nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2013‒06‒30
23 papers chosen by
Francisco S.Ramos
Federal University of Pernambuco

  1. When can environmental profile and emissions reductions be optimized independently of the pollutant level? By Framstad, Nils Chr.
  2. Multinational enterprises and climate change strategies By Ans Kolk; Jonatan Pinkse
  3. Making Growth Green and Inclusive: The Case of Ethiopia By Steve Bass; Shannon Siyao Wang; Tadele Ferede; Daniel Fikreyesus
  4. The endogenous formation of an environmental culture By Ingmar Schumacher
  5. Energy Intensive Infrastructure Investments with Retrofits in Continuous Time: Effects of Uncertainty on Energy Use and Carbon Emissions By Framstad, Nils Chr.; Strand, Jon
  6. Establishing a Sustainable Development Goal for Oceans and Coasts to Face the Challenges of our Future Ocean By Martin Visbeck; Ulrike Kronfeld-Goharani; Barbara Neumann; Wilfried Rickels; Jörn Schmidt; Erik van Doorn
  7. Analysis of institutional adaptability to redress electricity infrastructure vulnerability due to climate change By Foster, John; Bell, William Paul; Wild, Phillip; Sharma, Deepak; Sandu, Suwin; Froome, Craig; Wagner, Liam; Misra, Suchi; Bagia, Ravindra
  8. Uncertainty in optimal pollution levels: Modeling the benefit area By Halkos, George
  9. Threshold Preferences and the Environment By Benteng Zou; Ingmar Schumacher
  10. On the Spatial Economic Impact of Global Warming By Klaus DESMET; Esteban ROSSI-HANSBERG
  11. Climate Change and Economic Growth: An Intertemporal General Equilibrium Analysis for Egypt By Elshennawy, Abeer; Robinson, Sherman; Willenbockel, Dirk
  12. Crossing the Threshold: Ambitious Baselines for the UNFCCC New Market-Based Mechanism By Andrew Prag; Gregory Briner
  13. Species Imperilment on the Global Scale: Empirical evidences of economic causes By Gren, Ing-Marie; Campos, Monica; Gustafsson, Lena; Elofsson, Katarina
  14. Firm voluntary measures for environmental changes, eco-innovations and CSR : Empirical analysis based on data surveys By Christian Le Bas; Nicolas Poussing
  15. Tracking Climate Finance: What and How? By Christa Clapp; Jane Ellis; Julia Benn; Jan Corfee-Morlot
  16. Economic growth, combustible renewables and waste consumption and emissions in North Africa By Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim
  17. Sensibilização e Mobilização Dentro da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos: Desafios e Oportunidades da Educação Ambiental By Maria Lúcia Barciotte
  18. Comparing Definitions and Methods to Estimate Mobilised Climate Finance By Randy Caruso; Jane Ellis
  19. Co-managing common pool resources: Do formal rules have to be adapted to traditional ecological norms? By Björn Vollan; Sebastian Prediger; Markus Frölich
  20. Modelling Complex Emissions Intensity Targets with a Simple Simulation Algorithm By Yiyong Cai; Yingying Lu; David Newth; Alison Stegman
  21. Local Warming and Violent Conflict in North and South Sudan By Margherita Calderone; Jean-Francois Maystadt; Liangzhi You
  22. Social Discounting and the Long Rate of Interest By Dorje C. Brody; Lane P. Hughston
  23. The Environmental Violence of Volatility By Nicolas Bouleau

  1. By: Framstad, Nils Chr. (Dept. of Economics, University of Oslo)
    Abstract: Consider a model for optimal timing of emissions reduction, trading off the cost of the reduction against the time-additive aggregate of environmental damage, the disutility from the pollutant stock M(t) the infrastructure contributes to. Intuitively, the optimal timing for an infinitesimal pollution source should reasonably not depend on its historical contribution to the stock, as this is negligible. Dropping the size assumption, we show how to reduce the minimization problem to one not depending on the history of M, under linear evolution and suitable linearity or additivity conditions on the damage functional. We employ a functional analysis framework which allows for delay equations, non-Markovian driving noise, a choice between discrete and continuous time, and a menu of integral concepts covering stochastic calculi less frequently used in resource and environmental economics. Examples are given under the common (Markovian Itô) stochastic analysis framework.
