nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2009‒07‒03
28 papers chosen by
Francisco S.Ramos
Federal University of Pernambuco

  1. The Impact of the EU Emissions Trading System on CO2 Intensity in Electricity Generation By Widerberg, Anna; Wråke, Markus
  2. The role of fiscal instruments in environmental policy By Katri Kosonen; Gaëtan Nicodème
  3. Reconfiguring an Irrigation Landscape to Improve Provision of Ecosystem Services By Neville D Crossman; Jeffrey D Connor; Brett A Bryan; David A Summers; John Ginnivan
  4. Climate Change and Youth and/in Local Governments By John Anugraha
  5. Decision Making for Sustainable Development: How Assessment Can Help By Nick Bonvoisin
  6. Environmental Kuznets Curve for CO2 in Canada By Jie He; Patrick Richard
  7. Global and Regional Impacts of the Clean Development Mechanism By Shunli Wang; Henri L.F. de Groot; Peter Nijkamp; Erik T. Verhoef
  8. Assessing Vulnerability of Selected Sectors under Environmental Tax Reform By Fitz Gerald, John; Keeney, Mary; Scott, Sue
  9. The ABCs of Global Warming By Robert Shelburne
  10. Achieving Sustainable Consumption for Sustainable Development: Issues and Solutions By K, Sudarkodi
  11. Addressing Climate Change through Innovation: The Challenges Ahead By Jose Palacin
  12. Forest, Wood and Climate Change: Challenges and Opportunities in the UNECE Region By Kit Prins; Sebastian Hetsch; Franziska Hirsch; Roman Michalak; Ed Pepke; Florian Steierer
  13. Social Ecological Economics By Clive L Spash
  15. Taxes, Permits and the Adoption of Abatement Technology under Imperfect Compliance By Villegas, Clara; Coria, Jessica
  16. Environmental negotiations as dynamic games : Why so selfish ? By Raouf, BOUCEKKINE; Jacek B., KRAWCZYK; Thomas, VALLEE
  17. Endogenous Fiscal Policies, Environmental Quality, and Status-Seeking Behavior. By Thi Kim Cuong PHAM; Phu NGUYEN-VAN
  18. Japan’s Contribution to Cool Earth By Kikkawa, Takeo
  19. Theoretical Perspectives on Resource Tax Design By Robin Boadway; Michael Keen
  20. Biofuels Policies and Welfare: Is the Stick of Mandates Better than the Carrot of Subsidies? By Lapan, Harvey E.; Moschini, GianCarlo
  21. Valuation of life: a study using discrete choice analysis By Zhu, Weichen
  22. The Knowing Doing Gap By Eva Molnar
  23. The Economic Value of Biodiversity in New Zealand: Results from a Household Survey By Pamela Kaval; Richard Yao; Frank Scrimgeour
  24. Risk-Based Pricing and Risk-Reducing Effort: Does the Private Insurance Market Reduce Environmental Accidents? By Haitao Yin; Howard Kunreuther; Matthew White
  25. Interdependencies in the Energy-Bioenergy-Food Price Systems: A Cointegration Analysis By Pavel Ciaian; d'Artis Kancs
  26. Modeling the short-term effect of traffic on air pollution in Torino with generalized additive models By Pancrazio Bertaccini; Vanja Dukic; Rosalba Ignaccolo
  27. Shallow Lake Economics Run Deep: Nonlinear Aspects of an Economic-Ecological Interest Conflict By F.O.O. Wagener
  28. Ciénaga de Ayapel: Riqueza en biodiversidad y recursos hídricos By María M. Aguilera Díaz

  1. By: Widerberg, Anna (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Wråke, Markus (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: Prior to the launch of the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) in 2005, the electricity sector was widely proclaimed to have more low-cost emission abatement opportunities than other sectors. If this were true, effects of the EU ETS on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions would likely be visible in the electricity sector. Our study looks at the effect of the price of emission allowances (EUA) on CO2 emissions from Swedish electricity generation, using an econometric time series analysis for the period 2004–2008. We control for effects of other input prices and hydropower reservoir levels. Our results do not indicate any link between the price of EUA and the CO2 emissions of Swedish electricity production. A number of reasons may explain this result and we conclude that other determinants of fossil fuel use in Swedish electricity generation probably diminished the effects of the EU ETS.<p>
    Keywords: Emissions trading; carbon dioxide; climate change; electricity; carbon intensity
    JEL: C22 D21 D24 Q54
    Date: 2009–06–09
  2. By: Katri Kosonen (European Commission.); Gaëtan Nicodème (Centre Emile Bernheim, Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management, ECARES, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, European Commission and CESifo.)
