Philippe Février (CREST)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate whether French consumers have modified their preferences towards environmentally-friendly vehicles between 2003 and 2008. We estimate a model of demand for automobiles incorporating both consumers’ heterogeneity and CO2 emissions of the vehicles. Our results show that there has been a shift in preferences towards low-emitting cars, with an average increase of 367 euros of the willingness to pay for a reduction of 10 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer. We also stress a large heterogeneity in the evolution of preferences between consumers. Rich and young people are more sensitive to environmental issues, and our results are in line with votes for the green party at the presidential elections. We relate these changes with two environmental policies that were introduced at these times, namely the obligation of indicating energy labels by the end of 2005 and a feebate based on CO2 emissions of new vehicles in 2008. Our results suggest that such policies have been efficient tools to shift consumers utility towards environmentally-friendly goods, the shift in preferences accounting for 20% of the overall decrease in average CO2emissions of new cars on the period
    Keywords: Environmental policy, Consumers'preferences, CO2 emissions, Automobiles
    JEL: D12 H23 L62 Q51
    Date: 2013–10
  3. By: Kristinn, Hermannsson; Stuart G., McIntyre
    Abstract: We examine the complications involved in attributing emissions at a sub-regional or local level. Speci cally, we look at how functional specialisation embedded within the metropolitan area can, via trade between sub-regions, create intra-metropolitan emissions interdependencies; and how this complicates environmental policy implementation in an analogous manner to international trade at the national level. For this purpose we use a 3-region emissions extended input-output model of the Glasgow metropolitan area (2 regions: city and surrounding suburban area) and the rest of Scotland. The model utilises data on commuter flows and household consumption to capture income and consumption flows across sub-regions. This enables a carbon attribution analysis at the sub-regional level, allowing us to shed light on the signi cant emissions interdependencies that can exist within metropolitan areas.
    Keywords: CO2 emissions, environmental accounting, regional interdependencies, metropoli- tan areas, commuting,
    Date: 2013
  4. By: In Chang Hwang (Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands); Richard S.J. Tol (Department of Economics, University of Sussex, Falmer, United Kingdom; Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Tinbergen Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; CESifo, Munich, Germany); Marjan W. Hofkes (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of emissions control on reducing the tail-effect of the fat-tailed distribution of the climate sensitivity. Through a simple analysis on temperature distributions and some numerical simulations using the well-known DICE model, we find that the option for emissions control effectively prevents the tail-effect. Climate policy based on HARA utility is less sensitive to fat tails than climate policy based on CRRA utility.
    JEL: Q54 Q58 H23
    Date: 2013–12
  5. By: Langestraat, R. (Tilburg University)
    Abstract: Abstract: In this thesis we model and analyze several environmental policies in an existing mathematical representation of a perfectly competitive electricity market. We contribute to the literature by theoretically and numerically establishing a number of effects of environmental policies on investment strategies and prices. We provide a theoretical benchmark for environmental regulators aiming to achieve certain policy goals, and present a way to use numerical tools in case a complete theoretical analysis cannot be obtained. Two policies that charge firms for their carbon emissions, namely cap-and-trade and carbon taxation, are modeled into both a stylized deterministic and a two-stage stochastic framework. In the former we characterize equilibria, leading to key results on the dispatching order of technologies and identification of unused technologies. The latter framework is analyzed through a sampling study and focuses on the effectiveness of the policies in the presence of network limitations. We successively study a renewable energy obligation, which indirectly subsidizes electricity production from renewable resources through green certificates. We additionally explore the effects of technology banding, meaning that different renewable technologies are eligible for a different number of certificates. To account for some of the drawbacks of the existing UK technology banding system, we introduce an alternative banding policy. Finally, a feed-in tariff (FIT) is a direct subsidy on electricity production from renewable resources. In a stochastic framework we derive analytically that under linear cost assumptions, this price based instrument cannot guarantee that quantity based policy targets are met. Assuming non-linear convex cost, we find that the opposite holds and that a regulator has the freedom to set FITs in such a way that any desired mixture of renewable technologies can be attained at equilibrium. These FITs are derived analytically or, when necessary, estimated using the numerical tools that we propose.
