nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2011‒07‒27
25 papers chosen by
Francisco S.Ramos
Federal University of Pernambuco

  1. Checking the Price Tag on Catastrophe: The Social Cost of Carbon Under Non-linear Climate Response By Ceronsky, Megan; Anthoff, David; Hepburn, Cameron; Tol, Richard S. J.
  2. Environmental Kuznets Curve in Romania and the Role of Energy Consumption By Muhammad, Shahbaz; Mihai , Mutascu; Parvez , Azim
  3. Greening Growth in Japan By Ivana Capozza
  4. The Theory of By-Production of Emissions and Capital-Constrained Non-Cooperative Nash Outcomes of a Global Economy By Sushama Murty
  5. Democratic Institutions and Environmental Quality: Effects and Transmission Channels By Kinda, Somlanare Romuald
  6. The Willingness to Pay for Environmental Protection: Are Developing Economies Different? By Dorsch, Michael
  7. Assessing the impact of the EU ETS using firm level data. By Jan Abrell; Anta Ndoye Faye; Georg Zachmann
  8. What Does Improved Fuel Economy Cost Consumers and What Does it Cost Taxpayers?: Some illustrations By Kurt van Dender; Philippe Crist
  9. Carbon emission and production technology: evidence from the US By Dinda, Soumyananda
  10. Schelling's Conjecture on Climate and Development: A Test By Anthoff, David; Tol, Richard S. J.
  11. Assessing the impact of the EU ETS using firm level data By Georg Zachmann; Anta Ndoye; Jan Abrell
  12. Environmental Policy Stringency and Foreign Direct Investment By Margarita Kalamova; Nick Johnstone
  13. The management of Natura 2000 Network sites: a discrete choice experiment approach. By David Hoyos; Petr Mariel; Eneko Garmendia
  14. Economic Costs of Ocean Acidification: A Look into the Impacts on Shellfish Production By Narita, Daiju; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.
  15. Policy Interventions to Address Health Impacts Associated with Air Pollution, Unsafe Water Supply and Sanitation, and Hazardous Chemicals By Alistair Hunt
  16. Caution, Drivers! Children Present: Traffic, Pollution, and Infant Health By Christopher R. Knittel; Douglas L. Miller; Nicholas J. Sanders
  17. Should subsidies to urban passenger transport be increased? A spatial CGE analysis for a German metropolitan area By Tscharaktschiew, Stefan; Hirte, Georg
  18. Population Density and Efficiency in Energy Consumption: An empirical analysis of service establishments By MORIKAWA Masayuki
  19. Environmental Enforcement in Decentralised Governance Systems: Toward a Nationwide Level Playing Field By Eugene Mazur
  20. Long-run consequences of natural disasters: Evidence from Tangshan By Xu, Guo
  21. Climate risk perception and ex-ante mitigation strategies of rural households in Thailand and Vietnam By Völker, Marc; Tongruksawattana, Songporne; Hardeweg, Bernd; Waibel, Hermann
  22. Enhancing governance in fisheries management in southeast Asia towards 2020: issues and perspectives By Viswanathan, K. Kuperan
  23. CSR: consistency between discourse and practice of businessmen and man agers By Licandro, Oscar Daniel; Ramagli, Alberto González; Sabah, Juanita
  24. Competitiveness of renewable energies. Comparison of major European countries By Julien, François; Lamla, Michael
  25. Reversibility and switching options values in the geological disposal of radioactive waste. By Oana Ionescu; Sandrine Spaeter

  1. By: Ceronsky, Megan; Anthoff, David; Hepburn, Cameron; Tol, Richard S. J.
    Abstract: Research into the social cost of carbon emissions ? the marginal social damage from a tonne of emitted carbon ? has tended to focus on "best guess" scenarios. Such scenarios generally ignore the potential for low-probability, high-damage events, which are critically important to determining optimal climate policy. This paper uses the FUND integrated assessment model to investigate the influence of three types of low-probability, high-impact climate responses on the social cost of carbon: the collapse of the Atlantic Ocean Meridional Overturning Circulation; large scale dissociation of oceanic methane hydrates; and climate sensitivities above "best guess" levels. We find that incorporating these events can increase the social cost of carbon by a factor of over 3.
