nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2012‒10‒27
29 papers chosen by
Francisco S.Ramos
Federal University of Pernambuco

  1. International trade and green growth By Copeland, Brian R.
  2. Green growth -- lessons from growth theory By Smulders, Sjak; Withagen, Cees
  3. Trade in a'green growth'development strategy : global scale issues and challenges By de Melo, Jaime
  4. Competitiveness and Leakage Concerns and Border Carbon Adjustments By ZhongXiang Zhang
  5. Ecosystem services and green growth By Vincent, Jeffrey R.
  6. Introducing behavioral change in transportation into energy/economy/environment models By Schafer, Andreas
  7. Is green growth good for the poor ? By Dercon, Stefan
  8. An Overview of Carbon Offsets from Agriculture By Gonzalex-Ramirez, Jimena; Kling, Catherine Louise; valcu, adriana
  9. The use of economic valuation in environmental policy: providing research support for the implementation of Eu Water Policy Under Aquastress By Koundouri, Phoebe; Remoundou, Kyriaki
  10. Agri-environmental Management during EU Integration of Bulgaria By Bachev, Hrabrin
  11. Assessing EU Leadership on Climate Change - The Limits of Diffusion in EU Relations with China and India By Diarmuid Torney
  12. The Effects of Effciency and TFP Growth on Nitrogen and Sulphur Emissions in Europe: A Multistage Spatial Analysis By Anthony J. Glass; Karligash Kenjegalieva; Robin Sickles
  13. Emissions Trading - A Transatlantic Journey for an Idea? By Katja Biedenkopf
  14. Do Today's 15-Year-Olds Feel Environmentally Responsible? By OECD
  15. Environmental consciousness, economic gain and consumer choice of energy efficient appliances in Thailand, China and India By Kusaka, Wakana; Kojima, Michikazu; Watanabe, Mariko
  16. Optimal Regime Switching and Threshold Effects. Theory and Application to a Resource Extraction Problem under Irreversibility. By Raouf Boucekkine; Aude Pommeret; Fabien Prieur
  17. Time and Uncertainty in Resource Dilemmas: Equilibrium Solutions and Experimental Results By Anabela Botelho; Ariel Dinar; Lígia M.Costa Pinto; Amnon Rapoport
  18. Natural capital, ecological scarcity and rural poverty By Barbier, Edward B.
  19. Working Paper 11-12 - Impact sur l’environnement de l’évolution de la demande de transport à l’horizon 2030 By Ina De Vlieger (VITO); Dominique Gusbin; Bruno Hoornaert; Inge Mayeres (VITO); Marie Vandresse; Marlies Vanhulsel (VITO)
  20. Sustainable Consumption and Consumer Sovereignty By Christian Schubert; Andreas Chai
  21. GAMS Implementation and Excel Interface for Soft Link of the GEM-E3_PT to TIMES_PT Models By Alfredo Marvão Pereira; Rui M. Pereira
  22. The dynamics of innovation influents: contracts and sustainable energy innovation uptake By Satu Reijonen; Rebecca Pinheiro-Croisel
  23. Towards international E-stat for monitoring the socio-economic activities across the globe By Aki-Hiro Sato; Ken Umeno
  24. Technology in the clean development mechanism: the role of host country characteristics. By Gisèle Schmid
  25. An Economic Mechanism to Regulate Multispecies Fisheries By Sébastien ROUILLON (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113)
  26. Impacts of different environmentally differentiated truck charges on mileage, fleet composition and emissions in Germany and Sweden By Vierth, Inge; Schleussner, Heike
  27. Certifying in Contested Spaces: Private Regulation in Indonesian Forestry and Palm Oil By John F. McCarthy
  28. Estimating the Long-Run Impact of Forest Fires on the Eucalyptus Timber Supply in Galicia, Spain By Manuel González-Gómez; Marcos Alvarez-Díaz; Mª Soledad Otero-Giraldez
  29. A Curse or a Blessing? Natural Resources in a Multiple Growth Regimes Analysis By Maty Konte

