nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2013‒10‒25
38 papers chosen by
Francisco S.Ramos
Federal University of Pernambuco

  1. How much is the Amazon worth ? the state of knowledge concerning the value of preserving amazon rainforests By May, Peter H.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Strand, Jon
  2. The Effect of Public Policies on Consumers' Preferences: Lessons from the French Automobile Market By D'Haultfoeuille, Xavier; Durrmeyer, Isis; Février, Philippe
  3. Addressing Competitiveness and Carbon Leakage Impacts Arising from Multiple Carbon Markets: A Modelling Assessment By Elisa Lanzi; Damian Mullaly; Jean Chateau; Rob Dellink
  4. The European Union Emissions Trading System : should we throw the flagship out with the bathwater ? By Frédéric Branger; Oskar Lecuyer; Philippe Quirion
  5. Optimal growth under a climate constraint By Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Moreaux, Michel
  6. Firm competitiveness and the European union emissions trading scheme By Chan, Hei Sing; Li, Shanjun; Zhang, Fan
  7. Low climate stabilisation under diverse growth and convergence scenarios By Patrick Criqui; Mikel Gonzalez-Eguino; Anil Markandaya; Silvana Mima
  8. Mitigation and Heterogeneity in Management Practices on New Zealand Dairy Farms By Simon Anastasiadis; Suzi Kerr
  9. Climate and Carbon: Aligning Prices and Policies By OECD
  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Small Industries By Mohajan, Haradhan
  11. Ireland's Carbon Tax and the Fiscal Crisis: Issues in Fiscal Adjustment, Environmental Effectiveness, Competitiveness, Leakage and Equity Implications By Frank J. Convery; Louise Dunne; Deirdre Joyce
  12. Green Spending Reforms, Growth and Welfare with Endogenous Subjective Discounting By Eugenia Vella; Evangelos Dioikitopoulos; Sarantis Kalyvitis
  13. Climate, ecosystem resilience and the slave trade By Fenske, James; Kala, Namrata
  14. Economic benefits of decarbonising the global electricity sector By J. F. Mercure; P. Salas; A. Foley; U. Chewpreecha; H. Pollitt; P. B. Holden; N. R. Edwards
  15. Analysis of Climate Policies with GDyn-E By Golub, Alla
  16. The Consequences of Urban Air Pollution for Child Health: What does Self Reporting Data in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area Reveal? By Mia Amalia; Budy P. Resosudarmo; Jeff Bennett
  17. White Knights: Will wind and solar come to the rescue of a looming capacity gap from nuclear phase-out or slow CCS start-up? By Bradford Griffin; Pierre Buisson; Patrick Criqui; Silvana Mima
  18. Assessing and ordering investments in polluting fossil-fueled and zero-carbon capital By Oskar Lecuyer; Adrien Vogt-Schilb
  19. Should marginal abatement costs differ across sectors? The effect of low-carbon capital accumulation By Adrien Vogt-Schilb; Guy Meunier; Stéphane Hallegatte
  20. Les véhicules électrifiés réduisent-ils les émissions de carbone ? Un raisonnement prospectif By Adrien Vogt-Schilb; Céline Guivarch; Jean-Charles Hourcade
  21. Are Per Capita CO2 Emissions Increasing Among OECD Countries? A Test of Trends and Breaks By Yamazaki, Satoshi; Tian, Jing; Tchatoka, Firmin Doko
  22. Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry competitiveness losses? Insights from a meta-analysis of recent economic studies By Frédéric Branger; Philippe Quirion
  23. Is participatory social learning a performance driver for Chinese smallholder farmers? By Huanxiu Guo; S�bastien MARCHAND
  24. Waste of Effort? International Environmental Agreements By Derek Kellenberg; Arik Levinson
  25. Multilateral Environmental Agreements in the WTO: Silence Speaks Volumes By Horn, Henrik; Mavroides, Petros C.
  26. The Political Economy of British Columbia's Carbon Tax By Kathryn Harrison
  27. A Characterisation of Environmental Labelling and Information Schemes By Guillaume Gruère
  28. Carbon Leakage and Capacity-Based Allocations. Is the EU right? By Guy Meunier; Jean-Pierre Ponssard; Philippe Quirion
  29. Transitions énergétiques en France: Enseignements d'exercices de prospective By Ruben Bibas; Jean-Charles Hourcade
  30. Exports and Participation in Clean Development Mechanism [CDM] in Technology Intensive Industries in India By Sahu, Santosh Kumar; Narayanan, K.
  31. Comptabilité agricole et développement durable : étude comparative de la Russie et de la France. By Altukhova, Yulia
  32. Debris Management By Shinichi Sakai; Sofia U. Bettencourt
  33. The Cost of Solar-Centric Renewable Portfolio Standards By Timothy J. Considine; Edward J. M. Manderson
  34. Ramsey discounting of ecosystem services By Stefan Baumgaertner; Alexandra M. Klein; Denise Thiel; Klara Winkler
  35. Une analyse des liens entre types de Green IT et stratégies RSE - An analysis of links between Green IT types and CSR strategies By Amélie Bohas; Nathalie Dagorn; Nicolas Poussing
  36. Valuing natural assets By Clough, Peter; Hickman, Matt; Stephenson, John
  37. Land sharing vs. land sparing for biodiversity: How agricultural markets make the difference By Couvet, Denis; Desquilbet, Marion; Dorin, Bruno
  38. Input usage and productivity in Indian manufacturing plants By Ghani, Ejaz; Kerr, William R.; O'Connell, Stephen D.

  1. By: May, Peter H.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira; Strand, Jon
    Abstract: This paper surveys the current state of knowledge concerning the value of the Amazon rainforest, including a survey of work to date to quantify changes in economic values when the rainforest cover changes. The focus is on local and regional impacts of forest loss or protection, including both gross values of forest protection and opportunity costs of converting the forest to other uses including agriculture. Important gross value items surveyed are timber and non-timber product extraction from a sustainably maintained rainforest; local values of eco-tourism; biological resources including bio-prospecting; a range of hydrological impacts including watershed protection, hydropower production, and changes in rainfall patterns; and impacts of forest fires and their control. Mapping such values in geographical space is of high value for implementing efficient and effective (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation ) programs for protecting the remaining forest. The current data basis for such mapping is found to be quite weak and in need of improvement for all value elements.
    Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Environmental Economics&Policies,Wildlife Resources,Climate Change and Environment,Forestry
    Date: 2013–10–01
  2. By: D'Haultfoeuille, Xavier; Durrmeyer, Isis; Février, Philippe
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate whether French consumers have modified their preferences towards environmentally-friendly vehicles between 2003 and 2008. We estimate a model of demand for automobiles incorporating both consumers' heterogeneity and CO2 emissions of the vehicles. Our results show that there has been a shift in preferences towards low-emitting cars, with an average increase of 367 euros of the willingness to pay for a reduction of 10 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometer. We also stress a large heterogeneity in the evolution of preferences between consumers. Rich and young people are more sensitive to environmental issues, and our results are in line with votes for the green party at the presidential elections. We relate these changes with two environmental policies that were introduced at these times, namely the obligation of indicating energy labels by the end of 2005 and a feebate based on CO2 emissions of new vehicles in 2008. Our results suggest that such policies have been efficient tools to shift consumers utility towards environmentally-friendly goods, the shift in preferences accounting for 20% of the overall decrease in average CO2 emissions of new cars on the period.
    Keywords: environmental policy; consumers' preferences; CO2 emissions; automobiles
    JEL: D12 H23 L62 Q51
    Date: 2013–10–10
  3. By: Elisa Lanzi; Damian Mullaly; Jean Chateau; Rob Dellink
    Abstract: Competitiveness and carbon leakage issues have been some of the main concerns in the implementation and discussions of climate policies. These concerns are particularly important in the presence of multiple carbon markets since differences in climate change policy approaches may have impacts on the relative competitiveness of domestic sectors in countries with more stringent policies, and on the environmental effectiveness through carbon leakage. This paper examines the macroeconomic and sectoral competitiveness and carbon leakage impacts associated with a range of stylised mitigation policy scenarios. The scenarios reflect different depictions of carbon markets in terms of their level of linkages, their coverage (i.e. number of countries participating, types of gases and sectors) and the stringency of the carbon pricing policy across countries. The paper also investigates some policies to address competitiveness and carbon leakage issues. The analysis considers border carbon adjustments (BCAs) as well as direct and indirect (offset-based) linking of carbon markets. The results show that in presence of multiple carbon markets, competitiveness can decrease in countries that undertake climate policies, also leading to carbon leakage. The negative sectoral competitiveness and leakage effects can be reduced when more countries act, more emission sources are covered, and when the climate mitigation policy is harmonised across countries. The results also show that response policies, such as BCAs and linking of carbon markets, can address some, but not all, of the competitiveness and carbon leakage issues. While BCAs are more effective in addressing domestic competitiveness concerns than linking instruments, the latter are better in preserving the welfare of countries that are not undertaking a climate policy.
    Keywords: competitiveness, climate change, mitigation, border tax adjustment, computable general equilibrium model
    JEL: D58 H25 Q54
    Date: 2013–09–11
  4. By: Frédéric Branger (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Oskar Lecuyer (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Philippe Quirion (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: The European Union Emissions Trading System (EU-ETS), presented as the ''flagship'' of European climate policy, is subject to many criticisms from different stakeholders. Criticisms include the insufficient carbon emissions reduction, the competitiveness losses and the induced carbon leakages, the unfair distributional effects, the frauds and the existence of several other overlapping climate policy instruments. We review these criticisms and find the EU-ETS brought small but real abatements. The competitiveness losses and carbon leakages do not seem to have occurred. The distributional effects have indeed been unfair and fraud has been important. Finally, the scheme does not justify abandoning other climate policies. Some of these problems could have been avoided and can still be corrected by rethinking flexibility mechanisms and by adding some control over the carbon price.
    Keywords: EU-ETS; climate policy; carbon price; flexibility mechanisms; carbon leakage; competitiveness; frauds; distributional effects
    Date: 2013–07
  5. By: Amigues, Jean-Pierre; Moreaux, Michel
    Abstract: Inside a standard growth model with exhaustible resources, we study the optimal growth policy of an economy submitted to a climate constraint, taking the form of a ceiling over admissible atmospheric carbon concentrations. The optimal scenario is a three phases path: a rise of carbon concentrations until the carbon cap is attained followed by a time phase constrained by the ceiling on possible emissions and a last unconstrained phase of resource depletion. Depending upon the primitives of the model we show that the optimal path may be of two main kinds: paths characterized by a positive growth of the economy and paths corresponding to a complex structural adjustment process involving negative growth during some time interval.
    Keywords: Carbon pollution; economic growth; exhaustible resources
    JEL: Q00 Q32 Q43 Q54
    Date: 2013–01
  6. By: Chan, Hei Sing; Li, Shanjun; Zhang, Fan
    Abstract: The European Union Emissions Trading Scheme is the first international cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide and the largest carbon pricing regime in the world. A significant concern over the Emissions Trading Scheme has been the potential impact on the competitiveness of industry. Using data on 5,873 firms in ten European countries during 2001-2009, this paper assesses the impact on three variables through which the effects on firm competitiveness may manifest -- unit material costs, employment and revenue. The analysis focuses on the three most heavily-emitting industries under the program -- power, cement, and iron and steel. Empirical results indicate that the Emissions Trading Scheme has had different impacts across these three sectors. Although no impacts are found on any of the three variables in the cement and iron and steel industries, a positive effect is found on both material costs and revenue in the power sector. The effect on material costs likely reflects fuel-switching to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, while that on revenue may be partly due to cost pass-through to consumers in a market that is less exposed to competition outside the Europen Union. Overall the findings do not substantiate concerns over carbon leakage, job loss or industry competitiveness during the study period.
    Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Climate Change Economics,Energy Production and Transportation,E-Business,Environment and Energy Efficiency
    Date: 2013–10–01
  7. By: Patrick Criqui (PACTE - Politiques publiques, ACtion politique, TErritoires - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Grenoble - CNRS : UMR5194 - Université Pierre-Mendès-France - Grenoble II - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble I); Mikel Gonzalez-Eguino (BC3 - Basque Centre for Climate Change - Basque Centre for Climate change); Anil Markandaya (BC3 - Basque Centre for Climate Change - Basque Centre for Climate change); Silvana Mima (LEPII - Laboratoire d'Économie de la Production et de l'Intégration Internationale - CNRS : FRE3389 - Université Pierre-Mendès-France - Grenoble II)
    Abstract: Few papers have analysed the consequences of low climate stabilisation. Most models and scenarios assume that future trends in global GDP will be similar to the growth experienced in the past century, which would imply multiplying current output nineteen-fold in this century. However, natural resource and environmental constraints suggest that future global economic growth may not be so high. Furthermore, the environmental implications of such growth depend on how it is distributed across countries. This paper studies the implications on GHG abatement policies of different assumptions on global GDP growth and convergence levels. A partial equilibrium model (POLES) of the world's energy system is used to provide detailed projections up to 2050 for the different regions of the world. The results suggest that while low stabilisation is technically feasible and economically viable for the world in all the scenarios considered, it is more likely to occur with more modest global growth. Convergence in living standards on the other hand places greater pressures in terms of the required reduction in emissions. In general we find that there are major differences between regions in terms of the size and the timing of abatement costs and economic impact.