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Hottenrott, Hanna; Rexhäuser, Sascha
    Abstract: Significant policy effort is devoted to stimulate the development, adoption and diffusion of environmentally- friendly technology. Sceptics worry about the effects of regulation-induced environmental technology on firms' competitiveness. Since innovation is a crucial productivity driver, a potential crowding out of inventive efforts could increase the cost of mitigating environmental damage. Using matching techniques, we study the short-term effects of regulation-induced environmental technology on non-green innovative activities for a sample of firms in Germany. We find indeed some evidence for a crowding out of the firms' in-house R&D. The estimated treatment effect is larger for firms that are likely to face financing constraints. However, we do not find negative effects on the number of ongoing R&D projects, investments in innovation-related fixed assets or on the outcome of innovation projects. Likewise, for firms with subsidy-backed environmental innovations no crowding out is found. --
    Keywords: Environmental Policy,Regulation,R&D,Technological Change,Innovation,Crowding Out
    JEL: O32 O33 Q55
    Date: 2013
  7. By: Chatterji, Shurojit; Ghosal, Sayantan; Walsh, Sean; Whalley, John
    Abstract: What's the role of unilateral measures in global climate change mitigation in a post-Durban, post 2012 global policy regime? We argue that under conditions of preference heterogeneity, unilateral emissions mitigation at a subnational level may exist even when a nation is unwilling to commit to emission cuts. As the fraction of individuals unilaterally cutting emissions in a global strongly connected network of countries evolves over time, learning the costs of cutting emissions can result in the adoption of such activities globally and we establish that this will indeed happen under certain assumptions. We analyze the features of a policy proposal that could accelerate convergence to a low carbon world in the presence of global learning.
    Keywords: Unilateral initiatives, mitigation, spillovers, global learning, technology transfer,
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Humberto Llavador (Universitat Pompeu Fabra); John E. Roemer (Dept. of Political Science, Yale University); Joaquim Silvestre (University of California, Davis)
    Abstract: Mankind must cooperate to reduce GHG emissions to prevent a catastrophic rise in global temperature. How can the necessary costs of reducing GHG emissions be allocated across regions of the world, within the next few generations, and simultaneously address growth expectations and economic development? We postulate a two-region world and, based on sustainability and egalitarian criteria, calculate optimal paths in which a South, like China, and a North, like the United States, converge in welfare per capita to a path of sustained growth of 1% per year by 2080, while global CO2 emissions are restricted to the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP3-PD scenario: a conservative path that leads to the stabilization of concentrations under 450 ppm CO2, providing an expected temperature change not exceeding 2C. Growth expectations in the North and the South must be scaled back substantially, not only after 2080, but also in the transition period. Global negotiations to restrict emissions to an acceptably low level cannot succeed absent such an understanding. Feasible growth paths with low levels of emissions require heavy investments in education and knowledge. Northern and Southern growth must be restricted to 1% and 2.8% per year, respectively, over the next 75 years. Politicians who wish to solve the global-warming problem must prepare their polities to accept this reality.
    Keywords: Climate change, Sustainability, North-South convergence, International negotiations
    JEL: D63 F53 O40 O41 Q50 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2013–12
  9. By: Georg Licht; Bettina Peters
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of environmental innovation on employment growth using firmlevel data for 16 European countries and the period 2006-2008. It extends the model by Harrison et al (2008) in order to distinguish between employment effects of environmental and non-environmental product as well as process innovation. By looking at country and sector level differences, it also generates new insights into the heterogeneity of the environmental innovation-employment growth link along different dimensions. The results demonstrate that both environmental and non-environmental product innovations are conducive to employment growth in European firms. We estimate a gross employment effect of product innovation for both types of product innovators that is very similar in nearly all countries and sectors. That is, in most cases a one-percent increase in the sales due to new products for environmental product innovators also increases gross employment by one percent. This implies that there is no evidence that environmentally-friendly new products are produced with higher or lower efficiency than old products. Yet, we observe differences in the contribution of environmental and non-environmental product innovation to employment growth across countries or sectors that are the result of differences in the average innovation engagement and innovation success across countries or sectors. The absolute contribution to employment growth is positive for both types of new products. However, we find mixed evidence for the relative importance. In manufacturing the contribution of environmental product innovators was larger than that of non-environmental product innovators in half of the countries. In services, however, non-environmental product innovators matters more for growth in the vast majority of countries. In contrast, environmental and non-environmental process innovation plays only a little role for employment growth.