  1. By: Copeland, Brian R.
    Abstract: This paper reviews the challenges and opportunities raised by international trade for developing countries considering a green growth strategy. A key concern is the effect of environmental policies on international competitiveness. For production-generated pollution, there is evidence that stringent environmental policy reduces some indicators of competitiveness, but the effect is small in most sectors. However, tightening up environmental standards is unlikely to reduce international competitiveness when pollution is generated by consumption. And where depletion of natural capital is a threat, effective environmental policy is an important component of a policy aimed at developing long-run international competitiveness. The effects of trade on environmental policy, the interaction between trade and technology transfer, and the interaction between trade and transboundary environmental problems are also reviewed. An emerging issue is the potential use of border taxes to curtail carbon leakage. The paper discusses some of the possible responses by developing countries. Some work has indicated that export taxes or voluntary export restraints applied to carbon-intensive production in non-coalition countries may be preferable to a carbon tariff regime. The paper concludes by suggesting some topics for further research.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Climate Change Economics,Economic Theory&Research,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Emerging Markets
    Date: 2012–10–01
  2. By: Smulders, Sjak; Withagen, Cees
    Abstract: This paper reviews dynamic general equilibrium models in order to collect insights on the interaction between economic growth and environmental issues. The authors discuss the Ramsey model and extend it for natural resource inputs and pollution, as well as for endogenous technical change. Green growth becomes within reach if there is good substitution, a clean backstop technology, a small share of natural resources in gross domestic product, and/or green directed technical change.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Economic Theory&Research,Political Economy,Climate Change Economics,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases
    Date: 2012–10–01
  3. By: de Melo, Jaime
    Abstract: This paper surveys the state of knowledge about the trade-related environmental consequences of a country's development strategy along three channels: (i) direct trade-environment linkages (overexploitation of natural resources and trade-related transport costs); (ii)'virtual trade'in emissions resulting from production activities; and (iii) the product mix attributes of a'green-growth'strategy (environmentally preferable products and goods for environmental management). Trade exacerbates over-exploitation of natural resources in weak institutional environments, but there is little evidence that differences in environmental policies across countries has led to significant'pollution havens.'Trade policies to'level the playing field'would be ineffective and result in destructive conflicts in the World Trade Organization. Lack of progress at the Doha Round suggests the need to modify the current system of global policy making.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Economic Theory&Research,Emerging Markets
    Date: 2012–10–01
  4. By: ZhongXiang Zhang
    Abstract: This paper provides a review of the literature on competitiveness and leakage concerns associated with differentiated climate abatement commitments among countries. The literature reviewed is not exhausted, but it is sufficient to provide a balanced view of both academics and policy circles. Section 2 discusses how to indentify the sectors at a risk of carbon leakage. Section 3 examines exante estimates of potential carbon leakage rates, and explains why they differ from ex post results of environmental tax reforms and greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes that have been implemented in the European Union. Section 4 discusses broad policy options to address competitiveness and leakage concerns, and compares which anti-leakage policy, border adjustments or output-based allocation, is more effective to limiting carbon leakages or mitigating production loss in the sectors affected. Given that border carbon adjustment measures are incorporated in the U.S. proposed congressional climate bills to level the carbon playing field and could have potential conflicts with World Trade Organization (WTO) provisions and practical difficulties associated with their implementation, Section 5 discuses in great detail the WTO consistency, the effectiveness and methodological challenges of border carbon adjustment measures. The paper ends with some concluding remarks.
    Keywords: Emission trading. Competitiveness. Carbon leakage. Emissions allowance requirements. Carbon tariffs. Border carbon adjustments. Grandfathering. Output-based allocation. World Trade Organization