    Keywords: Climate policy ; Economic growth ; Convergence ; Energy forecasting ; Abatement cost ; Partial Equilibrium models ; Energy systems
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Simon Anastasiadis (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Suzi Kerr (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: Pastoral farming can result in adverse environmental effects such as nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the cost of mitigation and hence the socially appropriate level of tolerance for environmental effects is still unclear. Research to date within New Zealand has either estimated the costs of specific mitigation technologies or used simulation modelling at a farm scale. This is limited for two key reasons: neither approach uses data from actual implementation of technologies and practices on real farms and hence costs are speculative; and both largely treat farms as homogenous when in reality they vary greatly. We use data on 264 farms to estimate a distribution of “farm management” residuals in how efficiently nitrogen leaching and greenhouse gas are used to generate production. We interpret this distribution as a measure of the potential for feasible, relatively low-cost mitigation to take place as less efficient farmers move toward existing best practice. We can explain only 48% percent of the OVERSEER-modelled variation in New Zealand dairy farms’ nitrogen use efficiency based on geophysical factors, specific mitigation technologies and practices that move emissions across farms such as wintering off animals. This suggests a potentially large role for management factors and farmer skill. In contrast, OVERSEER-modelled variation in greenhouse gas use efficiency is more easily explained by the observable factors (73%) but the potential for mitigation through management changes is still not insignificant. Using management practices that are already in commercial use, this first study using this approach suggests that improvements in nitrogen use efficiency may be able to reduce leaching by more than 30 percent, while improvements in greenhouse gas use efficiency may be able to reduce emissions by more than 15 percent; the potential varies considerably across farms.
    Keywords: Marginal abatement cost curves, climate change, agriculture, greenhouse gas, heterogeneity, leaching, mitigation, nitrogen, use efficiency
    JEL: Q53 Q57
    Date: 2013–10
  9. By: OECD
    Abstract: The international community has agreed to limit the average global temperature increase to no more than 2ºC above pre-industrial levels. This will require a gradual phase-out of fossil fuel emissions by the second half of this century. This report brings together lessons learned from OECD analysis on carbon pricing and climate policies. It recommends that governments ensure coherent policies surrounding the gradual phase-out of fossil fuel emissions and consistent signals to consumers, producers and investors alike. A key component of this approach is putting an explicit price on every tonne of CO2 emitted. Explicit pricing instruments, however, may not cover all sources of emissions and will often need to be complemented by other policies that effectively put an implicit price on emissions. But the policies must be mutually supportive and as cost-effective as possible, both on their own and as a package. In addition, tax exemptions and fossil-fuel subsidies that undermine the transition towards zero carbon solutions must be reformed. Finally, the report highlights the issues of competitiveness, distributional impacts and communication as key elements in implementing climate policy reform. Climat et carbone : rapprochement de la politique et des prix La communauté internationale s’est accordée sur la nécessité de maintenir l'augmentation de la température moyenne de la planète en deçà de 2º C par rapport au niveau de l'ère préindustrielle. Cela nécessitera une élimination progressive des émissions liées aux combustibles fossiles durant la seconde moitié de ce siècle. Ce rapport rassemble les enseignements tirés de l’analyse de l’OCDE sur la tarification du carbone et les politiques en matière de changement climatique. Il recommande aux gouvernements de s’assurer de la cohérence à la fois des politiques visant à la suppression progressive des émissions liées aux combustibles fossiles, et des signaux envoyés aux consommateurs, producteurs et investisseurs. Un élément clé de cette approche consiste à établir de façon explicite un prix pour chaque tonne de CO2 émise. Toutes les sources d’émissions ne peuvent cependant pas se prêter à une telle approche et il sera nécessaire de faire appel à d’autres mesures établissant un prix du carbone de manière implicite. Les politiques mises en place doivent se soutenir mutuellement et offrir un bon rapport coût/efficacité, à la fois individuellement et collectivement. De plus, il est nécessaire de réformer les exemptions fiscales et les subventions aux combustibles fossiles qui compromettent la transition vers des solutions décarbonées. Enfin, le rapport souligne le rôle clé des questions de compétitivité, des effets redistributifs, ainsi que l’importance de la communication pour mettre en oeuvre la réforme des politiques en matière de changement climatique.
    Date: 2013–10–09
  10. By: Mohajan, Haradhan
    Abstract: This paper discusses mathematical calculations of the greenhouse gas emissions from small industries which cause the global warming in the atmosphere. Due to global warming the ocean levels are increasing, it is estimated that most of the coastal areas of the world will be submerged by 2050, and some insects and animals will be extinct. Very simple calculations are presented here to estimate three greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions from small industry. The emissions from fossil fuels in a small mill are given with mathematical calculations. Emissions from combined heat and power plants are allocated in this paper by using ‘The World Resources Institute and World Business Council for Sustainable Development Efficiency’ method.
    Keywords: Greenhouse gas emissions, Biomass, Fossil fuels, Kyoto Protocol 1997.
    JEL: Q5
    Date: 2013–02–22
  11. By: Frank J. Convery; Louise Dunne; Deirdre Joyce
    Abstract: Beginning in late 2008, Ireland experienced a fiscal crisis. This resulted in November 2010 in agreement between the Irish government and the European Central Bank, the European Commission and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) – known collectively as ‘the Troika’ – whereby the latter provided substantial financial support, on condition that a number of revenue raising and expenditure reduction targets were met. Also in 2010, a carbon tax at a rate of EUR 15 per tonne of CO2 was introduced, covering most CO2 emissions from the non-traded sectors (mainly transport, heat in buildings and heat and process emissions by small enterprises). This paper describes the features of the tax, recounts the story of its interplay between fiscal adjustment and helping meet the obligations to raise taxes, and implications for competitiveness and carbon leakage, environmental effectiveness and equity issues, and draws some conclusions regarding why it happened, and provides some tentative insights for other countries in a similar situation. The circumstances that resulted in a carbon tax being proposed and subsequently introduced in Ireland include: Leadership by the Green Party; limited public opposition; Government need for the income; supports the Green Economy; support from the academic and wider policy population; exemptions for large emitters (many in EU ETS) and agriculture; effective engagement and good planning... L’Irlande a connu fin 2008 une crise budgétaire qui a conduit son gouvernement à conclure, en novembre 2010, un accord avec la Banque centrale européenne, la Commission européenne et le Fonds monétaire international (FMI) – collectivement dénommés la « Troïka » – dans lequel ce dernier s’engage à lui apporter une aide financière conséquente, sous réserve qu’elle remplisse un certain nombre d’objectifs en matière de prélèvements fiscaux et de réduction des dépenses. En 2010 a été également mise en place une taxe carbone de 15 EUR par tonne de CO2, couvrant la plupart des émissions de CO2 des secteurs hors SCEQE (transport, chauffage des bâtiments et chauffage et procédés des petites entreprises, principalement). Ce rapport décrit les caractéristiques de cette taxe, relate ses interactions avec le rééquilibrage budgétaire et les obligations de prélèvements fiscaux, examine ses conséquences pour la compétitivité et le transfert d’émissions de carbone, son efficacité environnementale et les questions d’équité, et tire certaines conclusions sur les raisons qui ont poussé l’Irlande à faire ce choix, en proposant plusieurs enseignements qui pourraient se révéler utiles aux pays confrontés à une situation analogue. La taxe carbone a été proposée puis mise en oeuvre en Irlande dans un contexte bien particulier caractérisé par : le rôle moteur du Green Party ; la faible opposition du public ; un État en quête de recettes ; la promotion de l’Économie verte ; le soutien des milieux universitaires et des responsables publics en général ; l’exonération des grands émetteurs (inclus pour beaucoup dans le SCEQE) et de l’agriculture ; un réel engagement et une bonne planification...