    Keywords: Environmental innovation, employment growth, Europe
    JEL: O33 J23 L80 C21 C23
    Date: 2013–12
  10. By: Arguedas, Carmen (Departamento de Análisis Económico (Teoría e Historia Económica). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.); Earnhart, Dietrich (Department of Economics, University of Kansas); Rousseau, Sandra (Center of Economic Studies, K.U.Leuven, Naamsestraat 69, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium,)
    Abstract: Effluent limits are frequently based on a uniform emission standard, which applies to all polluting facilities within a single industry. However, the implementation of many environmental protection laws does not lead to uniform effluent limits due to considerations of local environmental conditions. In this paper, we theoretically examine the relationships among the stringency of effluent limits imposed on individual polluting facilities, environmental protection agencies’ monitoring decisions, and the ambient quality of the local environment. We then extend the theoretical analysis by exploring the establishment of effluent limits when (1) the national emission standard represents only an upper bound on the local issuance of limits and (2) negotiation efforts expended by both regulated polluting facilities and environmentally concerned citizens play a role. We find that the negotiated discharge limit depends on the political weight enjoyed and the negotiation effort costs faced by both citizens and the regulated facility, along with the stringency of the national standard and local ambient quality conditions.
    Keywords: effluent limits; monitoring; inspections; environmental permits; wastewater; compliance.
    JEL: K42 L51 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2013–12
  11. By: James R. Markusen
    Abstract: International trade policy analysis has tended to focus on the production side of general equilibrium, with policies such as a tariff or carbon tax affecting international and internal income distributions through a Heckscher-Ohlin nexus of factor intensities and factor endowments. Here I move away from this structure to focus on demand and preferences. The specific context is an international environmental externality such as carbon emissions, and I assume a high income elasticity of demand for environmental quality. I analyze how per-capita income differences between two countries affect their abatement efforts in a non-cooperative policy-setting game. This outcome can then be used as a disagreement point to analyze cooperative Nash bargaining. In both outcomes, the poor country makes a lower abatement effort in equilibrium; indeed, it may make none at all and cooperative bargaining with only abatement levels as an instrument may offer no gains. Other features include a novel terms-of-trade externality in which an abating country passes on a part of its abatement cost to its trading partner, in which case the non-cooperative and cooperative outcomes are identical under special symmetry assumptions. When per-capita income differences are large, the poor country may be worse off when the rich country abates. Finally, I examine “issue linking” in international bargaining, in which one country is both large and rich, and hence has both a high tariff and a high abatement effort in a non-cooperative equilibrium.
    JEL: F1 F18 Q56
    Date: 2013–12
  12. By: Millimet, Daniel L. (Southern Methodist University)
    Abstract: Environmental federalism refers to the debate over the 'optimal' level of government at which to delegate environmental policymaking. Although this issue receives widespread attention across the globe, opinions run the gamut. The diversity of views plays out in practice as well as different federations have 'resolved' the issue differently. With the United States alone, environmental authority has oscillated between periods of relatively greater centralized and decentralized control. This article seeks to accomplish two objectives in order to advance the literature. The first objective is to provide a brief overview of the two primary theoretical frameworks – Tiebout (1956) and models of interjurisdictional competition – used to explore the effects of the decentralization of policy decisions such as taxes, expenditures, environmental standards, etc. The reason for doing so is to illuminate the issues that play a fundamental role in conclusions regarding the 'optimal' allocation of environmental authority. The second objective is to then provide a comprehensive survey of the relevant empirical literatures. By doing so, the goal is to limit the scope of the debate over environmental federalism moving forward, as well as make clear where the gaps in empirical knowledge exist.