    Keywords: Optmal control; optimal stopping; environmental policy; emissions reduction; linear model; Banach space; stochastic differential equations
    JEL: C61 Q52
    Date: 2013–05–16
  2. By: Ans Kolk (Amsterdam Business School - University of Amsterdam); Jonatan Pinkse (MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM))
    Abstract: Climate change is often perceived as the most pressing environmental problem of our time, as reflected in the large public, policy, and corporate attention it has received, and the concerns expressed about the (potential) consequences. Particularly due to temperature increases, climate change affects physical and biological systems by changing ecosystems and causing extinction of species, and is expected to have a negative social impact and adversely affect human health (IPCC, 2007). Moreover, as a result of the economic costs and risks of extreme weather, climate change could have a severe impact on economic growth and development as well, if no action is taken to reduce emissions (Stern, 2006). This means that it can affect multinational enterprises (MNEs) active in a wide variety of sectors and countries. Climate change is not a 'purely' environmental issue because it is closely linked to concerns about energy security due to dependence on fossil fuels and oil in particular, and to energy efficiency and management more generally. Controversy about the climate change issue has led to a broadening of the agenda in some cases, with policy-makers targeting energy to avoid commotion about the science and politics of climate change, and firms likewise, also because addressing climate change in practice usually boils down to an adjustment in the energy base of business models.
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Steve Bass; Shannon Siyao Wang; Tadele Ferede; Daniel Fikreyesus
    Abstract: Ethiopian society, economy and environment are so intimately interlinked that systematic attention is essential if clashes are to be resolved and synergies realised. For example, the majority of poor people are principally dependent on agriculture but, in turn, society is dependent on farmers managing land well to sustain water supplies, biodiversity and other environmental services. Such relationships are dynamic and increasingly intense: climate change, rising population, resource scarcities and price volatilities put them all under pressure. An integrated perspective that works operationally is needed – one that makes economic, social and environmental sense and that inspires stakeholders. The holistic approach that the Ethiopian Government has recently developed aims to tackle the problems inherent in growth paths that produce environmental problems, and to realise potentials from investing in Ethiopia’s natural assets. For example, the country’s agricultural products and potential for green hydroelectric power are unique attributes that could drive development in ways that are environmentally sound and provide new jobs and satisfying livelihoods...
    Date: 2013–06–05
  4. By: Ingmar Schumacher (Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS : UMR7176 - Polytechnique - X, IPAG - Business School)
    Abstract: We develop an overlapping generations model with environmental quality and endogenous environmental culture. Based upon empirical evidence, preferences over culturally-weighted consumption and envi- ronmental quality are assumed to follow a Leontie function. We fi nd that four diff erent regimes may be possible, with interior or corner solutions in investments in environmental culture and maintenance. Depending on the parameter conditions, there exists one of two possible, asymptotically stable steady states, one with and one without investments in environmental culture. For low wealth levels, society is unable to free resources for environmental culture. In this case, society will only invest in environmental maintenance if environmental quality is suffi ciently low. Once society has reached a certain level of economic development, then it may optimally invest a part of its wealth in developing an environmental culture. Environmental culture has not only a positive impact on environmental quality through lower levels of consumption, but it improves the environment through maintenance expenditure for wealth-environment combinations at which, in a restricted model without environmental culture, no maintenance would be undertaken. Environmental culture leads to a society with a higher indirect utility at steady state in comparison to the restricted model. Our model leads us to the conclusion that, by raising the importance of environmental quality for utility, environmental culture leads to lower steady state levels of consumption and wealth, but higher environmental quality. Thus, for societies trapped in a situation with low environmental quality, investments in culture may induce positive feedback loops, where more culture raises environmental quality which in turn raises environmental culture. We also discuss how en- vironmental culture may lead to an Environmental Kuznets Curve.
    Keywords: environmental culture; overlapping generations model; environment; endogenous preferences.
    Date: 2013–06–14
  5. By: Framstad, Nils Chr. (Dept. of Economics, University of Oslo); Strand, Jon (Dept. of Economics, University of Oslo)
    Abstract: Energy-intensive infrastructure may tie up fossil energy use and carbon emissions for a long time after investments, making the structure of such investments crucial for society. Much or most of the resulting carbon emissions can often be eliminated later, through a costly retrofit. This paper studies the decisions to invest in such infrastructure, and retrofit it later, given that future climate damages are uncertain and follow a geometric Brownian motion process with positive drift. It shows that greater uncertainty about climate cost (for given unconditional expected costs) then delays the retrofit decision by increasing the option value of waiting to invest. Higher energy intensity is also chosen for the initial infrastructure when uncertainty is greater. These decisions are efficient given that energy and carbon prices facing the decision maker are (globally) correct, but would be inefficient when they are lower, as typical in practice. Greater uncertainty about future climate costs will then further increase lifetime carbon emissions from the infrastructure, related both to initial investments, and to too infrequent retrofits when this emissions level is already too high. An initially excessive climate gas emissions level is then likely to be worsened when volatility increases.