    Keywords: carbon tax, policy lessons, fiscal adjustment, taxe carbone, enseignements pour l’action, ajustement budgétaire
    JEL: P48 Q38 Q48 Q58
    Date: 2013–10–03
  12. By: Eugenia Vella; Evangelos Dioikitopoulos (Brunel University); Sarantis Kalyvitis (DIEES, AUEB)
    Abstract: This paper studies optimal fiscal policy, in the form of taxation and the allocation of tax revenues between infrastructure and environmental investment, in a general-equilibrium growth model with endogenous subjective discounting. A green spending reform, defined as a reallocation of government expenditures towards the environment, can procure a double dividend by raising growth and improving environmental conditions, although the environment does not impact the production technology. Also, endogenous Ramsey fiscal policy eliminates the possibility of an `environmental and economic poverty trap'. Contrary to the case of exogenous discounting, green spending reforms are the optimal response of the Ramsey government to a rise in the agents' environmental concerns.
    Keywords: endogenous time preference, growth, environmental quality, second-best fiscal policy
    JEL: D90 E21 E62 H31
  13. By: Fenske, James; Kala, Namrata
    Abstract: African societies exported more slaves in colder years. Lower temperatures reduced mortality and raised agricultural yields, lowering slave supply costs. Our results help explain African participation in the slave trade, which predicts adverse outcomes today. We use an annual panel of African temperatures and port-level slave exports to show that exports declined when local temperatures were warmer than normal. This result is strongest where African ecosystems are least resilient to climate change. Cold weather shocks at the peak of the slave trade predict lower economic activity today. We support our interpretation using the histories of Whydah, Benguela, and Mozambique.
    Keywords: Africa, climate change, slave trade, temperature
    JEL: N57 O10 Q54
    Date: 2013–10
  14. By: J. F. Mercure; P. Salas; A. Foley; U. Chewpreecha; H. Pollitt; P. B. Holden; N. R. Edwards
    Abstract: Conventional economic analyses of stringent climate change mitigation have generally concluded that economic austerity would result from carbon austerity. These analyses however rely critically on the assumption of an economic equilibrium, which dismisses established notions on behavioural heterogeneity, path dependence and technology transitions. Here we show that on the contrary, the decarbonisation of the electricity sector globally can lead to improvements in economic performance. By modelling the process of innovation-diffusion and non-equilibrium dynamics, we establish how climate policy instruments for emissions reductions alter economic activity through energy prices, government spending, enhanced investment and tax revenues. While higher electricity prices reduce income and output, this is over-compensated by enhanced employment generated by investments in new technology. We stress that the current dialogue on the impacts of climate policies must be revisited to reflect the real complex dynamics involved in the global economy, not captured by conventional models.
    Date: 2013–10
  15. By: Golub, Alla
    Abstract: This paper documents GDyn-E CGE model developed for analysis of climate policies in dynamic GTAP framework. Description of the modeling framework is followed by a presentation of a simple application focused on emission leakage associated with a unilateral GHG abatement policy, analysis and decomposition of the emission leakage, and sensitivity analysis.
    Date: 2013
  16. By: Mia Amalia; Budy P. Resosudarmo; Jeff Bennett
    Abstract: Since the early 1990s, the air pollution level in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA) has arguably been one of the highest among mega cities in developing countries. This paper utilises the self-reporting data on illnesses available in the 2004 National Socio-Economic Household Survey (Survei Sosial Ekonomi Nasional, or SUSENAS) to test the hypothesis that air pollution impacts human health, particularly among children, in JMA. Test results confirm that air pollution, represented by the PM10 level in a sub-district, does significantly correlate with the level of human health problems, represented by the number of restricted activity days (RAD) in the previous month. The results also show that a given level of PM10 concentration is more hazardous for children.
    Keywords: Air pollution, environmental economics, health economics and exposure response model
    JEL: Q53 Q51 I18
    Date: 2013
  17. By: Bradford Griffin (Enerdata S.A. - Enerdata); Pierre Buisson (Enerdata S.A. - Enerdata); Patrick Criqui (PACTE - Politiques publiques, ACtion politique, TErritoires - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Grenoble - CNRS : UMR5194 - Université Pierre-Mendès-France - Grenoble II - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble I); Silvana Mima (PACTE - Politiques publiques, ACtion politique, TErritoires - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Grenoble - CNRS : UMR5194 - Université Pierre-Mendès-France - Grenoble II - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble I)
    Abstract: In the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident, countries like Germany and Japan have planned a phase-out of nuclear generation. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology has yet to become a commercially viable technology with little prospect of doing so without strong climate policy to spur development. The possibility of using renewable power generation from wind and solar as a non-emitting alternative to replace a nuclear phase-out or failure to deploy CCS technology is investigated using scenarios from EMF27 and the POLES model. A strong carbon price appears necessary to have significant penetration of renewables regardless of alternative generation technologies available, but especially if nuclear or CCS are absent from the energy supply system. The feasibility of replacing nuclear generation appears possible at realistic costs (evaluated as total abatement costs and final user prices to households); however for ambitious climate policies, such as a 450 ppm target, CCS could represent a critical technology that renewables will not be able to fully replace without unbearable economic costs.
    Keywords: nuclear energy ; CCS ; phase-out ; renewable energy ; climate policy
    Date: 2013–10
  18. By: Oskar Lecuyer (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Adrien Vogt-Schilb (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: Climate change mitigation requires to replace preexisting carbon-intensive capital with different types of cleaner capital. Coal power and inefficient thermal engines may be phased out by gas power and efficient thermal engines or by renewable power and electric vehicles. We derive the optimal timing and costs of investment in a low- and a zero-carbon technology, under an exogenous ceiling constraint on atmospheric pollution. Producing output from the low-carbon technology requires to extract an exhaustible resource. A general finding is that investment in the expensive zero-carbon technology should always be higher than, and can optimally start before, investment in the cheaper low-carbon technology. We then provide illustrative simulations calibrated with data from the European electricity sector. The optimal investment schedule involves building some gas capacity that will be left unused before it naturally depreciates, a process known as \textit{mothballing} or \textit{early scrapping}. Finally, the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) is a misleading metric to assess investment in new capacities. Optimal LCOEs vary dramatically across technologies. Ranking technologies according to their LCOE would bring too little investment in renewable power, and too much in the intermediate gas power.