    Keywords: Social cost of carbon/cost/scenarios/Climate policy/Policy
    Date: 2011–06
  2. By: Muhammad, Shahbaz; Mihai , Mutascu; Parvez , Azim
    Abstract: The aim of present study is to probe the dynamic relationship between economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions for period of 1980-2010 in case of Romania. In doing so, ARDL bounds testing approach is applied to investigate the long run cointegration between these variables. Our results confirm long run relationship between economic growth, energy consumption and energy pollutants. The empirical evidence reveals that Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is found both in long-and-short runs in Romania. Further, energy consumption is major contributor to energy pollutants. Democratic regime shows her significant contribution to decline CO2 emissions through effective implementation of economic policies and financial development improves environment i.e. reduces CO2 emissions by redirecting the resources to environment friendly projects.
    Keywords: Economic Growth; Energy Consumption; Environment
    JEL: C32
    Date: 2011–07–05
  3. By: Ivana Capozza
    Abstract: A decade of sluggish economic growth, concluding with the sharpest recession since the Second World War, has underlined the need for Japan to develop a new growth model. Such a model should restore public finances and long-term growth while preserving environmental quality and ensuring a sustainable use of natural resources. This paper assesses Japan’s progress in moving towards such an environmentally friendly growth pattern. It summarises Japan’s achievements and challenges in decoupling environmental pressures from economic performance. It analyses the use of market-based instruments, such as environmentally related taxes and charges and emissions trading schemes, to meet environmental and economic objectives, as well as steps taken to remove environmentally harmful subsidies. The level of integration of environmental concerns in Japan’s response to the economic crisis and in its long-term growth strategy is also analysed, particularly the policy mix used to take advantage of the growth and jobs opportunities arising from eco-innovation and the environmental goods and services sector. This Working Paper relates to the 2010 OECD Environmental Performance Review of Japan (<BR>Après une décennie marquée par une croissance économique très faible, s’achevant en outre par la récession la plus brutale qui se soit produite depuis la Seconde Guerre mondiale, il apparaît nécessaire que le Japon mette en oeuvre un nouveau modèle de croissance propre à restaurer les finances publiques et à revigorer la croissance à long terme, tout en préservant la qualité de l’environnement et en veillant à utiliser les ressources naturelles de manière durable. Ce rapport évalue les progrès accomplis par le Japon vers une croissance respectueuse de l’environnement de cet ordre. Il récapitule les réalisations du Japon et les défis que le pays doit relever afin de découpler les pressions exercées sur l’environnement des performances économiques. De plus, il analyse comment sont utilisés les instruments économiques, notamment les taxes ou redevances liées à l’environnement et les systèmes d’échange de permis d’émission, pour atteindre des objectifs environnementaux et économiques, ainsi que les mesures prises en vue d’éliminer les subventions dommageables pour l’environnement. Par ailleurs, le rapport examine dans quelle mesure la riposte du Japon à la crise économique et sa stratégie de croissance à long terme tiennent compte des préoccupations environnementales, en s’attachant tout particulièrement à l’étude de la panoplie de politiques et mesures appliquées pour tirer parti des possibilités de croissance et d’emploi dont l’écoinnovation et le secteur des biens et services environnementaux sont porteurs. Ce document de travail se rapporte à l’Examen environnemental de l'OCDE du Japon, 2010 (
    Keywords: Japan, climate change, environmentally-related taxes, eco-innovation, green growth strategy, economic instruments for environmental policy, environmentally harmful subsidies, performance targets, voluntary agreements, pollution abatement and control expenditure, Japon, changement climatique, taxes liées à l'environnement, éco-innovation, stratégie pour une croissance verte, instruments économiques au service de la politique d’environnement, objectifs de performance, accords volontaires, subventions dommageables pour l’environnement, dépenses de lutte contre la pollution
    JEL: H23 O33 O38 Q52 Q54 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2011–03–18
  4. By: Sushama Murty (Department of Economics, University of Exeter)
    Abstract: The reduced form approaches that are commonly adopted in the literature to model emission-generating technologies (EGTs) do not distinguish between emission-causing and non-emission causing goods in production. We provide a new set of axioms to describe EGTs. Technologies that satisfy these axioms are called by-production technologies (BPTs). A distance function representation of BPTs is derived and it is shown that a BPT can be decomposed into a standard neo-classical intended-production technology and nature's emission-generation set (the relationship in nature between emissions and emission-causing goods). As an illustrative application of the BP approach, we study cross-country differences in emission levels due to cross-country dierences in capital endowments at a noncooperative Nash equilibrium, where emissions impose both local and global externalities. The change in emission levels as we move from capital-poor to capital-rich countries is decomposed into income and substitution eects. The latter are a result of changes in the trade-off between intended-production and emission-generation, which is attributed to diminishing returns to emission-causing inputs or cleaning-up activities, while the nature of the former is governed by the assumption that emission is an inferior good. The implications of increasing returns to capital, substitutability or complementarity between capital and emission-causing inputs such as fuels, extraction costs of fuels, and inter-fuel substitution in production are studied and a set of conditions that result in an environmental Kuznets curve is derived.