    Abstract: Environmental protection is one of Europe's key values. The EU has set clear policy objectives to achieve its environmental goals. The EU has favoured market-based instruments, among which fiscal instruments to tackle the climate change problem. This paper takes a policy-making perspective and provides an overview of key issues on the role of fiscal instruments in energy and environmental policies. It describes fiscal instruments as cost-effective means to promote environmental goals and highlights in which cases taxes and other types of fiscal instruments can usefully complement each other to achieve environmental target.
    Keywords: taxation, environmental policy, VAT, fiscal incentives
    JEL: H23 Q38 Q48 Q58
    Date: 2009–06
  3. By: Neville D Crossman; Jeffrey D Connor; Brett A Bryan; David A Summers; John Ginnivan (CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Australia)
    Abstract: Over-allocation of fresh water resources to consumptive uses, coupled with recurring drought and the prospect of climate change, is compromising the stocks of natural capital in the world’s basins and reducing their ability to provide ecosystem services. To combat this, governments world wide are making significant investment in efforts to improve sharing of water between consumptive uses and the environment, with many investments centred on modernisation of inefficient irrigation delivery systems, and the purchase of water by government for environmental flows. In this study, spatial targeting was applied within a cost-benefit framework to reconfigure agricultural land use in an irrigation district to achieve a 20% reduction in agricultural water use to increase environmental flows and improve the provision of other ecosystem services. We demonstrate using spatial planning and optimisation models that a targeted land use reconfiguration policy approach could potentially increase the net present value of ecosystem services by up to AUS$463.7m. This provides a threshold level of investment that would be justified on the basis of benefits that the investment produces. The increase in ecosystem services include recovering 61 GL of water for environmental flows, the sequestration of 10.6m tonnes of CO2-e/yr, a 13 EC (?S/cm) reduction in river salinity, and an overall 24% increase in the value of agriculture. Without a targeted approach to planning, a 20% reduction in water for irrigation could result in the loss of AUS$68.7m in economic returns to agriculture which may be only marginally offset by the increased value of ecosystem services resulting from the return of 61 GL of water to the environment.
    Keywords: landscape planning, geographic information systems, cost-benefit analysis, irrigation, climate change, water management, spatial targeting, environmental valuation
    JEL: Q57
    Date: 2009–05
  4. By: John Anugraha
    Abstract: Can young people help to increase awareness about climate change and its impacts working through local bodies? A perceptive and informative presentation by the UN-HABITAT Youth Advisory Board Member at the Local Government Climate Leadership Summit held in Copenhagen last week.
    Keywords: young people, climate change, government, leadership, population, developing countries, India, carbon emissions
    Date: 2009
  5. By: Nick Bonvoisin (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)
    Abstract: Despite recent progress in developing a political consensus that policy changes are needed at both the domestic and international level to address climate change, the required political and public will is still insufficient to overcome a number of political barriers limiting progress.This essay discusses the importance of raising public awareness of environmental issues and the role that assessment processes can have in this regard. Awareness of the environmental dimension of economic activities can be increased in numerous ways such as through education and training, public-service campaigns, product labelling, product marketing, and consumer activism. This essay, however, focuses on the role of environmental assessments; they provide a more formal and scientific way for information to be incorporated into policy decisions and the planning process.
    Keywords: Climate change, global warming, environmental assessment
    JEL: Q50 Q52 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2009–01
  6. By: Jie He (GREDI, Faculte d'administration, Université de Sherbrooke); Patrick Richard (GREDI, Faculte d'administration, Université de Sherbrooke)
    Abstract: The environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis is a theory by which the relationship between per capita GDP and per capita pollutant emissions has an inverted U shape. This implies that, past a certain point, economic growth may actually be profitable for environmental quality. Most studies on this subject are based on estimating fully parametric quadratic or cubic regression models. While this is not technically wrong, such an approach somewhat lacks flexibility since it may fail to detect the true shape of the relationship if it happens not to be of the specified form. We use semiparametric and flexible nonlinear parametric modelling methods in an attempt to provide more robust inferences. We find little evidence in favour of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. Our main results could be interpreted as indicating that the oil shock of the 1970s has had an important impact on progress towards less polluting technology and production.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets curve, CO2 emissions, Partially linear regression model, Flexible parametric inference, Oil shock.
