nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2009‒11‒14
29 papers chosen by
Francisco S.Ramos
Federal University of Pernambuco

  1. Climate Change Mitigation Potential in South Africa: A National to Sectoral Analysis By Jongikhaya Witi; Vaibhav Chaturvedi
  2. Environmental innovation: Using qualitative models to identify indicators for policy By Kanerva, Minna; Arundel, Anthony; Kemp, Rene
  3. Moral concerns on tradable pollution permits in international environmental agreements By Johan EYCKMANS; Snorre KVERNDOKK
  4. Carbon leakage under incomplete environmental regulation: An industry-level approach By Robert A. Ritz
  5. Assessing Vulnerability of Selected Sectors under Environmental Tax Reform By Fitz Gerald, John; Keeney, Mary; Scott, Susan
  6. Biofuels in the world markets: A Computable General Equilibrium assessment of environmental costs related to land use changes By Antoine BOUET; Betina DIMARANAN; Hugo VALIN
  7. Invention and Transfer of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies on a Global Scale: A Study Drawing on Patent Data By Matthieu Glachant; Antoine Dechezleprêtre; Ivan Hascic; Nick Johnstone; Empirical Policy Analysis Unit, OECD Environment Directorate
  8. Justice in the Air: Tracking Toxic Pollution from America's Industries and Companies to Our States, Cities, and Neighborhoods By Michael Ash; James Boyce; Grace Chang; Justin Scoggins; Manuel Pastor
  9. Determinants and effects of green supply chain management (GSCM) By Francesco Testa; Fabio Iraldo; Nick Johnstone
  10. A Search Model for Joint Implementation By Giovanni Bella
  11. Environmental Options and Technological Innovation: An Evolutionary Game Model By Simone Borghesi; Angelo Antoci; Marcello Galeotti
  12. Multilateral Trade Measures in a Post-2012 Climate Change Regime?: What Can Be Taken from the Montreal Protocol and the WTO? By ZhongXiang Zhang
  13. Dealing with ignored attributes in choice experiments on valuation of Sweden's environmental quality objectives By Fredrik Carlsson; Mitesh Kataria; Elina Lampi
  14. A Dynamic Analysis of Human Welfare in a Warming Planet By Llavador, Humberto; Roemer, John E.; Silvestre, Joaquim
  15. The implementation of an Environmental Management System in a North-African Local Public Administration: the case of the City Council of Marrakech (Morocco) By Tiberio Daddi; Marco Frey; Fabio Iraldo; Bouchra Nabild
  16. The World Gas Market in 2030: Development Scenarios Using the World Gas Model By Daniel Huppmann; Ruud Egging; Franziska Holz; Sophia Ruester; Christian von Hirschhausen; Steven A. Gabriel
  17. Impacts of climate variability on the tuna economy of Seychelles By Jan Robinson; Patrice Guillotreau; Ramòn Jiménez-Toribio; Frédéric Lantz; Lesya Nadzon; Juliette Dorizo; Calvin Gerry; Francis Marsac
  18. Mineral Policy in the Era of Sustainable Development:historical context and future content By Slavko V. Šolar; Deborah J. Shields; Michael D. Miller
  19. Explaining the lack of dynamics in the diffusion of small stationary fuel cells By Droste-Franke, Bert; Kruger, Jorg; Lingner, Stephan; Ziesemer, Thomas H.W.