    Keywords: environmental regulation, federalism, Tiebout, interjurisdictional competition
    JEL: H77 Q58
    Date: 2013–12
  13. By: Michael King
    Abstract: This paper explores the policy coherence for development (PCD) dimensions of green growth strategies pursued by OECD member states. The coherence challenge is to design OECD green growth policies in order to maximise the positive synergies and minimise the negatives effects on pro-poor growth in developing countries. Coherence issues across three cross-cutting themes, climate change, biodiversity and innovation policy, are considered, before a comprehensive set of PCD issues related to agricultural livelihoods, fisheries livelihoods and the energy and minor sectors in developing countries are discussed. In doing so three PCD case studies, Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA), the reform of EU biofuels policy and EU fisheries access, are presented and lessons for the green growth agenda are derived.
    Keywords: intellectual property rights, policy coherence for development, biofuels Policy, Pro-poor Growth, fisheries policy, green growth
    Date: 2013–12–16
  14. By: Rode, Julian; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Krause, Torsten
    Abstract: As economic incentives for biodiversity and ecosystem service protection (e.g., payments for ecosystem services) have become widespread in environmental science and policy, a major concern among conservationists and environmental scientists is that economic incentives may undermine people's intrinsic motivations to conserve biodiversity. In this paper we review the theoretical insights and empirical findings on motivation crowding effects with economic instruments for biodiversity protection. First, we synthesize the psychological mechanisms behind motivation crowding effects relevant for environmental behavior as identified in the specialized literature. We then conduct a systematic review of the empirical evidence. Our results show that, although several empirical studies suggest the existence of crowding-out and crowding-in effects, evidence remains inconclusive due to i) methodological limitations for empirical studies to demonstrate crowding effects, ii) lack of adequate baseline information about pre-existing intrinsic motivations, iii) weak comparability of results across case studies resulting from inconsistent terminology and methods, and iv) the complexity stemming from cultural and contextual heterogeneity. We conclude that, as economic instruments for conservation are increasingly implemented, it becomes paramount to develop robust methodologies for assessing pre-existing intrinsic motivations and changes in people's motivational structures. To address possible detrimental long term effects for conservation outcomes we call for caution in situations where high uncertainties remain. --
    Keywords: biodiversity,policy instruments,economic incentives,motivation crowding
    Date: 2013
  15. By: Matthias Weitzel; Tao Ma
    Abstract: Quantification of CO2 emissions embodied in China's trade is important for an informed debate on whom to blame for the recent rise in Chinese emissions or the calculation of border carbon adjustments. Applying input output techniques, we calculate these emissions in (1) a standard model, (2) a regionally disaggregated model, taking into account that export production is concentrated in more advanced and more emission efficient provinces and (3) in a model with export processing, taking into account that almost half of Chinese exports relies on a large share of imported intermediates and little domestic value and emissions added. We compare year 2007 emissions embodied for in Chinese exports in a unified framework. We also report emissions embodied in Chinese imports used for intermediate production of exports by combining calculations for China with data from global IO models. We find that both a model with 30 provinces (1730 Mt CO2) and a model accounting for export processing (1580 Mt) yield lower Chinese emissions embodied in exports compared to the standard model (1782 Mt). In the regional model, emissions are even lower (1522 Mt), if interprovincial trade is not taken into account
    Keywords: Emissions embodied in trade, China, input-output modelling, export processing, spatial disaggregation
    JEL: C67 F18 Q54
    Date: 2013–12
  16. By: Manuel Johann Baumann (ITAS, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and IET/CESNOVA, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia)