    Keywords: Greenhouse gas emissions; long-term investments; retrofits; uncertainty; option value of waiting
    JEL: C61 Q54 R42
    Date: 2013–05–16
  6. By: Martin Visbeck; Ulrike Kronfeld-Goharani; Barbara Neumann; Wilfried Rickels; Jörn Schmidt; Erik van Doorn
    Abstract: Oceans regulate our climate, provide us with natural resources such as food, materials, substances, and energy and are essential for international trade, recreational, and cultural activities. Free access to and availability of ocean resources and services, together with human development, have put strong pressures on marine ecosystems, ranging from overfishing and reckless resource extraction to various channels of careless pollution. International cooperation and negotiations are required to protect the marine environment and use marine resources in a way that the needs of future generations will be met. For that purpose, developing and agreeing on a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Oceans and Coasts could be an essential element for sustainable ocean management. The SDGs will build upon the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and replace them by 2015. Even though ensuring environmental sustainability is one of the eight MDG goals, the ocean is not explicitly included. Furthermore, the creation of a comprehensive underlying set of oceanic sustainability indicators would help assessing the current status of marine systems, diagnose on-going trends, and provide information for forward-locking and sustainable ocean governance
    Keywords: sustainable development, ocean, sustainability indicators
    JEL: Q56 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2013–06
  7. By: Foster, John; Bell, William Paul; Wild, Phillip; Sharma, Deepak; Sandu, Suwin; Froome, Craig; Wagner, Liam; Misra, Suchi; Bagia, Ravindra
    Abstract: This non-technical summary presents the findings and recommendations from the project called ‘Analysis of institutional adaptability to redress electricity infrastructure vulnerability due to climate change’. The objectives of the project are to examine the adaptive capacity of existing institutional arrangements in the National Electricity Market (NEM) to existing and predicted climate change conditions. Specifically the project: identifies climate change adaptation issues in the NEM; analyses climate change impacts on reliability in the NEM under alternative climate change scenarios to 2030, particularly what adaptation strategies the power generation and supply network infrastructure will need; and assesses the robustness of the institutional arrangements that supports effective adaptation. The project finds that four factors are hindering or required for adaptation to climate change: fragmentation of the NEM, both politically and economically; accelerated deterioration of the transmission and distribution infrastructure due to climate change requiring the deployment of technology to defer investment in transmission and distribution; lacking mechanisms to develop a diversified portfolio of generation technology and energy sources to reduce supply risk; and failure to model and treat the NEM as a national node based entity rather than state based. The project’s findings are primarily to address climate change issues but if these four factors are addressed, the resilience of the NEM is improved to handle other adverse contingences. For instance, the two factors driving the largest increases in electricity prices are investment in transmission and distribution and fossil fuel prices. Peak demand drives the investment in transmission and distribution but peak demand is only for a relatively short period. Exacerbating this effect is increasing underutilisation of transmission and distribution driven by both solar photo voltaic (PV) uptake and climate change. Using demand side management (DSM) to shift demand to outside peak periods provides one method to defer investment in transmission and distribution. Recommendation 2 addresses investment deferment. The commodity boom has increased both price and price volatility of fossil fuels where the lack of diversity in generation makes electricity prices very sensitive to fossil fuel prices and disruptions in supply. A diversified portfolio of generation would ameliorate the price sensitivity and supply disruptions. Furthermore, long term electricity price rises are likely to ensue as the fossil fuels become depleted. A diversified portfolio of generation would also ready the NEM for this contingency. Recommendation 3 addresses diversified portfolios. This project makes four inter-related recommendations to address the four factors listed above. Chapter 10 discusses the justification for these recommendations in more detail.
    Keywords: Climate change adaptation; Climate change mitigation; electricity demand; electricity generation; transmission; distribution; Australian National Electricity Market; Feed-in tariffs; FiT; solar PV; residential solar PV; reverse auction FiT; parity; Levelised cost of energy; LCOE; Diffusion of innovations; dynamic efficiency; allocative efficiency; Sustainable; Social progress; Environmental protection; Social inequity; DUOS; TUOS; smart meters; institutional adaptation;
    JEL: H1 H4 L94 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2013–06–12
  8. By: Halkos, George
    Abstract: This paper identifies the optimal pollution level under the assumptions of linear, quadratic and exponential damage and abatement cost functions and investigates analytically the certain restrictions that the existence of this optimal level requires. The evaluation of the benefit area is discussed and the mathematical formulation provides the appropriate methods, so that to be calculated. The positive, at least from a theoretical point of view, is that both the quadratic and the exponential case obey to the same form of evaluating the benefit area. These benefit area estimations can be used as indexes between different rival policies and depending on the environmental problem the policy that produces the maximum area will be the beneficial policy.