  20. Climate Change and Damage from Extreme Weather Events By Robert Repetto; Robert Easton
  21. Sustainability Innovation in United Kingdom Schools By Wayne Head; Richard Buckingham
  22. The Efficiency of Voluntary Incentive Policies for Preventing Biodiversity Loss By Lewis, David J.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Nelson, Erik; Polasky, Stephen
  23. A literature review on the links between environmental regulation and competitiveness By Fabio Iraldo; Francesco Testa; Vlasis Oikonomou; Michela Melis; Marco Frey; Eise Spijker
  24. Building a Green Economy: Employment Effects of Green Energy Investments for Ontario By Robert Pollin; Heidi Garrett-Peltier
  25. Green Prosperity: How Clean-Energy Policies Can Fight Poverty and Raise Living Standards in the United States By Robert Pollin; Jeannette Wicks-Lim; Heidi Garrett-Peltier
  26. Green Technologies Related to Refrigeration and Air Conditioning By Rane M V
  27. A survey on the public perception of CCS in France By Minh Ha-Duong; Ana Sofia Campos; Alain Nadai
  28. Accounting for Respondent Uncertainty to Improve Willingness-to-Pay Estimates By Moore, Rebecca; Bishop, Richard C.; Provencher, Bill; Champ, Patricia
  29. Response to “Seven Myths about Green Jobs” and “Green Jobs Myths” By Robert Pollin

  1. By: Jongikhaya Witi; Vaibhav Chaturvedi
    Abstract: This paper discusses some of the impacts attributed to climate change that are likely to hit Southern Africa as a result of increasing global greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. As South Africa is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and currently ranked first in Africa, the paper assesses the country.s greenhouse gas emissions profile and possible future projections of emissions and their implications. It then discusses the strategic interventions proposed by South Africa in reducing the gap in emissions between what is required by science and what would happen if development continues at current rates without abating greenhouse gas emissions. Given that the majority of emissions are a result of energy consumption, the paper provides practical solutions to themes such as energy efficiency mostly for the industrial and commercial sectors. With international treaties on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. Kyoto protocol), there are business opportunities in the area of climate change mitigation. Thus, the paper finally discusses the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) scenario in South Africa and how the country can benefit from other emission trading schemes being practiced in different regions of the world.
    Date: 2009–10–27
  2. By: Kanerva, Minna (UNU-MERIT); Arundel, Anthony (UNU-MERIT); Kemp, Rene (UNU-MERIT, and ICIS, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: Environmental innovation is an essential part of a knowledge based economy, as environmental innovation makes economies more efficient by encouraging and facilitating the use of fewer material or energy inputs per unit of output. In this respect, environmental innovation replaces material inputs with knowledge. Environmental innovation should also result in fewer externalities, or negative environmental impacts, which affect our health and well-being, also in terms of global climate change. Technology shifts caused by technological breakthroughs, rapid changes in demand for resources, or environmental imperatives could also impel societies to invest more heavily in research on how to use energy and other resources more efficiently. The main goal of this paper is to explore and identify relevant indicators for environmental innovation that could be used to develop innovation policy for all economic sectors, as well as for the field of environmental technologies. This is done firstly with the help of a qualitative model presenting the eco-innovation chain. Based on both literature and our data analysis, our chosen key indicators include measures on: environmental regulations and venture capital for the eco-industry; environmental publications, patents and business R&D; eco-industry exports and FDI; sales from environmentally beneficial innovation across sectors; and environmental impacts related to energy intensity and resource productivity of economies. Finding key eco-innovation indicators related to such factors is important for policy makers, as environmental innovation policy is required to counter the two market failures associated with environmental pollution and the innovation and diffusion of new technologies.
    Keywords: Environmental innovation, environmental goods and services, innovation indicators, CIS, environmental impacts, European Union
    JEL: O14 O30 O33 O38 Q51 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2009
  3. By: Johan EYCKMANS; Snorre KVERNDOKK
    Abstract: We investigate how moral concerns about permit trading affect an endogenous pollution permit trading equilibrium, where governments choose non-cooperatively the amount of permits they allocate to domestic industries. Politicians may feel reluctant to allow permit trading and/or may prefer that abatement is undertaken domestically due to moral concerns. This will have an effect on the initial permit allocations, and, therefore, on global emissions. The impact on global emissions depends on the precise formulation of the moral concerns, but under reasonable assumptions, we show that global emissions may increase. Thus, doing what is perceived as good does not always yield the desired outcome. However, this can be offset by restrictions on permit trading when governments have moral concerns about this trade.
    Keywords: Tradable emission permits, international environmental agreements, non-cooperative game theory, moral motivation, identity.
    JEL: D63 Q54
    Date: 2009–06
  4. By: Robert A. Ritz
    Abstract: Carbon leakage is a major concern for policymakers involved with environmental initiatives such as the European Union’s emissions trading scheme and similar cap-and-trade proposals in the United States, Australia, and elsewhere. This paper provides a framework for understanding the drives underlying carbon leakage at the level of an individual sector in which only a subset of firms is covered by such regulation. It provides simple formulae to estimate leakage rates using information on industry characteristics that is typically available to the analyst. Illustrative estimates for the steel industry in the EU ETS suggest carbon leakage of 25-30% or (much) higher - unless environmental-efficiency improvements by regulated firms are substantial.