    JEL: F18 F47 O13 O24 O31 O44 Q42 Q43 Q48 Q54 Q55 Q56 Q58 R13 R15
    Date: 2012–10
  5. By: Vincent, Jeffrey R.
    Abstract: "Ecosystem services"has become a catch-phrase for the complex connections between the natural environment and human well-being. This paper considers the impact of changes in the supply of ecosystem services, and programs to increase their supply, on near-term growth of gross domestic product. It focuses on the relationship between locally generated versus transboundary services and growth in developing countries, where the highest rates of ecosystem degradation tend to be found. There is a common perception that there is a tradeoff between environmental protection and economic growth, especially in the near term. This perception can make policymakers reluctant to support environmental protection. Where the environment is a source of economically important services, then environmental protection may stimulate growth of gross domestic product instead of reducing it. The paper considers evidence on the economic value of regulating services; the degree to which ecosystems actually supply some of the services they are commonly assumed to supply; and the near-term growth implications of restoring ecosystems, and reducing their loss. This leads to a discussion on the effectiveness of programs intended to reduce ecosystem loss, with a focus on protected areas and payments for ecosystem services, and the effects of these programs on poverty alleviation.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Ecosystems and Natural Habitats,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Wildlife Resources,Climate Change and Environment
    Date: 2012–10–01
  6. By: Schafer, Andreas
    Abstract: Transportation is vital to economic and social development, but at the same time generates undesired consequences on local, regional, and global scales. One of the largest challenges is the mitigation of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions, to which this sector already contributes one-quarter globally and one-third in the United States. Technology measures are the prerequisite for drastically mitigating energy use and all emission species, but they are not sufficient. The resulting need for complementing technology measures with behavioral change policies contrasts sharply with the analyses carried out by virtually all energy / economy / environment (E3) models, given their focus on pure technology-based solutions. This paper addresses the challenges for E3 models to simulate behavioral changes in transportation. A survey of 13 major models concludes that especially hybrid energy models would already be capable of simulating some behavioral change policies, most notably the imposition of the full marginal societal costs of transportation. Another survey of major macroscopic transportation models finds that key specifications required for simulating behavioral change have already been implemented and tested, albeit not necessarily on a global scale. When integrating these key features into E3 models, a wide range of technology and behavioral change policies could be analyzed.
    Keywords: Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Environmental Economics&Policies,Climate Change Economics,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Roads&Highways
    Date: 2012–10–01
  7. By: Dercon, Stefan
    Abstract: The developing world is experiencing substantial environmental change, and climate change is likely to accelerate these processes in the coming decades. Due to their initial poverty, and their relatively high dependence on environmental capital for their livelihoods, the poor are likely to suffer most due to their low resources for mitigation and investment in adaptation. Economic growth is essential for any large-scale poverty reduction. Green growth, a growth process that is sensitive to environmental and climate change concerns, is often seen to be particularly helpful in this respect, leading to a win-win in growth and poverty reduction terms, with additional gains for the cause of greening the planet and avoiding further disastrous environmental change. This paper argues that such a view ignores important trade-offs in the nature of"green growth"strategies, stemming from a poor understanding of the sector and spatial processes behind effective poverty reduction. High labor intensity, declining shares of agriculture in gross domestic product and employment, migration, and urbanization are essential features of poverty-reducing growth. The paper contrasts some common and stylized green-sensitive growth ideas related to agriculture, trade, technology, infrastructure, and urban development with the requirements of poverty-sensitive growth. It finds that they may well cause a slow-down in the effectiveness of growth in reducing poverty. The main lesson therefore is that trade-offs are bound to exist; they increase the social costs of green growth and should be explicitly addressed. If not, green growth may not be good for the poor and the poor should not be asked to pay the price for sustaining growth while greening the planet.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Rural Poverty Reduction,Achieving Shared Growth,Economic Theory&Research,Climate Change Economics
    Date: 2012–10–01
  8. By: Gonzalex-Ramirez, Jimena; Kling, Catherine Louise; valcu, adriana
    Keywords: GHGs; carbon policy; conservation practices; carbon supply curves; additionality; leakage
    JEL: Q R
    Date: 2012–10–18
  9. By: Koundouri, Phoebe; Remoundou, Kyriaki
    Abstract: This book aims to show that economics in general and non market valuation methods in particular, together with participatory and engineering tools, can facilitate the design and implementation of the different European policies in relation to mitigation of water stress. The results presented in this book derive from AquaStress, an EU funded integrated project, delivering interdisciplinary methodologies to help mitigate water stress problems. The project draws on both academic and practitioner skills to generate knowledge in technological, operational management, policy, socio-economic, and environmental domains. The book is divided in three parts and as the AquaStress project, is case study driven. Part I begins with a review of the up-to-date use of non-market valuation economic methods in the design and implementation of EU water policies. Part II of the book proceeds to discuss and analyze participatory and engineering tools that can facilitate the determination of efficient water resources policies and the consequent implementation of the EU WFD, using case studies of test sites from Bulgaria, Italy, Morocco and Poland. Part III of the book, brings us back to the use of economic tools and focuses on policy appraisal through social cost-benefit analyses and the choice/estimation of the socially efficient discount rate to be used in such analyses. The book concludes with specific policy recommendations for all case-studies considered in previous chapters. This work would be of most interest to water resources managers and policy makers as well as consultants working on the implementation of the WFD. It would also be helpful to students and scholars of water resource management.