    Abstract: Environmental concerns over the use of fossil fuels and their resource constraints have increased the interest in generating electric energy from renewable energy sources (RES) to provide a sustainable electricity supply. A main problem of those technologies (wind or solar power generation) is that they are not constant and reliable sources of power. This results inter alia in an increased demand of energy storage technologies. Related stake holders show a big interest in the technical, economic and ecologic aspects of new emerging energy storage systems. This comes especially true for electrochemical energy storage systems as different Li-Ion batteries, Sodium Sulfur or Redox Flow batteries which can be utilized in all grid voltage levels, a wide range of grid applications as well as end user groups (e.g. private households, industry). A prospective and active Constructive Technology Assessment (CTA) can help to minimize potential mismatches, wrong investments, possible social conflicts, and environmental impacts of new energy storage technologies in an early development stage. It is insufficient to exclusively look at the operation phase to assess a technology. Such an approach can lead to misleading interpretations and can furthermore disregard social or ecological impact factors over the whole life cycle. Different energy storage technologies have to be evaluated in a prospective manner with a full integrated sustainability and life cycle approach to form a base for decision making and to support technology developers in order to allow distinctions between more or less sustainable battery technology variations. Therefore CTA is used as a scientific approach using several “neighbouring” engineering orientated disciplines e.g. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) or Life Cycle Costs (LCC) and their methodologies which were initially developed for other purposes.The aim of the presented PhD Thesis is to make an economic, technological and ecological comparison of Energy storage technologies based on a life cycle sustainability Analysis (LCSA), multi criteria Analysis (or evaluation) (MCA) and to develop a suitable LCSA-MCA model through a new combined highly interdisciplinary approach in frame of CTA.
    Keywords: renewable energy, electric energy, energy storage technologies, Life Cycle Analysis, Constructive Technology Assessment, sustainability
    JEL: O44 Q42 Q55 R49
    Date: 2013–01
  17. By: Tomasz Koźluk; Vera Zipperer
    Abstract: The economic effects of environmental policies are of central interest to policymakers. The traditional approach sees environmental policies as a burden on economic activity, at least in the short to medium term, as they raise costs without increasing output and restrict the set of production technologies and outputs. In contrast, the Porter Hypothesis claims that well-designed environmental policies can provide a ‘free lunch’ – encouraging innovation, bringing about gains in profitability and productivity that can outweigh the costs of the policy. This paper reviews the empirical evidence on the link between environmental policy stringency and productivity growth, and the various channels through which such effects can take place. The results are ambiguous, in particular as many of the studies are fragile and context-specific, impeding the generalisation of conclusions. Practical problems related to data, measurement and estimation strategies are discussed, leading to suggestions how they can be addressed in future research. These include: improving the measurement of environmental policy stringency; investigating into effects of different types of instruments and details of instrument design; exploiting cross-country variation; and the complementary use of different levels of aggregation. Politiques environnementales et croissance de la productivité : Un examen critique des résultats Les effets économiques des politiques environnementales revêtent un intérêt crucial pour les responsables de l'action publique. Suivant l'approche classique, les politiques environnementales sont considérées comme un fardeau pour l'activité économique, au moins dans une perspective de court à moyen terme, étant donné qu'elles entraînent une hausse des coûts sans pour autant faire augmenter la production et qu'elles limitent l'éventail des technologies de production et des produits. À l'inverse, suivant l'hypothèse de Porter, des politiques environnementales judicieusement conçues peuvent procurer des avantages sans contrepartie, en encourageant l'innovation et en débouchant sur des gains de rentabilité et de productivité qui peuvent l'emporter sur les coûts des politiques considérées. Nous examinons dans ce document de travail les données empiriques relatives à la relation existant entre la rigueur des politiques environnementales et la croissance de la productivité, ainsi que les différents canaux via lesquels les effets considérés peuvent se produire. Les résultats de cet examen sont ambigus, notamment dans la mesure où de nombreuses études sont fragiles et spécifiquement liées à un contexte donné, ce qui ne permet pas d'en généraliser les conclusions. Des problèmes pratiques liés aux données ainsi qu'aux stratégies de mesure et d'estimation sont examinés, et des propositions sont formulées en vue d'y remédier dans le cadre de futurs travaux de recherche. Il est notamment suggéré d'améliorer la mesure de la rigueur des politiques environnementales, d'analyser les effets des différents types d'instruments et d'examiner en détail leur conception, d'exploiter les variations observées entre pays, et d'utiliser de manière complémentaire différents niveaux d'agrégation.