    Keywords: Abatement, Cap-and-trade, carbon tax, Cost pass-through, Emissions trading, Free allocation, Market structure
    JEL: D43 H23 Q58
    Date: 2009
  5. By: Fitz Gerald, John; Keeney, Mary; Scott, Susan
    Keywords: qec
    Date: 2009–06
  6. By: Antoine BOUET; Betina DIMARANAN; Hugo VALIN
    Abstract: Biofuels in the world markets: A Computable General Equilibrium assessment of environmental costs related to land use changes
    Date: 2009–11
  7. By: Matthieu Glachant (CERNA, Mines ParisTech); Antoine Dechezleprêtre (CERNA, Mines ParisTech); Ivan Hascic (CERNA, Mines ParisTech); Nick Johnstone; Empirical Policy Analysis Unit, OECD Environment Directorate (Empirical Policy Analysis Unit, OECD Environment Directorate)
    Abstract: Accelerating the development of less GHG intensive technologies and promoting their global diffusion - in particular in fast-growing emerging economies - is imperative in achieving the transition to a low-carbon economy. Consequently, technology is at the core of current discussions about the post-Kyoto regime. The purpose of this study is to fuel this discussion by providing an in-depth analysis of the geographic distribution of climate mitigation inventions since 1978 and their international diffusion on a global scale. We use the EPO/OECD World Patent Statistical Database (PATSTAT) which includes patents from 81 national and international patent offices. Note that the Least Developed Countries patent a negligible number of inventions, meaning that the geographical scope of the study is limited to industrialized countries and emerging economies. In this study, patent counts are used to measure the output of innovation but also the transfer of inventions across borders on the ground that an innovator patents his/her invention in a foreign country because he/she plans to exploit it commercially there. They are the only indicator available today that provides a comprehensive view on innovation and technology diffusion on a global scale. Patent data also present drawbacks. First, patents are not the only tool available to inventors to protect their inventions. Second, successful technology transfers also involve the transfer of know-how. Still one can reasonably assume that patent counts are positively correlated to the quantity of non-patented innovations and transfers. We consider 13 different classes of technologies with significant global GHG emission abatement potentials, and analyze inventive activities and international technology transfer between 1978 and 2003. The technologies considered are seven renewable energy technologies (wind, solar, geothermal, ocean energy, biomass, waste-to-energy, and hydropower), methane destruction, climate-friendly cement, energy conservation in buildings, motor vehicle fuel injection, energy-efficient lighting and Carbon Capture & Storage (CCS).
    Keywords: Climate Change, Mitigation Technologies, Patent Data
    JEL: Q5 Q55
    Date: 2009–10
  8. By: Michael Ash; James Boyce; Grace Chang; Justin Scoggins; Manuel Pastor
    Abstract: <p class="bodytext">This new environmental justice study, (co-authored by PERI’s James Boyce, Michael Ash, & Grace Chang, along with Manuel Pastor, Justin Scoggins, & Jennifer Tran of the Program for Environmental and Regional Equity at the University of Southern California) examines not only who receives the disproportionate share of toxic air releases -- low-income communities and people of color -- but who is releasing them.    </p> <p class="bodytext"><i><a href="" title="Initiates file download" class="download" onclick="javascript:urchinTracker ('fileadmin/pdf/dpe/ctip/justice_in_the_air.pdf'); ">Justice in the Air: Tracking Toxic Pollution from America's Industries and Companies to Our States, Cities, and Neighborhoods</a> </i>uses the EPA's Toxic Release Inventory and Risk Screening Environmental Indicators to explore the demographics of those who are most affected by toxic pollution, and then establishes the corporate ownership of the plants responsible.    </p> <p class="bodytext"><i>Justice in the Air </i>enhances the data available in PERI’s Toxic 100 Report with a <a href="" title="Opens internal link in current window" class="internal-link">new environmental justice scorecard,</a> ranking the Toxic 100 companies by the share of their health impacts from toxic air pollution that falls upon minority and low-income communities. The authors conclude by recommending four ways the right-to-know and environmental justice movements can use these findings in their efforts to protect the health of vulnerable communities.   </p>
    Date: 2009
  9. By: Francesco Testa (Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies); Fabio Iraldo (Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies and IEFE – Institute for Environmental and Energy Policy and Economics, Bocconi University, Milan); Nick Johnstone (National Policies Division, OECD Environment Directorate 2)
    Abstract: Green Supply-Chain Management (GSCM) is an increasingly widely-diffused practice among companies that are pursuing environmental excellence. The motivation for the introduction of GSCM may be ethical (e.g. reflecting the values of managers) and/or commercial (e.g. gaining a possible competitive advantage by signalling environmental concern). Drawing upon a database of over 4,000 manufacturing facilities in seven OECD countries this paper assesses the determinants and motivations for the implementation of GSCM. We find that GSCM is strongly complementary with other advanced management practices, and that it contributes to improved environmental performance. The effects on commercial performance are more ambiguous.