    Keywords: Economic valuation; environmental policy
    JEL: Q5 A13 A12 Q51
    Date: 2011–12–15
  10. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: This paper suggests a holistic framework for analyzing the forms and efficiency of agri-environmental management; assesses evolution of market, private, public and hybrid modes of agri-eco-governance during transition and EU integration in Bulgarian; evaluates the impacts of EU CAP on environmental sustainability of Bulgarian farms; specifies major environmental challenges in Bulgarian agriculture, and suggests recommendations for improvement of public policies for effective environmental management. First, it incorporates interdisciplinary New Institutional Economics and suggests a comprehensive framework of analyzing the eco-management in agriculture. Second, it presents the evolutions of diverse forms of eco-management during post-communist transition and EU integration of Bulgarian agriculture, and analyzes their impact(s) on agents’ behaviour and efficiency. Third, it assesses the impact(s) of dominating system of management and the new public (EU, national) measures on the state of environment, and identifies major eco-challenges, conflicts and risks. Forth, it evaluates the impacts of EU CAP implementation on eco-performance of Bulgarian farms. Finally, it suggests recommendations for institutional modernization and for improvement of public policies for effective environmental management.
    Keywords: agri-eco-governance; market; private; public modes; agricultural transition; eco-effects of EU CAP; Bulgaria
    JEL: Q28 Q24 O13 Q12 Q25 Q18 Q26 O17 Q13
    Date: 2012–10–20
  11. By: Diarmuid Torney
    Abstract: The EU has for a long time claimed the title of leader in the international politics of climate change. However, existing research has generally failed to specify whether the EU’s purported leadership has induced the followership of other states. This working paper seeks to shed light on this somewhat neglected topic by examining the attempted diffusion of climate change norms, policies, and institutions by the EU to China and India. The paper makes two principal arguments. First, the development of Chinese and Indian climate change policy should be understood as primarily domestic developments. Nonetheless, there was limited evidence of diffusion from the EU, but there was significant variation between the Chinese and Indian responses to the EU’s diffusion attempts. The Chinese response was one increasing accommodation; the Indian response was a more straightforward case of resistance. Second, domestic factors help to explain the variation in the Chinese and Indian responses to EU attempts at diffusion and, related, the observed pattern of diffusion from the EU to China and India. Particularly important is the degree to which new external ideas and concepts resonate with pre-existing domestic ideas and concepts. The paper thus paints a picture of limited EU leadership, but also suggests that the EU attempts to secure followership could be enhanced by paying greater attention to the domestic politics and preferences of third countries.
    Keywords: regulations; environmental policy; EU-China; international relations
    Date: 2012–09–17
  12. By: Anthony J. Glass (School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University, UK); Karligash Kenjegalieva (School of Business and Economics, Loughborough University, UK); Robin Sickles (Department of Economics, Rice University, Houston, United States)
    Abstract: It is common in firm level environmental efficiency studies for pollution to form part of the production technology. We omit nitrogen and sulphur emissions from the spatial analysis of production in European countries (1995 - 2008) because we find they are not significant inputs. Efficiency and TFP growth from the production analysis are then used in second stage spatial models of nitrogen and sulphur emissions in European countries. We find that to cut European sulphur emissions by a certain percentage requires a decrease in a composite measure of a country’s efficiency and TFP growth which is more than double the decrease needed to reduce European nitrogen emissions by the same percentage.