    Date: 2013–08–07
  19. By: Adrien Vogt-Schilb (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Guy Meunier (ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) : UR1303); Stéphane Hallegatte (SDN - Sustainable Developpment Network - The World Bank)
    Abstract: Climate mitigation is largely done through investments in low-carbon capital that will have long-lasting effects on emissions. In a model that represents explicitly low-carbon capital accumulation, optimal marginal investment costs differ across sectors. They are equal to the value of avoided carbon emissions over time, minus the value of the forgone option to invest later. It is therefore misleading to assess the cost-efficiency of investments in low-carbon capital by comparing levelized abatement costs, measured as the ratio of investment costs to discounted abatement. The equimarginal principle applies to an accounting value: the Marginal Implicit Rental Cost of the Capital (MIRCC) used to abate. Two apparently opposite views are reconciled. On the one hand, higher efforts are justified in sectors that will take longer to decarbonize, such as transport and urban planning; on the other hand, the MIRCC should be equal to the carbon price at each point in time and in all sectors. Equalizing the MIRCC in each sector to the social cost of carbon is a necessary condition to reach the optimal pathway, but it is not a sufficient condition. Decentralized optimal investment decisions at the sector level require not only the information contained in the carbon price signal, but also knowledge of the date when the sector reaches its full abatement potential.
    Date: 2013–08–07
  20. By: Adrien Vogt-Schilb (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Céline Guivarch (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Jean-Charles Hourcade (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: La pertinence des véhicules électrifiés (VE) pour diminuer les émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES) est sujette à débat. De nombreuses études fondent le calcul des émissions kilométriques des VE sur le contenu carbone de l'électricité contemporaine. Nous proposons une évaluation qui mobilise une vision cohérente de l'évolution du système énergétique dans lequel les VE doivent s'insérer. Nous utilisons un modèle de simulation prospective pour produire des scénarios contrastés de l'évolution du contenu carbone de l'électricité européenne. Cet exercice suggère que si l'Europe choisit de mettre en place des politiques climatiques destinées à réduire drastiquement ses émissions de GES, le contenu carbone de l'électricité va diminuer rapidement, prolongeant sur le long terme l'avantage actuel des VE sur les véhicules classiques en termes d'émissions par kilomètre.
    Keywords: véhicules électrique; gaz à effet de serre; bilan carbone; prospective; politiques climatiques
    Date: 2013–01
  21. By: Yamazaki, Satoshi; Tian, Jing; Tchatoka, Firmin Doko (School of Economics and Finance, University of Tasmania)
    Abstract: We empirically analyze the trend characteristics of per capita CO2 emissions in OECD countries from 1971 to 2009. We use a statistically robust procedure, which is valid regardless of whether per capita CO2 emissions are trend stationary or contain a stochastic trend, to test for the presence of a deterministic trend and a structural break in the trend. Our results suggest that the trend in per capita CO2 emissions shifts downward or is reversed for a number of OECD countries either after the 1970s oil shocks or during the early to mid-2000s.
    Keywords: carbon dioxide, trend, structural break, robust test
    JEL: C12 Q53
  22. By: Frédéric Branger (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Philippe Quirion (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses. A widely discussed policy option to reduce leakage and protect competitiveness of heavy industries is to impose Border Carbon Adjustments (BCA) to non regulated countries, which remains contentious for juridical and political reasons. The estimation of carbon leakage as well as the assessment of different policy options led to a substantial body of litterature in energy-economic modeling. In order to give a quantitative overview on the most recent research on the topic, we conduct a meta-analysis on 25 studies, altogether providing 310 estimates of carbon leakage ratios according to different assumptions and models. The typical range of carbon leakage ratio estimates are from 5% to 25% (mean 14%) without policy and from -5% to 15% (mean 6%) with BCA. The output change of Energy Intensive Trade Exposed (EITE) sectors varies from -0.1% to -16% without BCA and from +2.2% to -15.5% with BCA. A meta-regression analysis is performed to further investigate the impact of different assumptions on the leakage ratio estimates. The decrease of the leakage ratio with the size of the coalition and its increase with the binding target is confirmed and quantified. Providing flexibility reduces leakage ratio, especially the extension of coverage to all GHG sources. High values of Armington elasticities lead to higher leakage ratio and among the BCA options, the extension of BCA to all sectors is in the meta-regression model the most efficient feature to reduce the leakage ratio. Our most robust statistical finding is that, all other parameters being constant, BCA reduces leakage ratio by 6 percentage points.
    Keywords: Carbon leakage; Competitiveness; Border Carbon Adjustments; Meta-analysis; Meta-regression analysis; Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) models
    Date: 2013–09
  23. By: Huanxiu Guo; S�bastien MARCHAND
    Abstract: This paper aims to test the effect of smallholder farmers' participatory social learning on their gain of performance in a village of southwest China. By exploring a panel structure survey data collected in the village, we identify the social learning effect using a Spatial Autoregressive (SAR) model. Particularly, we calculate the technical efficiency and environmental efficiency from a SFA model and use them as dependent variables of the model. Moreover, we investigate the social learning of different technologies, i.e., conventional and organic farming, by separating the estimations. Our identification results suggest that the effect of social learning is weak due to the technological heterogeneity in the general case, whilst it is significantly positive for organized organic farming. However, it appears that farmers learn to improve their economic performance (i.e., maximize yield) rather than environmental performance (i.e., minimize environmentally detrimental input). These results reveal a critical limitation of social learning, and demand more environmental orientation in the agricultural extension service, which is expected to guide smallholder farmers and foster their environmental performance for sustainable agricultural development.
    Keywords: Smallholder farming, Social learning, Organic farming, Technical efficiency, Environmental efficiency, China.
    Date: 2013
  24. By: Derek Kellenberg; Arik Levinson
    Abstract: Many of the world's environmental problems cross international borders, and to address those problems approximately 1,000 different International Environmental Agreements (IEAs) are in operation today. Most evidence, however suggests that those IEAs are ineffectual, merely ratifying business-as-usual outcomes and doing little to improve the environment. But much of that empirical analysis faces two obstacles: (1) limited data from before the IEAs were enacted and thus an inability to make before-and-after comparisons; and (2) difficulty estimating the counterfactual outcomes – what would have happened absent the agreements. In this paper we test the effectiveness of one particular IEA – the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. In this special case we have data on international waste shipments from both before and after countries ratify the agreement, along with a unique approach to identifying the treaty's effect using annual bilateral waste shipments among countries before and after one of the trading partners signs the agreement. Despite the strengths of this approach, we find almost no evidence that the Convention has resulted in less waste being shipped among countries.