    Date: 2009–03–01
  10. By: Giovanni Bella (University of Cagliari)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present a search model in the field of environmental economics, where so-called clean and dirty producers enter the trading market, both looking for a partner with whom to exchange the goods they are endowed with. The model derived in this paper is rather simple. Nevertheless, it is able to produce a series of interesting results and useful insights, and is conveniently used here as a framework to explain the functioning of Joint Implementation programmes for polluting emissions’ reduction.
    Keywords: Environmental economics, Search theory, Market failures
    JEL: C61 O13 Q26
    Date: 2009–10
  11. By: Simone Borghesi (University of Siena); Angelo Antoci (University of Sassari); Marcello Galeotti (University of Florence)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effects on economic agents' behaviour of an innovative environmental protection mechanism that the Public Administration of a tourist region may adopt to attract visitors while protecting the environment. On the one hand, the Public Administration sells to the tourists an environmental call option that gives them the possibility of being (partially or totally) reimbursed if the environmental quality in the region turns out to be below a given threshold level. On the other hand, it offers the firms that adopt an innovative, non-polluting technology an environmental put option that allows them to get a reimbursement for the additional costs imposed by the new technology if the environmental quality is above the threshold level. The aim of the paper is to study the dynamics that arise with this financial mechanism from the interaction between the economic agents and the Public Administration in an evolutionary game context.
    Keywords: Environmental Bonds, Call and Put Options, Technological Innovation, Evolutionary Dynamics
    JEL: C73 D62 G10 O30 Q28
    Date: 2009–10
  12. By: ZhongXiang Zhang (East-West Center)
    Abstract: The climate-trade nexus gains increasing attention as governments are taking great efforts to forge a post-2012 climate change regime to succeed the Kyoto Protocol. This raises the issues of the scope of trade-related measures and of when and how they could be used. This paper discusses how far trade-related measures should be incorporated in that context. Drawing on an analogy to the Montreal Protocol and comparing developing country’s climate mitigation and adaptation needs with the funding available, the paper argues that such measures should initially be applied only among Annex I or II countries. To discipline the use of unilateral trade measures at the international level, the paper emphasizes a need to define comparable climate efforts. Moreover, the Lieberman-Warner bill in the U.S. Senate - taken as a proxy for future U.S. climate legislation - is assessed, and found to be neither effective nor likely to be WTO-consistent. The paper is concluded by arguing that, in order to encourage developing countries to do more to combat climate change, developed countries should focus on carrots. Sticks can be incorporated, but only if they are credible and realistic and serve as a useful supplement to push developing countries to take actions or adopt policies and measures earlier than would otherwise have been the case.
    Keywords: Post-2012 climate negotiations, Trade-related measures, Lieberman-Warner bill, WTO, Montreal Protocol, Developing countries, United States
    JEL: F18 Q48 Q54 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2009–10
  13. By: Fredrik Carlsson (Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg); Mitesh Kataria (Max Planck Institute of Economics, Strategic Interaction Group); Elina Lampi (Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg)
    Abstract: Using a choice experiment, this paper investigates how Swedish citizens value three environmental quality objectives. In addition, a follow-up question is used to investigate whether respondents ignored any attributes when responding. The resulting information is used in the model estimation by restricting the individual parameters for the ignored attributes to zero. When taking the shares of respondents who considered both the environmental and the cost attributes (52-69 percent of the respondents) into account, then the WTPs for each attribute change if the respondents who ignored the attributes have a zero WTP. At the same time, we find evidence that not all respondents who claimed to have ignored an attribute really did. However, the most commonly ignored non-monetary attributes always have the lowest rankings in terms of WTP across all three environmental objectives. Thus, our results show that instead of ignoring, respondents seem to put less weight on the attributes they claimed to have ignored.