    Keywords: TFP Growth; Atmospheric Pollution; Spatial Econometrics; Economic Efficiency
    JEL: C23 D24 Q53
    Date: 2012–10
  13. By: Katja Biedenkopf
    Abstract: This paper examines the ways in which the EU greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading system (ETS) affected the design of similar programs in North America. It investigates the conditions under which EU pioneering policy can play a role in extra-EU jurisdictions’ policy-making. The empirical investigation finds that the EU’s promotion of emissions trading was successful to some extent. The EU did not influence or trigger the inception of GHG emissions trading programs in North America. The EU ETS, however, played a role in the design process of the North American programs. Actors learned from elements of the EU system. Domestic North American factors were the triggers and drivers of the agenda-setting stage and dominated the policy adoption stage while the EU ETS significantly contributed to the policy formulation processes. The EU ETS played a role at the technical level rather than at the level of political deliberations and decision-making. The EU’s policy promotion efforts depended on the demand in North America. The resonance and receptiveness in North America were decisive factors. The EU was not an importunate persuader. Learning from the ETS was to a significant part demand-driven.
    Keywords: new technologies; regulations; environmental policy
    Date: 2012–09–17
  14. By: OECD
    Abstract: <UL> <LI>Most 15-year-olds in OECD countries have some understanding of environmental issues and feel that threats to the environment are a serious concern for them and/or for other people in their country.</LI> <LI>Scientific understanding of the environment is key if students are to have a realistic appreciation of environmental challenges facing humanity. Students without sufficient knowledge of science consistently underestimate the time needed to find solutions to such environmental problems as what to do with nuclear waste or how to stop the loss of plant and animal species.</LI></UL>
    Date: 2012–10
  15. By: Kusaka, Wakana; Kojima, Michikazu; Watanabe, Mariko
    Abstract: In developing economies, consumption of electricity in residential and commercial sectors increased with economic development. In order to identify the factors for effective facilitation of standard and labeling programs, this article explores factors that affect consumer choice to energy-efficient products. Main findings are as follows: (1)Consumers in Thailand shows the highest awareness to environmental friendly concepts, followed by India and China.(2) Chosen labeled products include air-conditioners, TVs, refrigerators and washing machines, but not some popular products such as ceiling fans, electric fans or mobile phones. (3) Consumer who has higher energy conservation perception will buy energy efficient products.(4) Consumers in China, India and Thailand are sensitive to energy efficiency of products, primarily because they lead to less expenditure on electricity. (5) Labeling works to make levels of the energy efficiency of products more visible and thus helped consumers to choose the products.
    Keywords: Asia, Thailand, China, India, Electric industries, Environmental problems, Energy, Consumers, Consciousness, Labeling, Energy Efficiency Reference
    JEL: D12 L15 L68 Q41
    Date: 2012–03
  16. By: Raouf Boucekkine (Aix-Marseille Université, Greqam and UCL, Ires-Core); Aude Pommeret (University of Lausanne and Université de Savoie, Irege); Fabien Prieur (University Montpellier I and Inra, Lameta)
    Abstract: We consider a general control problem with two types of optimal regime switch. The first one concerns technological and/or institutional regimes indexed by a finite number of discrete parameter values, and the second features ecological-like regimes relying on given threshold values for given state variables. We propose a general optimal control framework allowing to derive the first-order optimality conditions and in particular to characterize the geometry of the shadow prices at optimal switching times (if any). We apply this new optimal control material to address the problem of the optimal management of natural resources under ecological irreversibility, and with the possibility to switch to a backstop technology.