    Keywords: distance function representation of multi-output technology, emission-generating technologies, free and costly disposability, environmental Kuznets curve, environmental externalities, non-cooperative Nash equilibrium, income and substitution effects, inferior good, returns to scale, inter-fuel substitution.
    JEL: Q50 Q56 Q51 O10 O12 D20 D62 D11
    Date: 2011
  5. By: Kinda, Somlanare Romuald
    Abstract: This paper aims at analysing the effect of democratic institutions on environmental quality (carbon dioxide per capita, sulfure dioxide per capita) and at identifying potential channel transmissions. We use panel data from 1960 to 2008 in 122 developing and developed countries and modern econometric methods. The results are as follows: Firstly, we show that democratic institutions have opposite effects on environment quality: a positive direct effect on environment quality and a negative indirect effect through investments and income inequality. Indeed, democratic institutions attract investments that hurt environment quality. Moreover, as democratic institutions reduce income inequality, they also damage environment. Secondly, we find that the direct negative effect of democratic institutions is higher for local pollutant (SO2) than for global pollutant (CO2). Thirdly, the nature of democratic institutions (presidential, parliamentary) is not conducive to environmental quality. Fourtly, results suggest that the direct positive effect of democratic institutions on environment quality is higher in developed countries than in developing countries. Thus, the democratic process in the first group of countries has increased their awareness for the environment protection. --
    Keywords: Democratic institutions,Air pollution,Panel data,Income inequality,Investments
    JEL: O43 Q53 C23 D31 E22
    Date: 2011
  6. By: Dorsch, Michael
    Abstract: This paper explores the micro-foundations of public policy over environmental protection in developing economies by examining individual-level preferences for economically costly pollution abatement. The paper empirically investigates individuals' marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for stronger environmental protection, analyzing nearly 24,000 survey responses, from 24 developing economies, to environmental questions from the 2005-2008 wave of the World Values Survey. I analyze the probability that an individual states she is WTP for further environmental protection depending on her individual-level characteristics and her country's characteristics. The main results to emerge from the analysis include: (i) perceived environmental problems that are local do not determine MWTP, where as perceived problems that are global do, (ii) self-identification as a world citizen is the strongest determinant of demand for greater environmental protection, indicating that motivation to contribute to a global public good is not a strictly post-material notion, and (iii) the primary determinants of MWTP are not qualitatively different from those among respondents in advanced economies. The results pose a challenge to the objective problems, subjective values response to the critique of the post-materialism hypothesis. It appears that the WTP for environmental protection in developing economies follows from subjective values that are universal, rather than from objective problems. --
    Keywords: Environmental protection policy,Political preferences,Global public goods,World Values Survey,Developing economies
    JEL: Q52 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2011
  7. By: Jan Abrell; Anta Ndoye Faye; Georg Zachmann
    Abstract: · This paper investigates the impact of the European Union’s Emission Trading System (EU ETS) at a firm level. Using panel data on the emissions and performance of more than 2000 European firms from 2005 to 2008, we are able to analyse the effectiveness of the scheme. · The results suggest that the shift from the first phase (2005-2007) to the second phase (2008-2012) had an impact on the emission reductions carried out by firms. The initial allocation also had a significant impact on emission reduction. This challenges the relevance for the ETS of Coase’s theorem (Coase, 1969), according to which the initial allocation of permits is irrelevant for the post-trading allocation of marketable pollution permits. · Finally, we found that the EU ETS had a modest impact on the participating companies’ performance. We conclude that a full auctioning system could help to reduce emissions but could also have a negative impact on the profits of participating companies.