    Keywords: Choice experiment, environmental quality objectives, follow-up question,
    JEL: D61 Q50 Q51
    Date: 2009–11–02
  14. By: Llavador, Humberto (Universitat Pompeu Fabra); Roemer, John E. (Yale University); Silvestre, Joaquim (University of California, Davis)
    Abstract: Climate science indicates that climate stabilization requires low GHG emissions. Is this consistent with nondecreasing human welfare? Our welfare index, called quality of life (QuoL), emphasizes education, knowledge, and the environment. We construct and calibrate a multigenerational model with intertemporal links provided by education, physical capital, knowledge and the environment. We reject discounted utilitarianism and adopt, first, the Intergenerational Maximin criterion, and, second, Human Development Optimization, that maximizes the QuoL of the first generation subject to a given future rate of growth. We apply these criteria to our calibrated model via a novel algorithm inspired by the turnpike property. The computed paths yield levels of QuoL higher than the year 2000 level for all generations. They require the doubling of the fraction of labor resources devoted to the creation of knowledge relative to the reference level, whereas the fractions of labor allocated to consumption and leisure are similar to the reference ones. On the other hand, higher growth rates require substantial increases in the fraction of labor devoted to education, together with moderate increases in the fractions of labor devoted to knowledge and the investment in physical capital.
    JEL: D63 O40 O41 Q50 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2009–03
  15. By: Tiberio Daddi (Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy); Marco Frey (Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy); Fabio Iraldo (Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy); Bouchra Nabild (International Projects and Training Departments, City Council of Marrakech, Marrakech, Morocco)
    Date: 2009–05–01
  16. By: Daniel Huppmann; Ruud Egging; Franziska Holz; Sophia Ruester; Christian von Hirschhausen; Steven A. Gabriel
    Abstract: In this paper, we discuss potential developments of the world natural gas industry at the horizon of 2030. We use the World Gas Model (WGM), a dynamic, strategic representation of world natural gas production, trade, and consumption between 2005 and 2030. We specify a "base case" which defines the business-as-usual assumptions based on forecasts of the world energy markets. We then analyze the sensitivity of the world natural gas system with scenarios: i) the emergence of large volumes of unconventional North American natural gas reserves, such as shale gas; ii) on the contrary, tightly constrained reserves of conventional natural gas reserves in the world; and iii) the impact of CO2-constraints and the emergence of a competing environmental friendly "backstop technology". Regional scenarios that have a global impact are: iv) the full halt of Russian and Caspian natural gas exports to Western Europe; v) sharply constrained production and export activities in the Arab Gulf; vi) heavily increasing demand for natural gas in China and India; and finally vii) constraints on liquefied natural gas (LNG) infrastructure development on the US Pacific Coast. Our results show considerable changes in production, consumption, traded volumes, and prices between the scenarios. Investments in pipelines, LNG terminals and storage are also affected. However, overall the world natural gas industry is resilient to local disturbances and can compensate local supply disruptions with natural gas from other sources. Long-term supply security does not seem to be at risk.