    Date: 2012–05–22
  17. By: Anabela Botelho (NIMA, Universidade do Minho); Ariel Dinar (Water Science and Policy Center, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside); Lígia M.Costa Pinto (NIMA, Universidade do Minho); Amnon Rapoport (A. Gary Anderson School of Business Administration, University of California, Riverside)
    Abstract: Most common pool resource (CPR) dilemmas share two features: they evolve over time and they are managed under environmental uncertainties. We propose a finite-horizon, stochastic, dynamic model that integrates these two dimensions. A distinguishing feature of our model is that the duration of the game is determined endogenously by the players’ collective decisions. In the proposed model, if the resource stock level below which the irreversible event occurs is known in advance, then the optimal resource use coincides with a unique symmetric equilibrium that guarantees survival of the resource. As the uncertainty about the threshold level increases, resource use increases if users adopt decision strategies that quickly deplete the resource stock; however, resource use decreases if they adopt path strategies guaranteeing that the unknown threshold level is never exceeded. Our experimental results show that CPR users frequently implement decision strategies that terminate the game immediately. When the uncertainty about the resource level is reduced, users maintain a positive resource level for a longer duration.
    Date: 2012–09
  18. By: Barbier, Edward B.
    Abstract: Much of the rural poor -- who are growing in number -- are concentrated in ecologically fragile and remote areas. The key ecological scarcity problem facing such poor households is a vicious cycle of declining livelihoods, increased ecological degradation and loss of resource commons, and declining ecosystem services on which the poor depend. In addition, developing economies with high concentrations of their populations on fragile lands and in remote areas not only display high rates of rural poverty, but also are some of the poorest countries in the world today. Policies to eradicate poverty therefore need to be targeted at the poor where they live, especially the rural poor clustered in fragile environments and remote areas. The specific elements of such a strategy include involving the poor in payment for ecosystem services schemes and other measures that enhance the environments on which the poor depend; targeting investments directly to improving the livelihoods of the rural poor, thus reducing their dependence on exploiting environmental resources; tackling the lack of access of the rural poor in less favored areas to well-functioning and affordable markets for credit, insurance, and land; and reducing the high transportation and transaction costs that prohibit the poorest households in remote areas from engaging in off-farm employment and limit smallholder participation in national and global markets.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Rural Poverty Reduction,Regional Economic Development,Banks&Banking Reform
    Date: 2012–10–01
  19. By: Ina De Vlieger (VITO); Dominique Gusbin; Bruno Hoornaert; Inge Mayeres (VITO); Marie Vandresse; Marlies Vanhulsel (VITO)
    Keywords: Emissions, Greenhouse gas, Long-term projection, Polluting substances, Passenger and freight transport
    JEL: Q25 R41
    Date: 2012–09–18
  20. By: Christian Schubert; Andreas Chai
    Abstract: There is a growing consensus in Ecological Economics that consumer preferences are neither fixed nor given, but rather endogenously determined by socio-economic and institutional factors. Hence, policy may promote "green" preferences directly. Yet any intervention in processes of preference formation seems to conflict with widely held liberal intuitions, imperfectly represented by the principle of Consumer Sovereignty (CS). We argue that a suitably refined, dynamic version of CS may not stand in the way of certain preference-shaping policies. By exploring different modes of consumer learning that imply varying degrees of behavioral lock-in, we show that there is a scope for policies that influence preference formation without violating CS. This extends the range of normatively acceptable sustainability policies.
    Keywords: Consumer Behavior, Consumer Welfare, Evolutionary Economics, Sustainability, Consumer Sovereignty
    JEL: D11 D63 Q58
    Date: 2012–10–11
  21. By: Alfredo Marvão Pereira (Department of Economics, The College of William and Mary); Rui M. Pereira (Department of Economics, The College of William and Mary)
    Abstract: This document presents a description and discussion of the implementation of a soft link between the GEM-E3_PT general equilibrium model and the TIMES_PT energy systems model. It outlines in great detail four alterations to the GEM-E3_PT model structure and GAMS code to accommodate the transfer of information from the TIMES_PT model. The fundamental logic behind the link is to allow for the TIMES_PT model to control the energy system profile, technological choice and energy substitution possibilities. The GEM-E3_PT model then provides the necessary framework for incorporating general equilibrium feedbacks to the exogenous economic drivers to the TIMES_PT model. The fundamental link between the two is defined with respect to total energy system costs and the resulting economic adjustments. This document describes the GAMS module for the energy sector changes to the GEM-E3_PT model. It provides the documentation regarding the excel spreadsheets used for data transfer across the TIMES_PT model and the GEM-E3_PT models. Finally, it provides detailed operational description of the procedure used to implement the linked model. In addition to providing a framework for incorporating general equilibrium feedbacks to the exogenous economic drivers of the TIMES_PT model, this link permits for the evaluation of the economic impact of technological and environmental policies evaluated within the framework of the TIMES_PT model.