    Keywords: productivity, environmental policy, Porter hypothesis, innovation, innovation, hypothèse de Porter, politiques environnementales, productivité
    JEL: D24 O31 O47 Q50 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2013–11–19
  18. By: Sourafel Girma; Aoife Hanley
    Abstract: There is a well-established theoretical and empirical literature that shows that exporters are more innovative than otherwise equivalent non-exporters. In this paper we ask whether this is also true when it comes to the effects of adopting greener production techniques. Using an instrumental variables strategy based on UK firm level data, we find robust evidence that exporters are more likely to report their innovation as having a ‘high/very high’ environmental effect
    Keywords: Environment and Trade, Technological Innovation
    JEL: Q56 Q55
    Date: 2013–12
  19. By: Adriana Maria Magalhães de Moura
    Abstract: A avaliação é vista como um dos pilares da gestão pública voltada para resultados, como insumo necessário para a tomada de decisão, maior transparência nas ações de governo, controle no uso dos recursos públicos e prestação de contas (accountability) perante a sociedade. A avaliação de políticas ambientais é um campo relativamente recente e que necessita ser mais bem estudado, particularmente no Brasil, no intuito de aprimorar a formulação e a execução destas políticas. Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar a sistemática de avaliação de políticas ambientais empregadas pelas instituições do governo federal que desempenham a função avaliativa, bem como pela área responsável pela formulação das políticas ambientais. Discute-se em que medida os modelos avaliativos adotados atendem às necessidades dos gestores e se propõem alternativas para o aperfeiçoamento da sistemática de avaliação das políticas ambientais, por meio de um sistema integrado de avaliação. Evaluation is a pillar of results-oriented public management, as necessary input to the decision making process, greater transparency in government actions, control the use of public resources and accountability to society. The evaluation of environmental policies is a relatively new field and it needs to be further investigated, particularly in Brazil, in order to improve the formulation and implementation of these policies. The present study aimed to analyze the systematic evaluation of environmental policies employed by the Federal Government institutions which perform the function evaluation, as well as the area responsible for the formulation of environmental policies. It discusses the extent to which evaluation models adopted meet the needs of managers and propose alternatives for improving the systematic evaluation of environmental policies, through an integrated assessment.
    Date: 2013–12
  20. By: Halkos , George
    Abstract: Eutrophication represents a global environmental pressure that necessitates international co-operation and the diffusion of information to avoid information asymmetries, the construction of an appropriate legislative framework, the development of monitoring technologies and scientific research to provide the evidence base for any policy interventions. The health condition of the Baltic and Black Seas has deteriorated over a long period due to increases in nutrient inputs from anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic sources. The current report aims at providing a review of the literature and defining the possible gaps concerning (1) the attempts at regulatory intervention to address the problem of eutrophication in the Baltic and Black Seas, (2) the methodological issues in constructing a cost-effectiveness analysis, (3) the available applications of cost-effectiveness studies conducted and (4) the uncertainties and risks entailed in the cost-effectiveness studies.
    Keywords: Eutrophication; cost-effectiveness analysis; abatement measures; nutrient loading; Baltic Sea; Black Sea.