    Keywords: Natural gas, investments, reserves, climate policy
    Date: 2009
  17. By: Jan Robinson (Seychelles Fishing Authority - Seychelles Fishing Authority); Patrice Guillotreau (IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement et la société, LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - Université de Nantes : EA4272); Ramòn Jiménez-Toribio (MEMPES- AEA - university of Huelva - University of Huelva, Spain); Frédéric Lantz (IFP - Institut Français du Pétrole - IFP); Lesya Nadzon (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - Université de Nantes : EA4272, IFP - Institut Français du Pétrole - IFP); Juliette Dorizo (Seychelles Fishing Authority - Seychelles Fishing Authority); Calvin Gerry (Seychelles Fishing Authority - Seychelles Fishing Authority); Francis Marsac (IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement et la société)
    Abstract: Many small island states have developed economies that are strongly dependent on tuna fisheries. Consequently, they are vulnerable to the socio-economic effects of climate change and variability, processes that are known to impact upon tuna fisheries distribution and productivity. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of climate oscillations on the tuna-dependent economy of Seychelles. Using a multiplier approach, the direct, indirect and induced economic effects of the tuna industry declined by 58%, 34% and 60%, respectively, in 1998, the year of a strong warming event in the western Indian Ocean. Patterns in tuna purse seine vessel expenditures in port were substantially modified by strong climate oscillations. A cointegration time-series model predicted that a 40% decline in tuna landings and transhipment in Port Victoria, a value commensurate with that observed in 1998, would result in a 34% loss for the local economy. Of several indices tested, the Indian Oscillation Index was the best at predicting the probability of entering a regime of low landings and transhipment. In 2007, a moderate climate anomaly was compounded by prior overfishing to produce a stronger that expected impact on the fishery and economy of Seychelles. The effects of fishing and climate variability on tuna stocks are complex and pose significant challenges for fisheries management and the economic development of countries in the Indian Ocean.
    Date: 2009
  18. By: Slavko V. Šolar (Geološki zavod Slovenije, Dimiceva 14, SI-1000 Ljubljana,Slovenia); Deborah J. Shields (Colorado State Universtiy, Department of Economics); Michael D. Miller (Department of Economics, South Dakota State University)
    Abstract: The goal of public policies is to connect desired ends with practical means toward their achievement. How the desired ends are determined, and whose goals and objectives they incorporate, depends upon the culture and political system of the country in question. With few exceptions, policies change over time to reflect changed perspectives and understanding of the world around us. This is true regardless of the policy area in question. Thus, how societies view and manage their mineral resources has evolved in response to public attitudes, societal needs, economic circumstances, cultural perspectives, political orientations, technological advancements, and geological knowledge. In this paper we examine how the scope of concern has changed for mineral policy. We then review the overarching issues that have in recent years been considered essential components of mineral policies. We point out how neoclassical microeconomics has influenced recent policy design. We then use a market flow diagram to illustrate how policies can be focused at specific market issues. We next discuss mineral resources in the context of sustainable development. We identify issues that become relevant when the frame of reference is enlarged beyond ensuring supply and capturing economic rent. We show that policy based solely on neoclassical economics may not be able to effectively incorporate these issues.
    Keywords: mineral policy, sustainable development, environmental economics, neoclassical economics, policy, sustainability, ecological economics
    JEL: O21 Q01 Q31 Q38 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2009–07
  19. By: Droste-Franke, Bert (Europaische Akademie); Kruger, Jorg (Institute for Mining and Energy Law of the Ruhr, Universitat Bochum); Lingner, Stephan (Europaische Akademie); Ziesemer, Thomas H.W. (UNU-MERIT, and Department of Economics, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: Using the reaction of hydrogen with oxygen to water in order to produce electricity and heat, promises a high electrical efficiency even in small devices which can be installed close to the consumer. This approach seems to be an impressive idea to contribute to a viable future energy supply under the restrictions of climate change policy. Major reasons currently hampering the diffusion of such technologies for house energy supply in Germany are analysed in this paper. The barriers revealed, include high production costs as well as economic and legal obstacles for installing the devices so that they can be operated in competition to central power plants, beside others in tenancies.