    Date: 2012–10–19
  22. By: Satu Reijonen (Department of Organization - Copenhagen Business School); Rebecca Pinheiro-Croisel (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - Mines ParisTech)
    Abstract: Despite a growing interest, sustainable energy innovations encounter difficulties in attaining market success. This paper investigates the role of contracts, a hitherto understudied innovation influent, in generating more conducive conditions for sustainable energy innovations in building projects. With the help of two case studies we identify three dynamics evoked by specific types of building contracts with sustainability focus: the dynamics of thinking beyond the habitual, the dynamics of reverse calculation, and the dynamics of countability. These dynamics change the prevailing level of ambition of the project and the ways in which the benefits and costs are calculated and thereby create a strong entanglement of the sustainable energy innovation and the design project. Furthermore, the dynamics lead to favouring of uptake of existing innovations rather than generating completely novel solutions. The article concludes with a discussion about the possibilities of policy intervention for innovation supportive dynamics in construction projects.
    Keywords: innovation; sustainable energy; processuality; geothermal heating; bio-climatic design
    Date: 2012–08–28
  23. By: Aki-Hiro Sato; Ken Umeno
    Abstract: We investigate relationship between annual electric power consumption per capita and gross domestic production (GDP) per capita for 131 countries. We found that the relationship can be fitted with a power-law function. We examine the relationship for 47 prefectures in Japan. Furthermore, we investigate values of annual electric power production reported by four international organizations. We collected the data from U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), Statistics by International Energy Agency (IEA), OECD Factbook (Economic, Environmental and Social Statistics), and United Nations (UN) Energy Statistics Yearbook. We found that the data structure, values, and unit depend on the organizations. This implies that it is further necessary to establish data standards and an organization to collect, store, and distribute the data on socio-economic systems.
    Date: 2012–10
  24. By: Gisèle Schmid
    Abstract: Technology transfer is not an explicit objective of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). It however constitutes a potential co-benefit by helping to improve living conditions in developing countries. Understanding the drivers and barriers of technology transfer in CDM projects is therefore essential to direct investment flows in host countries and enhance the current CDM framework. In this respect, the contribution of this paper is twofold. First, it identifies stepping stones and stumbling blocks to technology transfer in the CDM. Higher applied tariff rates on environmental goods and services as well as burdensome administrative procedures to start a new business are found to be negatively associated with the likelihood of a technology transfer. The results are robust to the exclusion of large host countries from the sample, like China and India. Second, as an extension, the paper analyses the correspondence of these supporting factors and barriers with the likelihood of a transfer of the different types of technology (equipment, knowledge or both). The paper concludes with policy recommendations for Non-Annex I governments, and suggestions for improvements to the CDM to better assess technology transfer in offsetting projects.
    Keywords: Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), technology transfer, Non-Annex I countries
    Date: 2012–02
  25. By: Sébastien ROUILLON (GREThA, CNRS, UMR 5113)
    Abstract: We study the management of a multispecies fishery, exploited under a non-selective harvesting technology. We construct an economic mechanism to regulate the fishery. Under a large class of models, capable of accounting for imperfect competition, congestion externalities, pro-social motivations and/or resource amenities, we show that any (stationary Markovian) Nash equilibrium of the differential game induced by our economic mechanism implements an optimal utilization of the resource. Using a specification of the general model, which adapts Clemhout and Wan (1985) and can be solved explicitly, we exhibit a (stationary Markovian) Nash equilibrium of the differential game, proving existence of (stationary Markovian) Nash equilibria within this environment.