    JEL: F13 F18 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2013–10
  25. By: Horn, Henrik (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Mavroides, Petros C. (EUI, Florence)
    Abstract: This study contributes to the debate concerning the appropriate role of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) in in WTO dispute settlement. Its distinguishing feature is that it seeks to address this relationship in light of the reason why the parties have chosen to separate their obligations into two bodies of law without providing an explicit nexus between them. The basic conclusion is that legislators’ silence concerning this relationship should speak volumes to WTO adjudicating bodies: MEAs should not be automatically understood as imposing legally binding obligations on WTO Members, but could be used as sources of factual information.
    Keywords: settlement; Environmental agreements; WTO; Dispute
    JEL: F13 K32 K33 Q56
    Date: 2013–10–07
  26. By: Kathryn Harrison
    Abstract: In July 2008, the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC) launched North America’s first revenue-neutral carbon tax reform. The tax, which applied to all combustion sources of all fossil fuels, was introduced at a rate of CAD 10 per tonne of CO2, with a schedule for annual increases of CAD 5 per tonne of CO2 until the tax reached CAD 30 per tonne of CO2 in 2012. Tax revenues were fully recycled via a combination of corporate and income tax cuts, phased in over time. This paper reviews the political economy of the BC tax in three distinct periods – its origins, its survival in the face of political backlash, and its longer-term prospects... En juillet 2008, la province canadienne de Colombie-Britannique a été la première collectivité d’Amérique du Nord à procéder à une réforme fiscale sans incidence sur les recettes impliquant la mise en place d’une taxe carbone. Le montant de cette taxe frappant l’ensemble des sources de combustion et des énergies fossiles a été fixé dans un premier temps à 10 CAD par tonne de CO2, mais il était prévu dès le départ qu’il augmenterait chaque année de 5 CAD pour atteindre 30 CAD par tonne de CO2 en 2012. Le produit de la taxe carbone a été intégralement recyclé sous forme de baisses progressives de l’impôt sur les sociétés et de l’impôt sur le revenu. Le présent document examine l’économie politique de la taxe instaurée par la Colombie-Britannique en distinguant trois phases : les origines de la taxe, son maintien sur fond de réactions politiques négatives et ses perspectives à plus long terme...
    Keywords: political economy, carbon tax, policy lessons, économie politique, taxe carbone
    JEL: F18 H23 P48 Q38 Q48 Q5 Q58
    Date: 2013–10–08
  27. By: Guillaume Gruère
    Abstract: This report provides a comprehensive overview of the international landscape of environmental labelling and information schemes (ELIS), defined as policies and initiatives that aim to provide information about one or more aspects of the environmental performance of a product or service to external users. First, a review of initiatives and actors is used to build an institutional map of the diversity of schemes. Second, the universe of ELIS is dissected, based on a list of identified characteristics affecting the modes of communication of such schemes and the nature of the standards on which they are based. Lastly, the growth in ELIS is analysed by these identified characteristics, using a dataset of 544 ELIS introduced between 1970 and 2012 covering 197 countries. Results from this analysis support the rapid in the number of ELIS, especially in the late 1990s and between 2007 and 2010. At the same time, these figures suggest that this growth might have slowed since 2010. The analysis also shows both the diversity and unequal growth of ELIS according to different characteristics. The growth in ELIS appears to be driven by the combination of an increase in the number of “traditional” ELIS, such as single-issue environmental seals, and the emergence of “more recent” types of ELIS, including quantitative reports. This combination highlights the tension between increased competition among similar ELIS, and the emergence of new schemes potentially less exposed to direct competition but facing larger entry challenges. The dataset also shows that the multiplicity of ELIS may not be present for all types of products and environmental areas in all countries. These findings provide a contextual basis to look at evidence on the potential implications of having a multiplicity of schemes, and analyse the current and possible need for policy responses to identified challenges. Le présent rapport offre une vue d’ensemble sur le paysage des dispositifs d’éco-étiquetage et d’information (DEEI), définis comme étant les politiques et initiatives visant à fournir des informations sur un ou plusieurs aspects des performances environnementales d’un produit ou service à l’intention d’utilisateurs externes. Dans une première partie, on établit une cartographie institutionnelle de la variété des dispositifs, par un examen structurel des initiatives et des acteurs mettant en évidence leurs rôles et leurs interactions. Deuxièmement, on analyse l’univers des DEEI, sur la base d’un ensemble de caractéristiques déterminées concernant les modes de communication de ces dispositifs et la nature des normes sur lesquelles ils reposent. Enfin, on décompose la croissance des DEEI suivant les caractéristiques indiquées, au moyen d’un ensemble de données mondial couvrant 544 DEEI introduits entre 1970 et 2012 et couvrant 197 pays. Les résultats de cette analyse confirment l’augmentation rapide notamment à la fin de la décennie 1990 et entre 2007 et 2010. En même temps, ces chiffres indiquent peut-être une moindre croissance depuis 2010. L’analyse montre aussi à la fois la diversité et la répartition inégale des DEEI en fonction des différentes caractéristiques. Elle souligne en particulier que la croissance du nombre des DEEI semble être due d’une part à celle des grandes catégories de DEEI classiques, telle que les marques environnementales à attribut unique, et d’autre part de l’apparition et l’accélération de l’introduction de nouveaux DEEI, comme les rapports quantitatifs environnementaux. Cette combinaison met en lumière la tension entre la compétition croissante parmi les DEEI similaires, et l'apparition de nouveaux dispositifs moins exposés à la compétition mais qui sont confrontés à des contraintes plus importantes d'entrée sur le marché. Il ressort enfin de l’ensemble de données qu’il n’y a pas toujours une multiplicité de DEEI pour tous les types de produits et de domaines dans tous les pays. Ces résultats proposent un survol contextuel pour examiner les effets de la multiplication des dispositifs sur leur efficacité environnementale et leur impact sur les échanges commerciaux, et analyser de manière plus détaillée les réponses politiques observées et envisagées aux problèmes identifiés.
    Keywords: information policy approaches, institutional interactions, product environmental footprints, eco-label, environmental reporting, interactions institutionnelles, empreintes environnementales des produits, eco-label, rapports environnementaux, politique d’approches informationnelles
    JEL: L15 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2013–10–03
  28. By: Guy Meunier (Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS : UMR7176 - Polytechnique - X, ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) : UR1303); Jean-Pierre Ponssard (Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS : UMR7176 - Polytechnique - X); Philippe Quirion (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: Two main approaches have been implemented in regional CO2 markets to address competitiveness and carbon leakage: output based allocation (Australia, California, New Zealand) and capacity based allocation (EU). This paper characterizes the best policy, given that auctioning with border adjustment is excluded. A simple model is used in which the regional demand is subject to business cycles, and the import pressure depends on the demand level and capacity constraints. A combination of output and capacity based allocation is proved to be the optimal second best policy. The EU scheme for 2013-2020 is discussed, using cement as a case study.