    JEL: Q53 Q56
    Date: 2009–06–18
  7. By: Shunli Wang; Henri L.F. de Groot (VU University); Peter Nijkamp (VU University); Erik T. Verhoef (VU University)
    Abstract: Climate change is a serious concern worldwide. Policy research on climate change in the past decades has largely focused on applied modelling exercises. However, the implications of specific policy strategies such as the clean development mechanism (CDM) for global and regional economic and environmental developments has received relatively little attention. This is partly caused by the complexities of modelling an instrument like CDM. By using and modifying the GTAP-E modelling system, this paper sets out to trace the combined economic and environmental impacts of CDM policies. Particular emphasis is placed on technology transfer induced by alternative CDM policies. Specific attention is devoted to the possible negative consequences of non-participation of the USA in the global coalition, and the associated distributional impacts world-wide.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Clean Development Mechanism; Regional Development
    JEL: F18 O13 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2009–05–20
  8. By: Fitz Gerald, John (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI)); Keeney, Mary (Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland); Scott, Sue (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI))
    Date: 2009–06
  9. By: Robert Shelburne (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)
    Abstract: This essay provides a broad methodological framework for thinking about what is needed policy-wise for addressing climate change due to increased carbon emissions. Climate change will require mankind to decide whether it is best to adapt to higher temperatures or attempt to mitigate the increase by drastically reducing emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The optimal choice is to minimize the sum of the adaptation and mitigation costs; it is argued that much more needs to be done to reduce carbon emissions and thus the focus should be on mitigation activities. This, however, will require a considerable amount of technological advancement and the creation of a global institutional mechanism to manage the process; an attempt is made to explain what is going to be required regarding both of these.
    Keywords: Climate change, global warming,
    JEL: Q50 Q52 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2009–01
  10. By: K, Sudarkodi
    Abstract: Promoting sustainable consumption and production are important aspects of sustainable development. Agenda 21, endorsed by the United Nations Conference on Economic Development (UNCED) in 1992, identified unsustainable consumption and production patterns, particularly in industrialised countries, as the major cause behind the continued deterioration of the global environment. Agenda 21 stresses that changes in consumption and production patterns are necessary to ensure more sustainable development. It calls on industrialised countries to take the lead in achieving sustainable consumption patterns and demonstrate that resource-efficient, low-pollution lifestyles are feasible. The World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg recognised the necessity of “changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production”. Current patterns of consumption and production, particularly, in the developed countries are unsustainable. They are depleting forest resources, fisheries, groundwater and bio diversity, polluting air, water and eco systems and causing dangerous climate changes. Environmental decay is occurring everywhere around the globe. This article focuses on sustainable consumption. Without sustainable consumption, sustainable development is impossible. Sustainable consumption has become an important issue on the global governance agenda. There is an increasing recognition that increases in resource productivity alone will not be sufficient to deliver sustainable development. Shifts in the scale and pattern of consumption are essential and it depends on the expectations, choices, behaviours and the lifestyles of consumers. These issues are key components within the emerging concept of ‘Sustainable Consumption’.
    Keywords: Sustainable Consumption; Sustainable Development
    JEL: A1 D40 D1 O1 E2 N5 E23 R2 O4
    Date: 2009–06–05
  11. By: Jose Palacin (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)
    Abstract: A key component of climate change mitigation efforts will be the need to develop new technological solutions and to diffuse current state-of-the-art technologies to developing countries. However, due to a number of market failures, the required research and technological transfers are currently not being undertaken. The essay discusses how what has been learned about promoting innovation policies at the general level can be applied to the specific challenges in the environmental area. It stresses the need to establish the proper regulatory and institutional frameworks as a precondition for attracting funding into these activities. More specifically, there is a current need to set a realistic price for carbon emissions that will provide an important financial incentive for firms to invest in mitigation technologies. The issue of finding finance for often long-term and risky environmental projects is likely to become especially difficult due to the 2008 financial crisis.