    Keywords: panel data, energy, climate change, evaluation econometrics, firm behaviour.
    JEL: D21 C23 Q49
    Date: 2011
  8. By: Kurt van Dender; Philippe Crist
    Abstract: “Green growth” is an emerging paradigm that integrates several policy aspirations, including the durability of economic activity, reduced environmental impacts, and sustained growth in high-quality employment in such a way as to foster coherent, cross-sectoral policy design. Focusing on “green growth” highlights the need for governments to assess policies on their long-term economic, environmental and social impacts, recognizing that there can be synergies but also tradeoffs among the broad policy aims. As we hope to show in this paper, an examination of “green growth” policies in the transport sector provides an interesting case in point. Reducing emissions comes at a cost to consumers and taxpayers and if fuel tax revenues decline strongly it may be necessary to review the way the transport sector is taxed and contributes to aggregate tax revenue.
    Date: 2011–05
  9. By: Dinda, Soumyananda
    Abstract: Production technology is the main driving force of economic growth while upgraded technology reduces carbon emission. This paper investigates the long run relation with short run dynamics using the USA data for the period of 1963 -2007. This paper observes that production technology is the cause of reduction of CO2 emission only in short run. The impulse response of production technology suggests shortening the patent protection right that might encourage redesigning low carbon production processes to curve down carbon emission with raising income. Continuous change and adaption of production technology is the main driving force for sustainable development.
    Keywords: Production Technology; Innovation; Design Patent; Patent Right; Technological Progress; Co-integration; Causality; Carbon Emission; Income; CO2 Emission; Impulse Response; R&D
    JEL: O11 C32 O51 Q53 O33 O14
    Date: 2011–02–26
  10. By: Anthoff, David; Tol, Richard S. J.
    Abstract: We use the integrated assessment model FUND to compute the income elasticities of climate change impacts for different world regions over time. We find limited support for Schelling's Conjecture that development might be the best defense against climate change impacts, and for the idea that the impacts from climate change might be akin to a "luxury good". For very poor regions, an increase in income in the short run is an effective tool to reduce impacts from climate change by making those societies less vulnerable, in particular to infectious diseases. While net climate impacts appear to be akin to a luxury good for some countries at specific times, that effect disappears in the long run as impacts from agriculture make up a large share of total impacts.
    Keywords: income elasticity/Climate change/impacts
    Date: 2011–06
  11. By: Georg Zachmann; Anta Ndoye; Jan Abrell
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of the European Unionâ??s Emission Trading System (EU ETS) at a firm level. Using panel data on the emissions and performance of more than 2000 European firms from 2005 to 2008, we are able to analyse the effectiveness of the scheme. The results suggest that the shift from the first phase (2005-2007) to the second phase (2008-2012) had an impact on the emission reductions carried out by firms. The initial allocation also had a significant impact on emission reduction. This challenges the relevance for the ETS of Coaseâ??s theorem (Coase, 1969), according to which the initial allocation of permits is irrelevant for the post-trading allocation of marketable pollution permits. Finally, we found that the EU ETS had a modest impact on the participating companiesâ?? performance. We conclude that a full auctioning system could help to reduce emissions but could also have a negative impact on the profits of participating companies.
    Date: 2011–07
  12. By: Margarita Kalamova; Nick Johnstone
    Abstract: This paper examines empirically whether countries with relatively more lax environmental regimes have a comparative advantage in their competition for foreign direct investment. It seeks to contribute to the literature in several important ways. First, we use a measure of environmental stringency which is based on managers’ perceptions of the stringency in a given country and which gives us the opportunity to analyse a broad sample of both source and host countries. Second, an important strength of the technical analysis is the non-linear modeling of the impact of policy stringency on FDI. Third, we use a ‘state-of-theart’ FDI modelling strategy, which allows us to differentiate between different models of production fragmentation. Support is found for the effect of relative environmental policy stringency on foreign direct investment patterns. However, the effect is relatively small in comparison with other factors, including more general regulatory quality. Moreover, the relationship appears to be non-linear with the effects of increased relative environmental policy stringency in the host country decreasing after a certain threshold.