    Keywords: fuel cell, diffusion processes, valuation of environmental effects, technological innovation
    JEL: K12 O33 Q51 Q55
    Date: 2009
  20. By: Robert Repetto; Robert Easton
    Abstract: <p> The risks of extreme weather events are typically being estimated, by federal agencies and others, with historical frequency data assumed to reflect future probabilities. These estimates may not yet have adequately factored in the effects of past and future climate change, despite strong evidence of a changing climate. They have relied on historical data stretching back as far as fifty or a hundred years that may be increasingly unrepresentative of future conditions. </p><p>Government and private organizations that use these risk assessments in designing programs and projects with long expected lifetimes may therefore be investing too little to make existing and newly constructed infrastructure resistant to the effects of changing climate. New investments designed to these historical risk standards may suffer excess damages and poor returns. This paper illustrates the issue with an economic analysis of the risks of relatively intense hurricanes striking the New York City region. </p>
    Keywords: climate; global warming; natural disasters; risk; adaptation
    JEL: Q54
    Date: 2009
  21. By: Wayne Head; Richard Buckingham
    Abstract: This article recommends approaches to take in designing sustainable educational environments. The authors present recent examples of UK school buildings that reduce carbon emissions and capitalise on renewable energy sources, and predict how schools will respond to energy needs in the future.<P>Durabilité et innovation dans les écoles du Royaume-Uni<BR>Cet article émet des recommandations sur les approches à adopter en vue de la conception d’environnements pédagogiques durables. Les auteurs présentent des exemples récents de bâtiments scolaires britanniques qui réduisent leurs émissions de carbone et capitalisent sur les sources d’énergie renouvelables, et prédisent la manière dont les écoles répondront à leurs besoins énergétiques dans le futur.
    Keywords: sustainable development, United Kingdom, learning environment, educational buildings, school infrastructure
    Date: 2009–11
  22. By: Lewis, David J. (University of Wisconsin); Plantinga, Andrew J. (Oregon State University); Nelson, Erik (Natural Capital Project, Stanford University); Polasky, Stephen (University of Minnesota)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze the efficiency of voluntary incentive-based land-use policies for biodiversity conservation. Two factors combine to make it difficult to achieve an efficient result. First, the spatial pattern of habitat across multiple landowners is important for determining biodiversity conservation results. Second, the willingness of private landowners to accept a payment in exchange for enrolling in a conservation program is private information. Therefore, a conservation agency cannot easily control the spatial pattern of voluntary enrollment in conservation programs. We begin by showing how the distribution of a landowner's willingness-to-accept a conservation payment can be derived from a parcel-scale land-use change model. Next we combine the econometric land-use model with spatial data and ecological models to simulate the effects of various conservation program designs on biodiversity conservation outcomes. We compare these results to an estimate of the efficiency frontier that maximizes biodiversity conservation at each level of cost. The frontier mimics the regulator's solution to the biodiversity conservation problem when she has perfect information on landowner willingness-to-accept. Results indicate that there are substantial differences in biodiversity conservation scores generated by the incentive-based policies and efficient solutions. The performance of incentive-based policies is particularly poor at low levels of the conservation budget where spatial fragmentation of conserved parcels is a large concern. Performance can be improved by encouraging agglomeration of conserved habitat and by incorporating basic biological information, such as that on rare habitats, into the selection criteria.
    Date: 2009–03
  23. By: Fabio Iraldo (Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies and IEFE – Institute for Environmental and Energy Policy and Economics, Bocconi University); Francesco Testa (IEFE – Institute for Environmental and Energy Policy and Economics, Bocconi University); Vlasis Oikonomou (Joint Implementation Network Laan Corpus den Hoorn); Michela Melis (IEFE – Institute for Environmental and Energy Policy and Economics, Bocconi University); Marco Frey (Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies and IEFE – Institute for Environmental and Energy Policy and Economics, Bocconi University); Eise Spijker (Joint Implementation Network Laan Corpus den Hoorn)
    Abstract: The effects of environmental regulation on competitiveness is always a topic under debate for policymakers and practitioners. The article describes the different ways of defining and measuring the effects of environmental regulation on competition and market forces and synthesizes the most updated findings on the relationship between these dimensions. It also proposes an in depth analysis of the most recent empirical studies, with a particular focus on the buildings and construction (B&C) sector, which often is a substantial contributor to the most important countries’ economic indicators. We find that two variables have proved to be both (i) key in defining to what extent and under what conditions environmental regulation exerts adverse or positive effects on competitiveness and (ii) difficult to nail down: forms of regulation and responses by business.