    Keywords: Climate change, global warming, innovation, finance
    JEL: G24 G38 Q50 Q52 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2009–01
  12. By: Kit Prins (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe); Sebastian Hetsch (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe); Franziska Hirsch (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe); Roman Michalak (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe); Ed Pepke (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe); Florian Steierer (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)
    Abstract: This essay explains the importance of the forests as a factor in addressing the challenges in mitigating climate change. The potential of using the forest sector more fully to capture and store carbon has been limited by the failure of current protocols and other climate change mechanisms to adequately account for the contribution of this sector. Thus, a better accounting, which will give the proper credit to the impacts that this sector is having, is viewed to be an important next step to increasing the resources that countries will devote to this factor in addressing climate change. The degree to which global warming is already affecting the forest is also discussed; increasingly mankind may be required to be more proactive in implementing “planned adaptation” activities such as increasing the diversification of forestry resources.
    Keywords: Climate change, global warming, forest, biofuels
    JEL: Q23 Q50 Q52 Q54 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2009–01
  13. By: Clive L Spash (CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Australia)
    Abstract: This paper introduces and explains how ecological economics has developed as a modern movement with its roots in environmentalism and radical environmental economics. Divisions and conflicts within the field are explored to show why material claiming to fall under the title of ecological economics fails to be representative of progress or the vision which drove socio-economic specialists to interact with ecologists in the first place. The argument is then put forward that ecological economics, as a social science engaging with the natural sciences, is a heterodox school of modern political economy.
    Keywords: Ecological economics, methodology, ideology, politics, history
    JEL: B0 B59 Q57
    Date: 2009–06
  14. By: Viet-Ngu Hoang; Tim Coelli (CEPA - School of Economics, The University of Queensland)
    Date: 2009
  15. By: Villegas, Clara (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Coria, Jessica (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: his paper analyzes the effects of the choice between price-based and quantity-based emission regulations on compliance incentives and social welfare in the presence of incomplete enforcement and technology adoption. We show that in contrast to taxes, the extent of violations under tradable emission permits (TEPs) decreases with the rate of technology adoption. However, in terms of welfare, the ranking of the instruments is not so straightforward: taxes induce lower emission damages while TEPs induce lower abatement, investment, and expected enforcement costs. Thereby, the overall ranking depends on the extent to which these effects offset each other.<p>
    Keywords: Technological adoption; environmental policy; imperfect compliance; enforcement; social welfare
    JEL: K32 K42 L51 Q55
    Date: 2009–06–16
  16. By: Raouf, BOUCEKKINE (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES)); Jacek B., KRAWCZYK; Thomas, VALLEE
    Abstract: We study a trade-off between economic and environmental indicators using a two-stage optimal control setting where the player can switch to a cleaner technology, that is environmentally ÒefficientÓ, but economically less productive. We provide an analytical characterization of the solution paths for the case where the considered utility functions are increasing and strictly concave with respect to consumption and decreasing linearly with respect to the pollution stock. In this context, an isolated player will either immediately start using the environmentally efficient technology, or for ever continue applying the old and ÒdirtyÓ technology. In a two-player (say, two neighbor countries) dynamic game wheer the pollution results from a sum of two consumptions, we prove existence of a Nash (open-loop) equiibrium, in which each player chooses the technoloy selfish i.e., without considering the choice made by the other player. A Stackelberg game solution displays the same properties. Under cooperation, the country reluctant to adopt the technology as an equilibrium solution, chooses to switch to the cleaner technology provided it benefits from some ÒtransferÓ from the environmentally efficient partner
    Keywords: O41, Q56, Q58
    Date: 2009–04–17
  17. By: Thi Kim Cuong PHAM; Phu NGUYEN-VAN
    Abstract: This paper analyzes endogenous fiscal policy and public decision in an endogenous growth model where agents care about social status and environmental quality. The quest for a higher status is assimilated to a preference for capital wealth. The government uses income tax to finance infrastructure and environmental protection, and maximizes individual welfare. We find that accounting for preferences for social status and environmental quality may lead to an allocation of tax revenue in favor of cleanup effort to the detriment of infrastructure. It does not necessary have a negative impact on growth. Status seeking can however harm economic growth and environmental quality when its motive is important enough. Finally, we show that economic growth is consistent with environmental preservation but is not necessarily welfare-improving as in the case of absence of status-seeking behavior.
    Keywords: Endogenous policy; endogenous growth; environmental quality; status-seeking; public expenditure; Wagner's law.