    Keywords: Natural resource; Fish war; Multispecies; Differential game; Mechanism design.
    Date: 2012
  26. By: Vierth, Inge (VTI); Schleussner, Heike
    Abstract: During the last decade six central European countries (Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland and Switzerland) have introduced distance-based network tolls for heavy trucks. In Sweden, Denmark and the Benelux states the time-based Eurovignette is applied since the 1990-ies. All charging systems include a differentiation according to emission class for CO, HC, NOx, PM and smoke, but the Eurovignette is not updated to the latest emission classes. The study addresses Sweden and Germany as representatives for the time-based and distance-based charging system. The German toll is much higher than the Eurovignette for all real journeys; in addition the German government subsidises the purchase of clean trucks – which implies larger incentives for German hauliers (than Swedish hauliers) to use cleaner trucks. As expected, the German fleet is cleaner than the Swedish fleet and the vehicle kilometres performed on German roads are cleaner than the vehicle kilometres performed on Swedish roads. There are spill over effects between the countries in the way that European hauliers have incentives to use their “cleanest trucks” in the countries that have introduced tolls differentiated by the latest emission class and their “dirtiest trucks” in the Eurovignette countries. The difference between the two groups of countries and the incentives to use the cleaner vehicles in the toll countries and the dirtier vehicles in the Eurovignette countries will increase as updates are planned for the tolls but not for the Eurovignette.
    Keywords: Freight transport; Pricing; Tolls
    JEL: R41 R48
    Date: 2012–10–19
  27. By: John F. McCarthy
    Abstract: Over recent years, systems of civil or private regulation have emerged across several commodity sectors in developing countries. This paper compares two regulatory systems applied to parallel food and forestry problems: the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). Analysing these regulations as attempts to extend procedural and distributional justice into contested forested and agricultural spaces, the paper examines the paradox that, despite successful advocacy campaigns using these regulatory standards, oil palm and timber estates and associated land conflicts continue to proliferate in Indonesia. These regulatory processes provide leverage within bounded spaces, yet they are limited by an incommensurability of values and interests that reflect underlying structural problems. At best these certification schemes provide limited learning tools. Addressing the underlying problems will require legal reforms, effective State engagement and supporting forms of accountability.
    Keywords: Regulatory, forestry, land conflicts, Palm oil, Indonesia, certifying working papers series
    Date: 2012–09
  28. By: Manuel González-Gómez; Marcos Alvarez-Díaz; Mª Soledad Otero-Giraldez
    Abstract: Using annual data, we have estimated the timber harvest of eucalyptus in the region of Galicia (Spain). The explanatory variables considered were price, pulp exports, and salvage timber. The latter variable was used as a proxy for forest fires. The problems related to spurious regression were addressed by applying the bounds testing approach to cointegration, and confidence intervals were constructed using the bootstrap technique. The results indicate that pulp exports have a positive effect on the harvested timber volume. Moreover, we find that salvage timber positively affects the timber supply. This result indicates that there is no substitution between salvage timber and non-damaged timber. It also suggests that the natural expansion of the eucalyptus in Galicia compensates for the destruction caused by forest fires, avoiding supply shortages. On the other hand, and according to the economic law of supply, the timber price shows a negative effect.
    Keywords: eucalyptus, forest fires, cointegration, ARDL, bootstrap
    Date: 2012–09
  29. By: Maty Konte (Aix-Marseille Université, Greqam)
    Abstract: The literature on the impact of an abundance of natural resources on economic performance remains inconclusive. In this paper we consider the possibility that countries may follow different growth regimes, and test the hypothesis that whether natural resources are a curse or a blessing depends on the growth regime to which economy belongs. We follow recent work that has used a mixture of regression method to identify different growth regimes, and find two regimes such that in one regime resources have a positive impact on growth, while in the other they have a negative impact or at best have no impact on growth. Our analysis of the determinants of whether a country belongs or not to the blessed resources regime indicates that the level of democracy plays an important role while education and economic institutions have no effect.
    Keywords: Natural Resources, Mixture of regression, Multiple equilibria.
    JEL: O13 O47
    Date: 2012–03

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