    Keywords: Benefit area; damage cost; abatement cost; pollution.
    JEL: C02 C62 Q51 Q52 Q53
    Date: 2013–06
  9. By: Benteng Zou (CREA, Université de Luxembourg); Ingmar Schumacher (IPAG Business School, Paris)
    Abstract: In this article we study the implication of thresholds in preferences. To model this we extend the basic model of John and Pecchenino (1994) by allowing the current level of environmental quality to have a discrete impact on how an agent trades off future consumption and environmental quality. In other words, we endogenize the semi-elasticity of utility based on a step function. We motivate the existence of the threshold based on research from political science, from arguments based on regulation and standards, cultural economics as well as ecological economics. Our results are that the location of the threshold determines both the potential steady states as well as the dynamics. For low (high) thresholds, environmental quality converges to a low (high) steady state. For intermediate levels it converges to a stable p-cycle, with environmental quality being asymptotically bounded below and above by the low and high steady state. We discuss implications for intergenerational equity and policy making. As policy implications we study shifts in the threshold. Our results are that, in case it is costless to shift the threshold, it is always worthwhile to do so. If it is costly to change the threshold, then it is worthwhile to change the threshold if the threshold originally was suffiently low. Lump-sum taxes may lead to a development trap and should be avoided if there are uncertainties about the threshold or the effectiveness of the policy.
    Keywords: thresholds, endogenous preferences, environmental quality, policy intervention
    JEL: Q28 Q56
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Klaus DESMET; Esteban ROSSI-HANSBERG
    Abstract: We propose a dynamic spatial theory to analyze the geographic impact of climate change. Agricultural and manufacturing firms locate on a hemisphere. Trade across locations is costly; firms innovate; and technology diffuses over space. Energy used in production leads to emissions that contribute to the global stock of carbon in the atmosphere, which affects temperature.<br />The rise in temperature differs across latitudes, and its effect on productivity also varies across sectors. We calibrate the model to analyze how climate change affects the spatial distribution of economic activity, trade, migration, growth, and welfare. We assess quantitatively the impact of migration and trade restrictions, energy taxes, and innovation subsidies.
    Date: 2013–06
  11. By: Elshennawy, Abeer; Robinson, Sherman; Willenbockel, Dirk
    Abstract: Due to the high concentration of economic activity along the low-lying coastal zone of the Nile delta and its dependence on Nile river streamflow, Egypt's economy is highly exposed to adverse climate change. Adaptation planning requires a forward-looking assessment of climate change impacts on economic performance at economy-wide and sectoral level and a cost-benefit assessment of conceivable adaptation investments. This study develops a multisectoral intertemporal general equilibrium model with forward-looking agents, population growth and technical progress to analyse the long-run growth prospects of Egypt in a changing climate. Based on a review of existing estimates of climate change impacts on agricultural productivity, labor productivity and the potential losses due to sea-level rise for the country, the model is used to simulate the effects of climate change on aggregate consumption, investment and welfare up to 2050. Available cost estimates for adaptation investments are employed to explore adaptation strategies. On the methodological side, the present study overcomes the limitations of existing recursive-dynamic computable general models for climate change impact analysis by incorporating forward-looking expectations. Moreover, it extends the existing family of discrete-time intertemporal computable general equilibrium models to which our model belongs by incorporating population growth and technical progress. On the empirical side, the model is calibrated to a social accounting matrix that reflects the observed current structure of the Egyptian economy, and the climate change impact and adaptation scenarios are informed by a close review of existing quantitative estimates for the size order of impacts and the costs of adaptation measures. The simulation analysis suggests that in the absence of policy-led adaptation investments, real GDP towards the middle of the century will be nearly 10 percent lower than in a hypothetical baseline without climate change. A combination of adaptation measures, that include coastal protection investments for vulnerable sections along the low-lying Nile delta, support for changes in crop management practices and investments to raise irrigation efficiency, could reduce the GDP loss in 2050 to around 4 percent.