    JEL: H31 O41 Q58
    Date: 2009
  18. By: Kikkawa, Takeo
    Abstract: The purpose of the “Cool Earth 50 Plan” announced by the Japanese Government is to cut global greenhouse gas emissions to half the current level by 2050. This paper focuses on the following two points: (i) How compatibility between environmental protection and economic growth could be made, and (ii) How Japan should contribute to “Cool Earth” on a long-term basis. In regard to point (i), this paper makes clear the validity of energy conservation and technological innovation. One of the most important innovations is CCS (Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage) / EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery) technology. In regard to point (ii), this paper introduces two unique Japanese methods for cutting global greenhouse gases, those are the “Top Runner Program” and the “Sector by Sector Approach”. The former is effective in the residential, commercial, and transportation sectors, and the latter is valid in the industrial sectors.
    Date: 2009–06
  19. By: Robin Boadway (Queen's University); Michael Keen (IMF)
    Abstract: The importance and complexity of petroleum and hard minerals operations is matched by the importance and complexity of finding effective ways to tax them. Many of these challenges arise in other activities too (exhaustibility of deposits being the main exception), but they take such extreme form in relation to resources as to have led to a proliferation of creative instruments and analytical methods. This paper reviews the challenges for tax policy in dealing with the resource sector, the principal instruments used, and some of the central design issues.
    Keywords: natural resources, resource taxation, non-renewable resources
    JEL: H25 Q38
    Date: 2009–01
  20. By: Lapan, Harvey E.; Moschini, GianCarlo
    Abstract: Significant government support for biofuels has led to rapid growth in U.S. ethanol production and research to develop more advanced biofuels. In this paper we construct a general equilibrium, open economy model that captures the rationale typically invoked to justify government intervention in this setting: to alleviate the environmental impact of energy consumption and to decrease U.S. energy dependence on foreign sources. The model is used to study both the positive and normative implications of alternative policy instruments, including the subsidies and mandates specified by the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. From a positive perspective, we find that biofuels mandates are equivalent to a combination of fuel taxes and biofuels subsidies that are revenue neutral. From a welfare perspective, we show that biofuels mandates dominate biofuels subsidies, and that combining fuel taxes (rather than subsidies) with mandates would be welfare enhancing.
    Keywords: Biofuels policies, Greenhouse gas emissions, Mandates, Second best, Subsidies, Welfare.
    JEL: F1 H2 Q0
    Date: 2009–06–09
  21. By: Zhu, Weichen (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research)
    Abstract: The focus of this paper is to discuss and compare different approaches to calculate the statistical value of life (VSL) based on survey data. In this paper, we find out that people significantly prefer to reduce the premature death related to the environmental pollution than to reduce the premature death caused by heart disease by using discrete choice technique and estimate a simple logit and ordered logit model. But no significant evidence indicates saving lives from environmental pollution is more preferred than saving lives from traffic accident, or vice versa. VSL is directly calculated from preferences based on our estimates. We try to link the WTP with the random utility framework in this paper. A new way to make use of the information of WTP is introduced. We show that in theory the common estimates on study of the relationship between WTP and other socio-economic variables by using OLS is biased due to the selection problem. By introducing an “instrument variable” into the regression, it’s possible to correct the selection bias.
    Keywords: Statistical value of life; VSL; traffic accident; willingness to pay
    JEL: I18
    Date: 2009–06–14
  22. By: Eva Molnar (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe)
    Abstract: This essay addresses two major challenges confronting the road tranportation sector: reducing emissions and improving road safety. After energy production, the transportation sector is the second largest source of carbon emissions, accounting for about one quarter of all fossil fuel emissions. Three quarters of this is due to road transport. The huge task in reducing emissions is compounded by the expected rapid increase in the number of cars; their number is expected to more than double between now and 2020. As for highway safety, every year over one million people die in highway fatalities and they are the leading cause of death globally for those 15-19 years old. This essay argues that the task is to close the gap between what we know about these issues and what we are actually doing about them.
    Keywords: Climate change, global warming, transport infrastructure, road safety
    JEL: Q50 Q52 Q54 Q58 H41 H54 H87 I18
    Date: 2009–01
  23. By: Pamela Kaval (University of Waikato); Richard Yao (University of Waikato); Frank Scrimgeour (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: This paper presents the results of a national study examining the economic value of biodiversity in New Zealand. Three valuation techniques were used to collect information from respondents: the contingent valuation method, the well-being method and the choice modelling method. Results revealed that respondents were familiar with the native plants and animals in their areas and valued them highly, therefore having a strong value for native biodiversity.