    Keywords: governance, foreign direct investment, pollution haven, environmental policies, knowledge-capital model
    JEL: F18 F21 Q56
    Date: 2011–07–01
  13. By: David Hoyos (Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU)); Petr Mariel (Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU)); Eneko Garmendia (Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU))
    Abstract: One of the main problems that public institutions face in the management of protected areas, such as the European Natura 2000 network, is how to design and implement sustainable management plans accounting both for the social cost and benefits of conserving these sites. This paper provides with an empirical application of a discrete choice experiment undertaken in a Natura 2000 site in the Basque Country (Spain) aimed at evaluating the social preferences for different land-use options. This information is then used to evaluate the social desirability of some future management plans.
    Keywords: discrete choice experiments; choice modelling; environmental valuation; Natura 2000
    JEL: Q51
    Date: 2011–07–14
  14. By: Narita, Daiju; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.
    Abstract: Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a major global problem. Yet economic assessments of its effects are currently almost absent. Unlike most other marine organisms, mollusks, which have significant commercial value worldwide, have relatively solid scientific evidence of biological impact of acidification and allow us to make such an economic evaluation. By performing a partial-equilibrium analysis, we estimate global and regional economic costs of production loss of mollusks due to ocean acidification. Our results show that the costs for the world as a whole could be over 100 billion USD with an assumption of increasing demand of mollusks with expected income growths. The major determinants of cost levels are the impacts on the Chinese production, which is dominant in the world, and the expected demand increase of mollusks in today's low-income countries, which include China, in accordance with their future income rise.
    Keywords: Climate change/Economic Impact/Molluscs/Ocean Acidification/US/cost/growth/impacts
    Date: 2011–06
  15. By: Alistair Hunt
    Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to review the recent empirical literature relating to the quantification and valuation of the human health impacts of air pollution, hazardous chemicals, and unsafe water and sanitation, and their use in cost-benefit analysis, as an input to environmental policy decision-making. For each of these three environmental hazards, the nature and range of these health impacts are identified. The extent to which these impacts can, and have been, quantified and valued in monetary terms, is described. The use of this data in public policy-centred CBA is evaluated.<p>The health impacts associated with particulates and low-level ozone, and quantified on the basis of epidemiological evidence, ranges from minor respiratory conditions to cardio-pulmonary related mortality. CBA that includes these impacts is an established feature of air quality regulation formulation in North America and Europe. Indeed, reduced mortality impacts have dominated the benefits included in many recent appraisals of such policy development, though the robust valuation of these impacts is still evolving.<p>Heavy metals are associated with a variety of cancer impacts as well as on neurological development, renal dysfunction and a number of other impacts. These impacts are increasing being quantified and valued, in response to the requirement for more rigour arising from regulatory agencies in OECD countries. Increasingly sophisticated approaches to deal with the current attendant uncertainties are also being utilised.<p>The health risks from unsafe water and sanitation derive from faecal contamination, bacteria and viruses and include gastroenteritis, diarrhoea amongst others. OECD countries use of quantified information relating to these risks in CBA is currently in the context of wastewater management, where benefit-cost ratios are sometimes found to be less than one. In contrast, in developing countries, health risks are included in the appraisal of water supply investments. In these countries, health risks are significant but generally not as important as time savings in the benefits side of the CBA, though the quantification and monetisation of health risks is often rather partial.
    Keywords: health, environment, transport, value of statistical life, meta-analysis, policy implication
    JEL: D4 Q25 Q51 Q52 Q53
    Date: 2011–06–21
  16. By: Christopher R. Knittel; Douglas L. Miller; Nicholas J. Sanders
    Abstract: Since the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), atmospheric concentration of local pollutants has fallen drastically. A natural question is whether further reductions will yield additional health benefits. We further this research by addressing two related research questions: (1) what is the impact of automobile driving (and especially congestion) on ambient air pollution levels, and (2) what is the impact of modern air pollution levels on infant health? Our setting is California (with a focus on the Central Valley and Southern California) in the years 2002-2007. Using an instrumental variables approach that exploits the relationship between traffic, ambient weather conditions, and various pollutants, our findings suggest that ambient pollution levels, specifically particulate matter, still have large impacts on weekly infant mortality rates. Our results also illustrate the importance of weather controls in measuring pollution’s impact on infant mortality.