    Keywords: Climate change adaptation, Computable general equilibrium analysis, Dynamic CGE
    JEL: C68 D9 D90 E17 O44 Q54
    Date: 2013–01
  12. By: Andrew Prag; Gregory Briner
    Abstract: At COP 17 in Durban, countries defined a new market-based mechanism to promote cost-effective mitigation actions, guided by a set of principles previously agreed at COP 16. These principles include “stimulating mitigation across broad segments of the economy”, “ensuring a net decrease and/or avoidance of global greenhouse gas emissions” and “assisting developed countries to meet part of their mitigation targets”. This paper explores the use of ambitious crediting baselines for groups of emitters as the basis for a new market mechanism that meets the principles listed above. It focuses on how to define groups of emitters and explores different approaches for building ambition into baselines including using emissions projections and performance benchmarks. Potential elements of a process for setting baselines for subsequent international recognition are also presented. The paper builds on extensive previous analyses carried out on emissions baselines for market mechanisms, taking into account recent developments in the international negotiations.<BR>Lors de la COP 17, à Durban, les pays ont défini un nouveau mécanisme de marché pour promouvoir les mesures d’atténuation offrant un bon rapport coût / efficacité. Cette action s’inscrit dans la continuité des principes convenus lors de la COP 16 et qui visent à « stimuler l’atténuation dans de vastes secteurs de l’économie », « contribuer à une diminution nette et/ou à la prévention des émissions mondiales de gaz à effet de serre » et « aider les pays développés à atteindre une partie de leurs objectifs d’atténuation ». Le présent document envisage, pour fixer les crédits des groupes d’émetteurs, de retenir des niveaux de base ambitieux comme fondement d’un nouveau mécanisme de marché qui soit conforme aux principes énumérés précédemment. Il s’interroge également sur la manière de définir les groupes d’émetteurs et envisage différentes approches pour rendre ces niveaux de base plus ambitieux, notamment en exploitant les projections en matière d’émissions et les critères de performance. Sont aussi présentés les éléments possibles d’un processus qui aboutirait à fixer des niveaux de base en vue de leur reconnaissance internationale. Le document s’inspire des nombreuses analyses déjà réalisées sur les niveaux de base d’émissions dans une perspective de mécanisme de marché, et il prend en compte les dernières évolutions résultant des négociations internationales.
    Keywords: climate change, mitigation, baselines, new market mechanism, changement climatique, atténuation, nouveau mécanisme de marché, niveaux de base
    JEL: F53 Q54 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2012–05–01
  13. By: Gren, Ing-Marie (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Campos, Monica (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Gustafsson, Lena (Department of Ecology); Elofsson, Katarina (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)
    Abstract: Economic factors contribute to biodiversity directly through activities such as pollution and land use, and indirectly by affecting preferences and institutional capabilities of implementing mitigation measures. This paper tests the explanatory power of these different mechanisms on threats to biodiversity on a global scale. Econometric analyses are performed with invasive species, land use, climate, economic prosperity, corruption, and spatial autocorrelation as explanatory variables. This is carried out for all taxonomic groups and separately for mammals, birds, plants, amphibians, and reptiles. Different models are tested and robust results appear for detrimental effects of invasive species, pollution, and high average temperature. Results also indicate that economic prosperity and institutional capacity do not act as curbing factors in isolation, but instead together which points out the need for sufficient levels of both prosperity and institutional capability in order to preserve biodiversity. These impacts are significant for all taxonomic groups but of different magnitude. Plants show the highest relative response to several factors and mammals the lowest.
    Keywords: threatened species; climate; land use; non-indigenous species; spatial autocorrelation; economic development; institutions; econometrics
    JEL: Q56 Q57
    Date: 2013–06–19
  14. By: Christian Le Bas (GATE Lyon Saint-Etienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - École Normale Supérieure - Lyon); Nicolas Poussing (CEPS/INSTEAD - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development)
    Abstract: Despite the increased strategic importance of environmental innovation on the one hand and corporate social responsibility on the other, there are still few studies that show firm voluntary measures create a primary determinant of environmental changes. First, we clarify the meaning of voluntary measures and CSR. Second, we utilize a survey carried out in Luxemburg on firm CSR practices jointly with the Community Innovation Survey 2008 (CIS 2008). We merge them and show through the estimation of a probit model that CSR is an important factor that explains environmental innovation. Thanks to a question from CIS 2008 we can contribute to the literature by developing a new indicator measuring the scale of the positive impacts on the environment coming from the firm technological innovation capacity. A negative binomial regression enables us to estimate a significant and positive effect of CSR and firm value on this scale.