    Keywords: native biodiversity; New Zealand; choice modelling; contingent valuation; well-being; community volunteers
    JEL: Q57 Q2 Q25
    Date: 2009–06–25
  24. By: Haitao Yin; Howard Kunreuther; Matthew White
    Abstract: This paper examines whether risk-based pricing promotes risk-reducing effort. Such mechanisms are common in private insurance markets, but are rarely incorporated in government assurance programs. We analyze accidental underground fuel tank leaks--a source of environmental damage to water supplies--over a fourteen-year period, using disaggregate (facility-level) data and policy variation in financing the cleanup of tank leaks over time. The data suggest that eliminating a state-level government assurance program and switching to private insurance markets to finance cleanups reduced the frequency of costly underground fuel tank leaks by more than 20 percent. This corresponds to more than 3,000 avoided fuel-tank release accidents over eight years in one state alone, a benefit in avoided cleanup costs and environmental harm exceeding $400 million. These benefits arise because private insurers mitigate moral hazard by providing financial incentives for tank owners to close or replace leak-prone tanks prior to costly accidents.
    JEL: D8 H23 K32
    Date: 2009–06
  25. By: Pavel Ciaian; d'Artis Kancs
    Abstract: The present paper examines a long-run relationship between the energy, bioenergy and food prices. In the recent years the bioenergy production has increased significantly around the world. The increase has been driven by rising energy prices as well as by environmental policies aiming at reducing the harmful effects of conventional sources of energy, such as climate change. Bioenergy, in turn, affects agricultural markets, because it uses agricultural commodities as inputs. The theoretical model we develop predicts that, because of price inelastic food demand, the agricultural price increase may be substantial. The empirical findings confirm the theoretical hypothesis that energy prices do affect prices of agricultural commodities. However, the co-integration is weaker than theoretically predicted. The price effect of bioenergy might be mitigated by new technological development, which improve yields and lead to an offsetting effect in the supply of agricultural commodities, and by fallow land brought into cultivation, when agricultural profitability is rising.
    Keywords: Energy, bioenergy, crude oil, prices, cointegration.
    JEL: Q11 Q13 Q42
    Date: 2009–06–06
  26. By: Pancrazio Bertaccini; Vanja Dukic; Rosalba Ignaccolo
    Abstract: Vehicular traffic typically plays an important role in atmospheric pollution. This is especially true in urban areas, where high pollutant concentrations are often observed. In this paper, we consider hourly measures of concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 and NOx), carbon oxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM), collected at the stations distributed throughout the city of Turin. To help explain the short-term behavior of the concentrations of these pollutants, we propose using generalized additive models (GAM), focusing in particular on traffic along with the meteorological predictors. All the data are collected during the period from December 2003 to April 2005.
    Keywords: urban area, air quality, vehicular traffic, CO, NO2, NOx, NO, PM, generalized additive models
    Date: 2009–06
  27. By: F.O.O. Wagener (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: Outcomes of the shallow lake interest conflict are presented in a number of different contexts: quasi-static and dynamic social planning, and quasi-static one-shot and repeated non-cooperative play. As the underlying dynamics are non-convex, the analysis uses geometrical-numerical methods: the possible kinds of solutions are efficiently classified in bifurcation diagrams.
    Keywords: Shallow lake; optimal management; dynamic games; bifurcation analysis
    JEL: C61 C73 Q57
    Date: 2009–04–21
  28. By: María M. Aguilera Díaz
    Abstract: La ciénaga de Ayapel hace parte del macrosistema de humedales y zonas inundables de la Depresión Momposina y es un sistema de lagunas sobre la llanura aluvial del Río San Jorge. Cumple una función ambiental importante para la región y el país, pues modera los regímenes hidrológicos de las áreas tributarias que vierten sus caudales sobre ella, así mismo, alberga una gran variedad de especies de flora y fauna. El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio de los aspectos socioeconómicos de este sistema cenagoso y de sus potencialidades económicas, las cuales manejadas de manera sostenible pueden darle bienestar a la comunidad que lo habita. En lo social se encontró un bajo nivel educativo en la comunidad y un alto porcentaje de la población con necesidades básicas insatisfechas. En cuanto a lo económico, las actividades agrícolas se han contraído, hay conflictos en el uso del suelo por sobreutilización o subutilización, y un alto porcentaje de la tierra está dedicado a la ganadería. Por su parte, la actividad pesquera, de la cual depende la mayoría de la población, es artesanal, una de subsistencia y otra comercial, sin embargo, la captura de peces se ha reducido por los problemas ambientales y la utilización de artes de pescas ilegales.
    Date: 2009–06–10

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