    JEL: Q00 Q01 Q25 Q50 Q53
    Date: 2013–11
  21. By: Liddle, Brantley; Lung, Sidney
    Abstract: The share of a population living in urban areas, or urbanization, is both an important demographic, socio-economic phenomenon and a popular explanatory variable in macro-level models of energy and electricity consumption and their resulting carbon emissions. Indeed, there is a substantial, growing subset of the global modeling literature that seeks to link urbanization with energy and electricity consumption, as well as with carbon emissions. This paper aims to inform both modelers and model consumers about the appropriateness of establishing such a link by examining the nature of long-run causality between electricity consumption and urbanization using heterogeneous panel methods and data from 105 countries spanning 1971-2009. In addition, the analysis of the time series properties of urbanization has implications both for modelers and for understanding the urbanization phenomenon. We consider total, industrial, and residential aggregations of electricity consumption per capita, three income-based panels, and three geography-based panels for non-OECD countries. The panel unit root, cointegration, and causality tests used account for cross-sectional dependence, nonstationarity, and heterogeneity—all of which are present in the data set. We cannot reject pervasively Granger causality in the urbanization to electricity consumption direction. However, the causality finding that is both the strongest and most similar across the various panels is that of long-run Granger causality from electricity consumption to urbanization. In other words, the employment and quality of life opportunities that access to electricity afford likely encourage migration to cities, and thus, cause urbanization. Also, nearly all countries’ urbanization series contained structural breaks, and the most recent post-break annual change rates suggested that nearly all countries’ rates of urbanization change were slowing. Lastly, future modeling work on energy consumption or carbon emissions should consider subnational scales of analysis, and focus on measures of urban density or urban form rather than national urbanization levels.
    Keywords: urbanization and electricity; long-run panel Granger causality; panel unit roots; cross-sectional dependence; panel heterogeneity
    JEL: Q4
    Date: 2013
  22. By: Samad, Hussain A.; Khandk, Shahidur R.; Asaduzzaman, M.; Yunus, Mohammad
    Abstract: The Government of Bangladesh, with help from the World Bank and other donors, has provided aid to a local agency called Infrastructure Development Company Limited and its partner organizations to devise a credit scheme for marketing solar home system units and making these an affordable alternative to grid electricity for poor people in remote areas. This paper uses household survey data to examine the financing scheme behind the dissemination of these solar home systems, in particular the role of the subsidy; the factors that determine the adoption of the systems in rural Bangladesh; and the welfare impacts of such adoption. The paper finds that while the subsidy has been declining over time, the demand for solar home systems has seen phenomenal growth, mostly because of technological developments that have made the systems increasingly more affordable. Households with better physical and educational endowments are more likely to adopt solar home systems than poor households. The price of the system matters in household decision making -- a 10 percent decline in the price of the system increases the overall demand for a solar panel by 2 percent. As for the benefits, adoption of a solar home system improves children’s evening study time, lowers kerosene consumption, and provides health benefits for household members, in particular for women. It is also found to increase women's decision-making ability in certain household affairs. Finally, it is found to increase household consumption expenditure, although at a small scale.
    Keywords: Energy Production and Transportation,Renewable Energy,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Climate Change Economics,Economic Theory&Research
    Date: 2013–12–01
  23. By: Taryn Dinkelman
    Abstract: Drought is Africa’s primary natural disaster and a pervasive source of income risk for poor households. This paper documents the long-run health effects of early life exposure to drought and investigates an important source of heterogeneity in these effects. Combining birth cohort variation in South African Census data with cross-sectional and temporal drought variation, I estimate long-run health impacts of drought exposure among Africans confined to homelands during apartheid. Drought exposure in early childhood significantly raises later life male disability rates by 4% and reduces cohort size. Among a subset of homelands – the TBVC areas – disability effects are double and negative cohort effects are significantly larger. I show that differences in spatial mobility restrictions that influence the extent of migrant networks across TBVC and non-TBVC areas contribute to this heterogeneity. Placebo checks show no differential disability impacts of drought exposure across TBVC and non-TBVC areas after the repeal of migration restrictions. The results show that although drought has significant long-run effects on health human capital, migrant networks in poor economies provide one channel through which families mitigate these negative impacts of local environmental shock.