    Keywords: environmental innovation; corporate social responsibility; Community Innovation Survey 2008; innovation impacts on the environment
    Date: 2013–06–24
  15. By: Christa Clapp; Jane Ellis; Julia Benn; Jan Corfee-Morlot
    Abstract: Developed countries have committed under the international negotiations to jointly mobilising USD 100 billion per year by 2020 for climate change mitigation and adaptation in developing countries. Yet consistent and comprehensive data to track this commitment are currently lacking. Such data will also help governments and the private sector understand how much and what type of climate finance is flowing today, so as to be able to evaluate progress and effectiveness of international climate finance flows. Estimates based on available data are highly uncertain and incomplete, highlighting several challenges in establishing a robust tracking system. A more political question is what should be the internationally agreed definition of “climate finance” or, absent agreement on that, what types of flows or activities might count towards the USD 100 billion? On the more technical side, challenges include clearly defining flows and sources of international climate finance, determining the cause and effect of flows, and establishing the boundaries of finance flowing towards climate change action. This paper considers what data are currently available to track climate finance, and demonstrates the complex nature of financial flows through examples across international and domestic as well as public and private flows. The examples highlight questions on how to count and track climate finance.<BR>Les pays développés se sont engagés dans le cadre de négociations internationales à mobiliser ensemble 100 milliards de dollars par an d’ici à 2020 au service de l’atténuation du changement climatique et de l’adaptation à ses effets dans les pays en développement. Cependant, des données cohérentes et détaillées permettant de suivre l’application de cet engagement font aujourd’hui défaut. Ces informations aideraient aussi les pouvoirs publics et le secteur privé à connaître le volume et la nature des financements actuellement consacrés au domaine du climat, ce qui leur permettrait d’évaluer les progrès et l’efficacité des flux internationaux de financement climatique. Les estimations établies à partir des données disponibles sont très incertaines et incomplètes, d’où il ressort plusieurs problèmes auxquels se heurte la mise en place d’un solide système de suivi. Une question de caractère plus politique est celle de savoir en quels termes il convient de définir d’un commun accord à l’échelon international le « financement climatique » ou, à défaut d’accord sur cette définition, quels types de flux ou d’activités pourraient entrer en ligne de compte dans ces 100 milliards de dollars. Sous un angle plus technique, la difficulté consiste notamment à définir précisément les flux et les sources de financement climatique international, à mettre en évidence les causes et les effets des flux, ainsi qu’à déterminer les limites du financement de l’action pour le climat. Ce rapport examine quelles données sont aujourd’hui disponibles pour assurer un suivi du financement climatique, et fait apparaître la complexité des flux financiers au travers d’exemples de flux internationaux et intérieurs, ainsi que publics et privés. Ces exemples mettent en relief les questions que soulèvent les modalités de comptabilité et de suivi du financement climatique.
    Keywords: investment, finance, climate change, adaptation, greenhouse gas mitigation, investissement, changement climatique, financement, adaptation, atténuation des émissions de gaz à effet de serre
    JEL: F30 F53 G15 H87 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2012–05–01
  16. By: Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim
    Abstract: This paper examines the causal relationship between economic growth, combustible renewables and waste consumption, and CO2 emissions for a balanced panel of five North Africa countries during the period 1971-2008. The panel cointegration test results indicate that in the short-run there is a unidirectional causality running from real GDP per capita to per capita CO2 emissions. However, there is evidence of no causality between combustible renewables and waste consumption and real GDP and between combustible renewables and waste consumption and CO2 emissions. In the long-run, we find that there is evidence of a unidirectional causality running from CO2 emissions and combustible renewables and waste consumption to real GDP. The results from panel FMOLS and DOLS estimates show that emissions is the most significant variable in explaining economic growth in the region which is followed by the consumption of combustible renewables and waste. In the long-run, increases in combustible renewables and waste consumption and emissions lead to increase economic growth. The finding of this paper is that North Africa region can use combustible renewables and waste as a substitutable energy to the fossil one and avoid the disaster on atmosphere by reducing emissions without impeding economic growth in the long-run.
    Keywords: Combustible renewables and waste consumption; panel cointegration; North Africa.