    JEL: I18 Q51 Q53
    Date: 2011–07
  17. By: Tscharaktschiew, Stefan; Hirte, Georg
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to examine efficiency, distributional, environmental (CO2 emissions) and spatial effects of increasing different kinds of transport subsidies discriminating between household types, travel purposes and travel modes. The effects are calculated by applying a numerical spatial general equilibrium approach calibrated to an average German metropolitan area. In extension to most studies focusing on only one kind of subsidy, we compare the effects of different transport subsidies within the same unified framework that allows to account for two features not yet considered simultaneously in studies on transport subsidies: endogenous labor supply and location decisions. Furthermore, congestion, travel mode choice, travel related CO2 emissions and institutional details regarding the tax system in Germany are taken into account. The results suggest that optimal subsidy levels are either small or even zero. While subsidizing public transport is welfare enhancing, subsidies to urban road traffic reduce aggregate urban welfare. Concerning the latter it is shown that making investments in urban road infrastructure capacity or reducing gasoline taxes may even be harmful to residents using predominantly automobile. In contrast, pure commuting subsidies hardly affect aggregate urban welfare, but distributional effects are substantial. All policies contribute to urban sprawl by raising the spatial imbalance of residences and jobs but the effect is relatively small. In addition, the policies induce a very differentiated pattern regarding distributional effects, environmental effects and benefits of landowners. --
    Keywords: urban general equilibrium model,transport policy,transport subsidy,commuting
    JEL: H24 R13 R14 R20 R48 R51
    Date: 2011
  18. By: MORIKAWA Masayuki
    Abstract: The achievement of both sustainable economic growth and reductions in CO2 emissions has been an important policy agenda in recent years. This study, using novel establishment-level microdata from the Energy Consumption Statistics, empirically analyzes the effect of urban density on energy intensity in the service sector. According to the analysis, the efficiency of energy consumption in service establishments is higher for densely populated cities. Quantitatively, after controlling for differences among industries, energy efficiency increases by approximately 12% when the density in a municipality population doubles. This result suggests that, given a structural transformation toward the service economy, deregulation of excessive restrictions hindering urban agglomeration, and investment in infrastructure in city centers would contribute to environmentally friendly economic growth.
    Date: 2011–07
  19. By: Eugene Mazur
    Abstract: This report analyses approaches to managing environmental compliance monitoring and enforcement in several OECD countries with decentralised systems of environmental governance. It focuses principally on strategies and instruments for promoting consistency in the implementation of national environmental law. The report reviews in detail the experience of Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States and draws on examples from several other countries. Three programmatic elements of environmental enforcement are key to ensuring its consistency: the targeting of compliance monitoring; the selection of an enforcement instrument and the timeliness of noncompliance response; and the size of monetary penalties for non-compliance. Accurate and complete information on the performance of sub-national and local competent authorities is an important prerequisite for the evaluation of nationwide consistency of enforcement. To address these issues, OECD countries employ a range of mechanisms of institutional interaction: “vertical” (between different administrative levels) as well as “horizontal” (between competent authorities at the same level). The report presents multiple examples of the application of each mechanism in different decentralised systems. It analyses these good practices and suggests several ways to use them to ensure consistency in the implementation of the main elements of enforcement programmes.
    Keywords: compliance assurance, environmental authorities, environmental enforcement, decentralised governance
    JEL: K32 K42 O57 Q58
    Date: 2011–05–31
  20. By: Xu, Guo
    Abstract: Exploiting Tangshan 1976 - the deadliest earthquake in the 20th century - as a source of exogenous variation, we estimate the cohort-specific effects of a historical shock on contemporary socio-economic outcomes. While cohorts born after the earthquake were considerably larger, the adverse post-disaster conditions did not translate into lasting impacts on schooling and labour market outcomes. Cohorts at schooling age during the earthquake, however, exhibit considerably lower education levels today, particularly among the female. Despite lower education, there is no evidence for adverse labour market outcomes. We conduct extensive robustness checks and argue that the effect is causal. --
    Keywords: Environmental shock,earthquake,natural disaster,education,fertility
    JEL: I20 J00 O18
    Date: 2011
  21. By: Völker, Marc; Tongruksawattana, Songporne; Hardeweg, Bernd; Waibel, Hermann