    JEL: I15 J61 N37 O15
    Date: 2013–12
  24. By: Osterburg, Bernhard; Rüter, Sebastian; Freibauer, Annette; de Witte, Thomas; Elsasser, Peter; Kätsch, Stephanie; Leischner, Bettina; Paulsen, Hans Marten; Rock, Joachim; Röder, Norbert; Sanders, Jürn; Schweinle, Jörg; Steuk, Johanna; Stichnothe, Heinz; Stümer, Wolfgang; Welling, Johannes; Wolff, Anne
    Abstract: Gegenstand des Berichts ist die Rolle der UNFCCC-Quellgruppen Landwirtschaft sowie Landnutzung, Landnutzungsänderung und Forstwirtschaft (land use, land use change and forestry, LULUCF) bei der künftigen Reduzierung von THG-Emissionen in Deutschland. In Kapitel 2 werden Stand und Entwicklung der THG-Emissionen dieser Quellgruppen anhand der Daten aus der nationalen Emissionsberichterstattung dargestellt. Die Weiterentwicklung der klimaschutzpolitischen Rahmenbedingungen wird in Kapitel 3 nachgezeichnet, wobei die für Landwirtschaft und LULUCF relevanten Aspekte näher beleuchtet werden. Aufbauend auf einen Überblick über klimaschutzpolitische Aktivitäten von Bund und Ländern in der Land-, Forst- und Holzwirtschaft (Kapitel 4) werden in Kapitel 5 konkrete Maßnahmenoptionen beschrieben und bewertet. Der Bericht schließt mit Empfehlungen zur Umsetzung. Da für den Forst- und Holzbereich bereits ausgearbeitete Strategien vorliegen, besteht Handlungsbedarf besonders bezüglich der Frage, wie die Landwirtschaft künftig in nationale Klimaschutzziele eingebunden werden soll. --
    Date: 2013
  25. By: Gömann, Horst; de Witte, Thomas; Peter, Günter; Tietz, Andreas
    Abstract: In der Studie wurden die Auswirkungen der rasanten, regional sehr unterschiedlichen Ausdeh-nung der Biogaserzeugung und des dafür erforderlichen Energiepflanzenanbaus auf die innersektoralen Wechselwirkungen, die Boden- und Pachtmärkte sowie auf die Ernährungs- und Futtermittelindustrie untersucht und regionale Aspekte herausgearbeitet. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass der Einfluss der Agrarpreise auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Biogasanlagen, die vorrangig mit nachwachsenden Rohstoffen betrieben werden, entscheidender ist als die Novellierung des Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) von 2012. Die Wirtschaftlichkeitsschwelle wird bei Getreidepreisen von mehr als 200 Euro/t kaum erreicht, so dass die derzeitige Stagnation des Ausbaus von Biogasanlagen in erster Linie auf die momentan hohen Agrarpreise zurückzuführen ist. Angesichts der zunehmenden Konkurrenz um Fläche zur Futter- bzw. Substratproduktion sowie zur Ausbringung zusätzlicher Nährstoffe in Gärresten lässt sich vor allem in Milch- und Veredlungsregionen ein deutlicher Anstieg der Pachtpreise nachweisen. Für die Ernährungs- und Futtermittelindustrie kann aus theoretischer Sicht von Auswirkungen der gestiegenen Biogaserzeugung ausgegangen werden. Allerdings lassen sich diese nur schwer quantifizieren und kaum validieren. -- In this study, the impact of the rapid, regionally very different development of biogas production and the necessary energy plant crops will be considered in terms of interactions within the agricultural sector, land and leasing markets, as well as the food and feedstuff industries, and regional aspects will be defined. It could be shown that the influence of agricultural price development on the economic viability of biogas facilities, which are primarily operated with renewable resources, is more decisive than the revised Renewable Energy Law (EEG) of 2012. The economic threshold is hardly attained with a grain price of more than 200 Euro/ton, so that the momentary stagnation in the building of biogas facilities can primarily be traced back to the currently high agricultural prices. In light of the increasing competition for land to grow feed or substrate, as well as for distributing additional nutrients in fermentation residues, a serious increase in leasing prices can be seen above all in milk and breeding regions. From a theoretical perspective, an impact of the increased biogas production can be assumed for the food and feedstuff industries. However these can only be quantified with difficulty and can hardly be validated.
    Keywords: Erneuerbares-Energien-Gesetz,Biogaserzeugung,Landnutzungsänderungen,Agrarsektor,Boden- und Pachtmärkte,Renewable Energy Law,biogas production,land use change,agricultural sector,land and leasing markets
    JEL: O13 Q12 Q13 Q15 Q42
    Date: 2013

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