    Date: 2012–02–22
  29. By: Ruben Bibas (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Jean-Charles Hourcade (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: Le modèle d'équilibre général Imaclim-R France est utilisé pour examiner différentes stratégies de transition énergétique menant à une trajectoire 'Facteur 4'. Le bilan macroéconomique d'un jeu d'hypothèses sur les conditions techniques de l'offre et la demande d'énergie varie fortement selon qu'il est inséré ou non dans un ensemble de mesures qui ne ressortissent pas du seul domaine des politiques énergétiques : politiques fiscales pour éviter la propagation des surcoûts de l'énergie dans l'appareil de production, négociation sociale et salariale pour gérer le recyclage du produit d'une taxe carbone, réforme des structures de financement, politiques industrielles et de formation aux nouveaux métiers, politiques d'infrastructures et changement comportementaux. Nous montrons ensuite comment une politique de financement baissant le coefficient risque des investissements 'bas carbone' permettrait, en améliorant la crédibilité des politiques publiques, de réduire les craintes qui expliquent la frilosité des acteurs économiques et de déclencher une réorientation des investissements plus rapide vers des équipements sobres en énergie. Le bilan macroéconomique change selon les modalités de la transition mais est positif à moyen et long terme en matière de croissance et d'emploi, ceci en raison de la synergie entre trois mécanismes : baisse des importations d'énergie, économies d'énergie libérant le pouvoir d'achat des ménages en biens et services non énergétiques, baisse du coût du travail permis par une taxe carbone. L'accompagnement économique de la transition est décisif pour passer d'un bilan légèrement négatif à court terme à un bilan positif, ce afin de donner le 'grain à moudre' nécessaire pour réduire ces tensions. L'enjeu est un 'effet crédibilité' venant de la conduite cohérente de politiques de prix et de financement guidant les anticipations des acteurs dans un contexte défavorable. Quant au dossier nucléaire, nous faisons apparaître une grande différence entre un nucléaire contraint par des exigences accrues 'de précaution' et une sortie volontariste à l'horizon 2050 avec interdiction de construction de nouvelles centrales. Cette dernière hypothèse suppose, pour respecter le F4, un développement important et précoce du CCS et conduit à un retard de croissance de 4,5 ans sur 40 ans compte non tenu des coûts de reconversion, et, en sens inverse, de changements profonds des comportements et des structures économiques. Des scénarios 'nucléaire de précaution' limitent sa place autour de 40% du mix énergétique à 2050 et permettent de reculer une décision de sortie ou de nouveau déploiement qui pourra être prise plus tard " en meilleure connaissance de cause ". L'enjeu, aujourd'hui est de se mettre en position de la prendre avec un fort consensus national autour non seulement du choix technologique ultime, quel qu'il soit, mais aussi des politiques économiques et sociales cohérentes avec ce choix.
    Keywords: transition énergétique, émissions de gaz à effets de serre, équilibre général, prospective, taxe carbone, anticipations
    Date: 2013–07
  30. By: Sahu, Santosh Kumar; Narayanan, K.
    Abstract: This study attempts to find out the relationship between exports and Participation in Clean Development Mechanism [CDM] in the technology intensive industries in India. Data are used from the PROWESS, CMIE and the VCU (Verified Carbon Units) database from 2007 to 2012. Results of this study indicate that firm size, age of the firms, profitability and R&D intensity are the major determinants of export intensity. In addition, technology imports and multinational affiliation also help firms in exporting more. The CDM participation in terms of higher VCU, and energy related technological advancements at firm level are also found to be major determinants of export intensity. India, unlike other established European carbon markets is not a platform for trading but the country is known for its creation of VCU and selling them. Government should focus more on smaller and less profitable firms and create a wider platform for them to be an active participant. Technology spillovers created by bigger and profitable firms which attract more benefits from Verified carbon offsetting should pool the entire interested ready-to-participate firms and attain a common goal, i.e. economically viable and environmentally sustainable and the leaders in the international export market.
    Keywords: Exports, CDM, Technology Intensive Indian Manufacturing Industries
    JEL: L15 L52 Q37 Q48
    Date: 2013–10–16
  31. By: Altukhova, Yulia
    Abstract: Cette thèse vise à répondre à la thèse de Gray (2010, p.48), selon laquelle il est rare, voire quasiment impossible de trouver des comptabilités environnementales notamment dans la perspective de la durabilité forte, c’est-à-dire d’un développement qui respecte les seuils physiques environnementaux caractérisant le niveau minimum du capital naturel à conserver. Elle montre que, contrairement à la vision pessimiste de Gray, on trouve dans le domaine agricole des exemples de comptabilité qui sont de véritables comptabilités environnementales répondant aux enjeux de la durabilité forte. Cette thèse montre aussi que l’agriculture est bien en avance par rapport aux autres secteurs de l’économie dans ce domaine de la comptabilité verte et de la responsabilité sociale. Elle s’appuie sur une étude des cas concrète au sein de la Bergerie Nationale de Rambouillet (France) avec une comparaison à celle d’une exploitation russe, la SA de type fermé « Selskie zori », et illustre ce que pourrait être une vraie pratique de comptabilité environnementale orientée vers une durabilité de type fort. Elle s’inscrit dans le prolongement de la recherche en comptabilité qui considère cette dernière comme une technique subjective dans le sens où elle est fonction d’un sujet qui a le pouvoir (Richard, 1980, 2012 ; Tinker et al., 1982 ; Cooper et Sherer, 1984 ; Tinker, 1984, 1985 ; Hopper et al., 1987 ; Cooper et al., 1989 ; Colasse, 1997, 2005, 2007 ; Christophe, 2000 ; Catchpowle et al., 2004 ; Antheaume et Christophe, 2005 ; Chiapello, 2012).
    Abstract: This thesis aims to respond to Gray’s proposition (2010, p.48) that it is rare, if not impossible to find accounting for sustainability, notably in the “strong” perspective of the term, that is to say the mode of development that respects physical thresholds characterizing the minimum level of natural capital to be preserved. The findings demonstrate that, contrary to the Gray’s pessimistic view, in agriculture, there are examples of accounting for sustainability that truly meet the challenges of strong sustainability. This thesis also shows that the agriculture sector is more advanced compared to other sectors in the economy regarding green accounting and social responsibility. The thesis is based on a comparative concrete case study of the Bergerie Nationale de Rambouillet (France) and a Russian farm, the closed type joint-stock company “Selskie zori”. It illustrates what could be a real practice of accounting for strong sustainability. This thesis is in line with researches that consider accounting as a subjective technique in that it depends on a subject that has the power (Richard, 1980, 2012 ; Tinker et al., 1982 ; Cooper et Sherer, 1984 ; Tinker, 1984, 1985 ; Hopper et al., 1987 ; Cooper et al., 1989 ; Colasse, 1997, 2005, 2007 ; Christophe, 2000 ; Catchpowle et al., 2004 ; Antheaume et Christophe, 2005 ; Chiapello, 2012).