    JEL: C33 Q43
    Date: 2013–06–11
  17. By: Maria Lúcia Barciotte
    Abstract: Este texto destaca desafios e oportunidades envolvendo o tema educação ambiental (EA) e resíduos sólidos dentro de uma perspectiva de apoio às novas demandas e dos princípios e diretrizes da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos (PNRS) e do Plano Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos, assim como dos planos estaduais e municipais decorrentes. Leva em consideração a importância da integração entre EA e políticas públicas pertinentes, caso do Plano de Produção e Consumo Sustentáveis (PPCS) e da Agenda Ambiental da Administração Pública (A3P). Nesta direção,propõe uma nova tipologia envolvendo as várias possibilidades de trabalho de EA aplicada a resíduos sólidos, ressaltando a importância e a necessidade de conceitos simples, claros e consolidados na direção da minimização de resíduos. Ressalta ainda a importância de investimentos em processos contínuos e efetivos de sensibilização, mobilização e capacitação dos vários atores sociais, de modo a ampliar o sucesso de projetos e programas envolvendo ações de coleta seletiva,bem como de outras formas diferenciadas de coleta ligadas à logística reversa.Palavras-chave: educação ambiental; resíduos sólidos; coleta seletiva; reciclagem;consumo sustentável. This paper highlights the challenges and opportunities regarding the Environmental Education (EE) and solid waste themes from a perspective of supporting new demands, principles and guidelines of the National Policy for Solid Residues (PNRS) and the National Plan for Solid Residues, as well as state and local related plans. It takes into account the importance of integration between EE and relevant public policies, like the Plan of Sustainable Production and Consumption (PPCS) and the Environmental Agenda of Public Administration (A3P). A new typology is suggested, involving various possibilities of EE related to solid waste, highlighting the importance and the need of simple, clear and consolidated concepts aimed at waste minimization. It also emphasizes the importance of investments in continuous and effective processes of mobilization, training and awareness of the social actors in order to extend the success of projects and programs that involve solid waste selective collection, as well as other forms of collection related to reverse logistics.Key-words: environmental education; solid waste; selective ollection;recycling;sustainableconsumpti on.
    Date: 2012–07
  18. By: Randy Caruso; Jane Ellis
    Abstract: At the 16th Conference of the Parties (COP) in 2010, developed countries formalised a collective climate finance commitment made previously in Copenhagen of “mobilising jointly USD 100 billion per year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries...from a wide variety of sources, public and private, bilateral and multilateral, including alternative sources” (UNFCCC, 2010). However, there is currently no definition of which “climate” activities, flows, or other interventions could count towards the USD 100 billion; what “mobilising” means; or even which countries are covered by this commitment. The paper examines different definitions used by 24 key actors in climate finance to quantify the level of private climate finance mobilised by their interventions, as well as the methods used to track such private climate finance. Key findings are that i) methodologies to assess and estimate mobilisation vary widely, and ii) considerable risk of double-counting exists.<BR>A la 16e Conférence des Parties (CdP) tenue en 2010, les pays développés ont formalisé un engagement financier collectif pour le climat précédemment souscrit à Copenhague de « mobiliser collectivement 100 milliards USD par an d’ici à 2020 pour répondre aux besoins des pays en développement diverses sources, publiques et privées, bilatérales et multilatérales, y compris de sources alternatives (CCNUCC, 2010). Cependant, il n’existe pas actuellement de définition des activités, flux ou autres interventions « climatiques » qui seront comptabilisés dans ces 100 milliards USD ; que signifie « mobiliser » ; voire, quels sont les pays concernés par cet engagement. Ce document se penche sur les différentes définitions utilisées par les 24 acteurs principaux du financement climatique pour quantifier le niveau des financements climatiques privés mobilisés par leurs interventions, ainsi que les méthodes employées pour suivre ces financements climatiques privés. Il ressort de ce rapport deux grandes constatations i) les méthodologies d’évaluation et d’estimation des fonds mobilisés sont très disparates, et ii) il existe d’énormes risques de double comptage.
    Keywords: tracking, climate finance, MRV, mobilise, leverage, MNV, financement climatique, mobiliser, suivi, stimuler
    JEL: F21 F53 G23 O13 O16 O19 Q54 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2013–05–01
  19. By: Björn Vollan; Sebastian Prediger; Markus Frölich
    Abstract: We examine the effectiveness of three democratically chosen rules that alleviate the coordination and cooperation problems inherent in collectively managed common-pool resources. In particular we investigate how rule effectiveness and rule compliance depends on the prevailing local norms and ecological values held by resource users. For this purpose, we employ a framed field experiment that is based on a rangeland model for semi-arid regions and carried out with communal farmers in Namibia and South Africa. Participants could vote for three ‘best practice’ management rules found in many places around the world that are discussed for implementation in the study area: (temporary) private property rights, rotational grazing or limitation of livestock numbers. All rules were designed in a way that facilitated cooperation or coordination of actions. The focus of this study lies on the interactions between these rules and prevalent ecological norms exhibited in the rounds prior to rule implementation. In contrast to previous lab experimental studies, we find that democratic voting of rules is not sufficient for high rule compliance and an overall enhancement in cooperation. Rules turned out to be inefficient if they were in conflict with the prevalent ecological norm.