    Date: 2009–04–01
  24. By: Robert Pollin; Heidi Garrett-Peltier
    Abstract: <p>In this study of Ontario’s green economy, Robert Pollin and Heidi Garrett-Peltier present an approach to realistically estimate the employment effects of green investments in Ontario. They focus on two alternative investment scenarios for the province: a baseline program of $18.6 billion invested in conservation and demand management; hydroelectric power; on-shore wind power; bioenergy; waste energy recycling; and solar power over 10 years, and a more ambitious $47.1 billion 10-year investment program, also investing in off-shore wind power and a smart grid electrical transmission system. They describe the jobs created by these strategies, and recommend ways for the province to maximize the quantity and quality of those jobs.</p>
    Date: 2009
  25. By: Robert Pollin; Jeannette Wicks-Lim; Heidi Garrett-Peltier
    Abstract: <p><span class="desc">This study, co-commissioned by Natural Resources Defense Council and Green For All, considers the employment and other policy effects of a $150 billion annual investment in clean-energy specifically in terms of its ability to raise living standards for lower-income workers and families. This report shows that investments in clean energy can benefit lower-income families first by expanding job opportunities, and also by lowering household utility bills through energy efficiency investments and transportation costs by making public transportation more accessible. </span></p><p>>> <a title="Opens internal link in current window" class="internal-link" href="">Read more about the study and download state and regional fact sheets here</a></p>
    Date: 2009
  26. By: Rane M V
    Abstract: This paper presents some such case studies for co-and tri-generating various cold and hot utilities using innovative designs of Matrix and Tube-Tube Heat Exchangers and Multi-Utility Heat Pumps developed at Heat Pump Laboratory in IIT Bombay (HPL_IITB). Techno-economic benefits of some of these installations deployed in domestic, industrial and commercial applications are discussed.
    Keywords: case studies, cold, hot utilies, Matrix, tube, heat exchangers, domestic, industrial, commercial, laboratory, IIT, bombay, designs, technologies, industrial
    Date: 2009
  27. By: Minh Ha-Duong (CIRED - Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement - CIRAD : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées - Ecole Nationale du Génie Rural des Eaux et Forêts); Ana Sofia Campos (CIRED - Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement - CIRAD : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées - Ecole Nationale du Génie Rural des Eaux et Forêts); Alain Nadai (CIRED - Centre international de recherche sur l'environnement et le développement - CIRAD : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées - Ecole Nationale du Génie Rural des Eaux et Forêts)
    Abstract: An awareness and opinion survey on Carbon Capture and Storage was conducted on a representative sample of French aged 15 years and above. About 6\% of respondents were able to provide a satisfying definition of the technology. The key question about `approval of or opposition to' the use of CCS in France was asked twice, first after presenting the technology, then after exposing the potential adverse consequences. Approval rates, 59\% and 38\%, show that there is no a priori rejection of the technology. The sample was split in two to test for a semantic effect: questioning one half about `Stockage' (English: storage), the other about `Sequestration'. Manipulating the vocabulary had no statistically significant effect on approval rates. Stockage is more meaningful, but does not convey the idea of permanent monitoring.
    Keywords: Carbon capture and storage; public opinion
    Date: 2009
  28. By: Moore, Rebecca (University of Georgia); Bishop, Richard C. (University of Wisconsin); Provencher, Bill (University of Wisconsin); Champ, Patricia (US Forest Service)
    Abstract: In this paper we develop an econometric model of willingness to pay that integrates data on respondent uncertainty regarding their own willingness to pay. The integration is utility consistent and does not involve calibrating the contingent responses to actual payment data, and so the approach can "stand alone". In an application to a valuation study related to whooping crane restoration, we find that this model generates a statistically lower expected WTP than the standard CV model. Moreover, the WTP function estimated with this model is not statistically different from that estimated using actual payment data, suggesting that when properly analyzed using data on respondent uncertainty, contingent valuation decisions can simulate actual payment decisions. This method allows for more reliable estimates of WTP that incorporates respondent uncertainty without the need for collecting comparable actual payment data.
    Date: 2009–05
  29. By: Robert Pollin
    Abstract: In this working paper, Robert Pollin responds to critics who purport to debunk “myths” about recent studies on the employment effects of investments in the clean energy economy. These papers are written as a response to what they term the “rapidly gaining popularity” of four studies that attempt to show the employment gains that can emerge from investments in building a clean energy economy in the United States, including <i>Green Recovery</i>, co-published by the Center for American Progress and PERI. Overall, these papers offer no challenge to the central explanations as to how investing in the green economy will provide significant benefits throughout the U.S. economy.
    Date: 2009

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