    Keywords: Comptabilité environnementale; Indicateurs de durabilité; Agriculture; Environmental accounting; Indicators of sustainability; Agriculture;
    JEL: Q56 M41
    Date: 2013–05
  32. By: Shinichi Sakai; Sofia U. Bettencourt
    Keywords: Water Supply and Sanitation - Urban Solid Waste Management Water Supply and Sanitation - Landfills Pollution Management and Control Water Supply and Sanitation - Sanitation and Sewerage Water Supply and Sanitation - Wastewater Treatment Environment
    Date: 2013–01
  33. By: Timothy J. Considine; Edward J. M. Manderson
    Date: 2013
  34. By: Stefan Baumgaertner (Leuphana University of Lueneburg, Germany); Alexandra M. Klein (Leuphana University of Lueneburg and University of Freiburg, Germany); Denise Thiel (Leuphana University of Lueneburg, Germany, and Lund University, Sweden); Klara Winkler (Leuphana University of Lueneburg, Germany, and University of Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria)
    Abstract: Most ecosystem services, which are essential for human well-being, are globally declining, while the production of consumption goods, measured by GDP, is still growing. To adequately account for this opposite development in public cost-benefit analyses, it has been proposed - based on a two-goods extension of the Ramsey growth model - to apply good-specific discount rates for manufactured consumption goods and for ecosystem services. Using empirical data for ten ecosystem services across five countries and the world at large, we estimated the difference between the discount rates for ecosystem services and for manufactured consumption goods. In a conservative estimate, we found that ecosystem services in all countries should be discounted at rates that are significantly lower than the ones for manufactured consumption goods. On global average, ecosystem services should be discounted at a rate that is 0.9+-0.3 percentage points lower than the one for manufactured consumption goods. The difference is larger in less developed countries and smaller in more developed countries. This result supports and substantiates the suggestion that public cost-benefit-analyses should use country-specific dual discount rates - one for manufactured consumption goods and one for ecosystem services.
    Keywords: discounting, ecosystem services, (de)growth, heterogeneous consumption, Ramsey model, substitution
    JEL: H43 Q28 Q51 Q57
    Date: 2013–08
  35. By: Amélie Bohas (Centre de Recherche Magellan - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III : EA3713); Nathalie Dagorn (ICN - Ecole de Management Nancy); Nicolas Poussing (CEPS/INSTEAD - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development)
    Abstract: Cette communication aborde la question de l'adoption des technologies vertes ou Green IT. Elle cherche à savoir si l'adoption des Green IT est motivée par des facteurs économiques (réduction des coûts), des facteurs réputationnels mais aussi si elle est l'expression de la démarche de Responsabilité Sociale de l'Entreprise (RSE). Elle tend par là-même à répondre à un manque de la littérature sur la relation entre stratégies RSE et types de Green IT. Pour traiter cette problématique, nous avons exploité des données collectées auprès d'environ 1000 entreprises. Nos résultats confirment le fait que le recours aux Green IT est lié à la volonté de réduire les coûts d'exploitation et d'améliorer l'image de l'entreprise. Ils attestent également qu'être une entreprise impliquée dans une démarche relevant de la RSE affecte positivement l'adoption des Green IT. Nous montrons aussi qu'il est important de ne pas mettre toutes les technologies vertes au même niveau et qu'il est possible de les différencier en fonction des types de stratégies RSE.
    Keywords: Green IT ; RSE stratégique ; RSE mimétique ; Typologie ; Déterminants d'adoption
    Date: 2013–05–22
  36. By: Clough, Peter (New Zealand Institute of Economic Research); Hickman, Matt (New Zealand Institute of Economic Research); Stephenson, John (New Zealand Institute of Economic Research)
    Abstract: Much of the value New Zealanders get from natural assets is intangible, making it difficult to measure. Currently, there are a variety of techniques used to measure the value of natural assets, adding to the cost and uncertainty of values obtained. A standardised technique would make economic value estimates more consistent, more cost-effective to prepare, and make comparison of alternative uses of natural assets easier. NZIER’s proposed approach would improve understanding of the value of natural assets – giving them more consistent weight in development and conservation decisions, and improving the way we manage them.
    Keywords: valuing natural resources; decision making; New Zealand
    JEL: Q00
    Date: 2013–05–22
  37. By: Couvet, Denis (UMR CESCO MNHN-CNRS-UPMC); Desquilbet, Marion (TSE (INRA,GREMAQ)); Dorin, Bruno (CIRAD, UMR CIRED)
    Abstract: We show that between intensive and extensive farming, the production method most beneficial to biodiversity depends on the equilibrium of agricultural markets. All other things equal, as long as demand reacts to prices and extensive farming has higher production costs, extensive farming tends to be more beneficial to biodiversity than intensive farming, except when there is a very high degree of convexity between biodiversity and yield. Extensive farming is detrimental to consumers when their surplus is evaluated restrictively, as increasing in quantities consumed, while its effect on agricultural producers is indeterminate. Extensive farming has no straightforward effect on food security, but could decrease the pressure on protected areas. Any increase in demand, notably for animal feed or biofuels, decreases biodiversity, regardless of the production method employed. However, additional demand reinforces the preference for extensive farming, especially in the case of animal feed, for which price elasticity is higher.
    Keywords: conservation, farming, biodiversity, land use, markets, welfare
    Date: 2013–10
  38. By: Ghani, Ejaz; Kerr, William R.; O'Connell, Stephen D.
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the scale and productivity consequences of varied input use in Indian manufacturing using detailed plant-level data. Counts of distinct material inputs are higher in urban settings than in rural locations, unconditionally and conditional on plant size, and they are also higher in the organized sector than in the unorganized sector. At the district level, higher input usage in the organized sector is generally observed in wealthier districts and those with greater literacy rates. If looking within states, the usage is more closely associated with electricity access, population density, and closer spatial proximity to one of India's largest cities. Plants in the organized sector utilizing a greater variety of inputs display higher productivity, with the effects mostly concentrated among smaller plants with fewer than 50 employees. For the unorganized sector, there is little correlation of input counts and local conditions, for better or for worse, and a more modest link to productivity outcomes.
    Keywords: Water and Industry,E-Business,Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Economic Theory&Research,Environmental Economics&Policies
    Date: 2013–10–01

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