    Abstract: A major risk factor for rural areas in emerging market economies, such as Thailand and Vietnam, can be attributed to climate change. Adoption of effective ex-ante mitigation strategies is a function of socio-economic household and location characteristics including, among others, the decision makers' perceptions of risk. This study aims to analyze both the determinants of climate-related risk perception and its influence on the choice of ex-ante mitigation strategies. In the context of the DFG research project Impact of Shocks on the Vulnerability to Poverty: Consequences for Development of Emerging Southeast Asian Economies, data were collected in a panel survey among some 4,400 rural households in 2007 and 2008 in six peripheral provinces in Thailand and Vietnam. Methodologically a three-step regression approach is applied. In the first step households' risk perception is explained. The second step is to assess general adoption of risk mitigation actions. In the third step the likelihood of households taking up particular ex-ante risk management strategies is established. Initial results show that rural households are particularly concerned about climate risk. However, the majority of households do not undertake any activity to mitigate risks ex-ante. The experience of climate shocks increases risk perception while other factors are also identified as significant determinants. For those who adopt preventive measures households in Vietnam particularly pre-adjust for storms while Thai households accommodate especially for drought. Findings are expected to be useful for the development of risk management strategies for rural households when differences in risk perception are taken into account. --
    Date: 2011
  22. By: Viswanathan, K. Kuperan
    Abstract: This is a keynote address at the ASEAN-SEAFDEC conference on Sustainable Fisheries for Food Security Towards 2020, Fish for the People 2020: Adaptation to a Changing Environment. It addresses theme one of the conference which is Enhancing Governance in Fisheries Management. With the deteriorating state of the fishery resources and the emerging fisheries-related issues during the past decade, there is an urgent need to address concerns on weak governance as the main underlying cause of overfishing. Many social scientists believe that improved governance with strong elements of self-governance, co-management, and community-based management are required for effective management of fisheries resources.
    Keywords: Fisheries Management; Governance; Co-management; Southeast Asia.
    JEL: Q0 Q01 Q22
    Date: 2011–06–14
  23. By: Licandro, Oscar Daniel; Ramagli, Alberto González; Sabah, Juanita
    Abstract: This paper addresses the analysis of the relationship between the discourse of businessmen and managers on the progress that their companies have reached in CSR and the progress actually achieved. It starts with a review of the literature on CSR, from which it follows that there is a different approach to this topic in the academia and in the business field. While the first abounds in conceptual differences and models, the latter has achieved important agreements expressed in standard ISO 26000. Due to this fact, it was chosen to study the incorporation of CSR practices in companies in Uruguay, using a conceptual framework based on five dimensions of CSR, similar to what is implicit in the definitions of ISO 26000. The investigation was based on a survey applied to a universe of companies actively involved in the two main organizations that promote CSR in U ruguay.
    Keywords: Value Chain; Environmental Responsibility; Corporate Governance; Ethics; Commitment to Community; Corporate Social Responsibility
    Date: 2011
  24. By: Julien, François; Lamla, Michael
    Abstract: This paper aims at presenting the support schemes promoting the development of renewable energies in five major European countries, namely Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom. At first the reader will find brief country profiles, followed by a comparison of their competitiveness with regard to the type of public support available for project developers, the current level of feed-in tariffs, the stability of the regulatory framework, the quality of the wind or solar resource available, etc. Finally, a mapping will give a quick overview of the competitiveness of the five countries for each renewable energy reviewed in this study. The paper focuses on four technologies generating electricity from renewable sources: Onshore wind, Offshore wind, Photovoltaic solar energy and Concentrating solar power ('CSP', also known as solar thermoelectric power). --
    Date: 2011
  25. By: Oana Ionescu; Sandrine Spaeter
    Abstract: This article offers some economic insights for the debate on the reversible geological disposal of radioactive waste. Irreversibility due to large sunk costs, an important degree of flexibility and several sources of uncertainty are taken into account in the decision process relative to the radioactive waste disposal. We draw up a stochastic model in a continuous time framework to study the decision problem of a reversible repository project for the radioactive waste, with multiple disposal stages. We consider that the value of reversibility, related to the radioactive waste packages, is jointly affected by economic and technological uncertainty. These uncertainties are modeled, first, by a 2-Dimensional Geometric Brown- ian Motion, and, second, by a Geometric Brownian Motion with a Poisson jump process. A numerical analysis and a sensitivity study of various parameters are also proposed.
    Keywords: radioactive waste, reversibility, switching, real option theory.
    JEL: D81 Q40 Q50
    Date: 2011

This nep-env issue is ©2011 by Francisco S.Ramos. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.