    Keywords: field laboratory experiment, rule compliance, ecological norms, common-pool resource, adaptive co-management, Southern Africa
    JEL: C71 C92 Q24
    Date: 2013–06
  20. By: Yiyong Cai; Yingying Lu; David Newth; Alison Stegman
    Abstract: Designing, modelling and analysing global emissions policies are becoming increasingly complex undertakings. Pressure on developing economies to make quantifiable emissions reduction commitments has led to the introduction of intensity based emissions targets, where reductions in emissions are specified with reference to some measure of output, generally gross domestic product. The Copenhagen commitments of China and India are two prominent examples. From a modelling perspective, intensity targets substantially increase the complexity of analysis, with respect to both theoretical design and computational implementation. Here, a clear and practically relevant theoretical design is used to present a new algorithm that can be applied to frameworks that model the complex interaction that occurs between emissions policy instruments, emissions levels and output effects under an emissions intensity target. The coding of the algorithm has been simplified to allow for easy integration into a range of modelling frameworks. Further development of the algorithm that allows for more complex theoretical design structures is possible.
    Date: 2013–05
  21. By: Margherita Calderone (German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin)); Jean-Francois Maystadt (International Food Policy Research Institute); Liangzhi You (International Food Policy Research Institute)
    Abstract: Weather shocks and natural disasters, it has been argued, represent a major threat to national and international security. Our paper contributes to the emerging micro-level strand of the literature on the link between local variations in weather shocks and conflict by focusing on a pixel-level analysis for North and South Sudan at different geographical and time scales between 1997 and 2009. Temperature anomalies are found to strongly affect the risk of conflict. Compared to the baseline, in the future the risk is expected to magnify in a range of 21 to 30 percent under a median scenario - taking into account uncertainties in both the climate projection and the estimate of the response of violence to temperature variations. Extreme temperature shocks are found to strongly affect the likelihood of violence as well, but the predictive power is hindered by substantial uncertainty. Our paper also sheds light on the vulnerability of areas with particular biophysical characteristics or with vulnerable populations.
    Date: 2013–06
  22. By: Dorje C. Brody; Lane P. Hughston
    Abstract: The well-known theorem of Dybvig, Ingersoll and Ross shows that the long zero-coupon rate can never fall. This result, which---although undoubtedly correct---has been regarded by many as counterintuitive and even pathological, stems from the implicit assumption that the long-term discount function has an exponential tail. We revisit the problem in the setting of modern interest rate theory, and show that if the long "simple" interest rate (or Libor rate) is finite, then this rate (unlike the zero-coupon rate) acts viably as a state variable, the value of which can fluctuate randomly in line with other economic indicators. New interest rate models are constructed, under this hypothesis, that illustrate explicitly the good asymptotic behaviour of the resulting discount bond system. The conditions necessary for the existence of such "hyperbolic" long rates turn out to be those of so-called social discounting, which allow for long-term cash flows to be treated as broadly "just as important" as those of the short or medium term. As a consequence, we are able to provide a consistent arbitrage-free valuation framework for the cost-benefit analysis and risk management of long-term social projects, such as those associated with sustainable energy, resource conservation, and climate change.
    Date: 2013–06
  23. By: Nicolas Bouleau (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: Since the Brundtland report in 1987, at the start of the series of United Nations Conferences on the Environment and Development, the world population has grown by more than it was in the time of Adam Smith. Oil consumption has increased by 40% and the trend is similar for other exhaustible resources, such as metal and fish. The loss of biodiversity continues to reduce flora and fauna at an almost constant rate. Deforestation approximately equivalent to the area of England occurs every year. Despite all the warnings from scientists, the rate of degradation is not decreasing. But economic activity - consumption and saving - has grown faster than the global population. Why does the world not adapt to the boundary conditions of the planet? Why is nature being devoured? This work responds to this question in a very professional way: the economy is badly run, and not for the reasons stated by Marxists. Over the past 25 years, finance has held the wheel of the global supertanker. By globalization, by the increase of savings, and by the technical innovations of the financial markets, its power over the economy has become dominant. Finance is in charge. But the price-signal that it produces is surrounded by fog. The author explains why this is, and analyses the consequences for the near future.
    Keywords: financial markets; sustainable development; IPCC; business as usual; substitutability; commons; fluctuation; arbitrage; speculation; price signal; trends; ecologico-scepticism; teeth of the market;
    Date: 2013–06–19

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