nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2009‒06‒17
28 papers chosen by
Francisco S.Ramos
Federal University of Pernambuco

  1. Tax Policies for Low-Carbon Technologies By Gilbert E. Metcalf
  2. Fossil fuels and clean, plentiful energy in the 21st century: the example of coal By Jaccard, Mark
  3. A possible environment costs-investment model By Piciu, Gabriela Cornelia
  4. Designing Climate Mitigation Policy By Joseph E. Aldy; Alan J. Krupnick; Richard G. Newell; Ian W.H. Parry; William A. Pizer
  5. Environmental and technology externalities: policy and investment implications By Kolev, Atanas; Riess, Armin
  6. In what format and under what timeframe would China take on climate commitments? A roadmap to 2050 By Zhang, ZhongXiang
  7. The Impacts of the Climate Change Levy on business: Evidence from Microdata By Ralf Martin; Ulrich J. Wagner; Laure B. de Preux
  8. The Burden of Proof in National Treatment Disputes and the Environment By Horn, Henrik
  9. What Do Emissions Markets Deliver and to Whom? Evidence from Southern California's NOx Trading Program By Meredith Fowlie; Stephen P. Holland; Erin T. Mansur
  10. Mechanisms and assembly of alternative financing by environmental protection in Romania By Piciu, Gabriela Cornelia
  11. Distributional impact of developed countries CC policies on Senegal : A macro-micro CGE application By Dorothée Boccanfuso; Antonio Estache; Luc Savard
  12. Assessing the role of economic instruments in a policy mix for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision: a review of some methodological challenges By Barton, D.N.; Rusch, G.; May, P.; Ring, I.; Unnerstall, H.; Santos, R.; Antunes, P.; Brouwer, R.; Grieg-Gran, M.; Similä, J.; Primmer, E.; Romeiro, A.; DeClerck, F.; Ibrahim, M.
  13. Low-Carbon Fuel Standards: Driving in the Wrong Direction By Benjamin Dachis
  14. The Impact of Extreme Weather Events on Budget Balances and Implications for Fiscal Policy. By Eliza M. Lis; Christiane Nickel
  15. The Economics of Renewable Energy By Geoffrey Heal
  16. Pros and cons of alternative policies aimed at promoting renewables By Finon, Dominique
  17. Co-optimization of Enhanced Oil Recovery and Carbon Sequestration By Andrew Leach; Charles F. Mason; Klaas van't Veld
  19. A Note on the Complementarity of Uniform Emission Standards and Monitoring Strategies By Arguedas, Carmen; Rousseau, Sandra
  20. Efficient electricity generating portfolios for Europe: maximising energy security and climate change mitigation By Awerbuch, Shimon; Yang, Spencer
  21. An economic view of carbon allowances market. By Marius-Cristian Frunza; Dominique Guegan
  22. On Coase and Hotelling By Matti Liski; Juan-Pablo Montero
  23. Can a Focus on Breakthrough Technologies Improve the Performance of International Environmental Agreements? By Michael Hoel; Aart de Zeeuw
  24. The economics of energy efficiency: barriers to profitable investments By Schleich, Joachim
  25. Governing of Agro-Ecosystem Services By Bachev, Hrabrin
  26. Strategia ed ecologie tra risorse, fiducia e relazioni nell’impresa-network By Luciano PILOTTI
  27. Sustainable development based on a new energetic paradigm: the energy of marine wave and the hydrogen economy By Corbu, Ion
  28. Strategie e pratiche ecologiche per apprendere ad apprendere in contesti complessi e innovativi. Il matching tra cultura e comunità di pratica nel caso H-Farm: tra meta-Corporation emergente ed ecologie del valore By Silvia Rita SEDITA; Luciano PILOTTI; Nicolò VALENTINI

  1. By: Gilbert E. Metcalf
    Abstract: The U.S. tax code provides a number of subsidies for low-carbon technologies. I discuss the difficulties of achieving key policy goals with subsidies as opposed to using taxes to raise the price of pollution-related activities. In particular, subsidies lower the cost of energy (on average) rather than raising it. Thus consumer demand responses work at cross purposes to the goal of reducing emissions (especially as average cost pricing is used for electricity). Second, it is difficult to achieve technology neutrality with subsidies -- here defined as an equal subsidy cost per ton of CO2 avoided. Third, many subsidies are inframarginal. Finally, subsidies often suffer from unintended interactions with other policies. I conclude with some observations on the use of price-based instruments. In particular I discuss how a carbon tax could be designed to achieve environmental goals of emission caps over a control period.
    JEL: H23 Q48
    Date: 2009–06
  2. By: Jaccard, Mark (School of Resource and Environmental Management at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver)
    Abstract: Many people believe we must quickly wean ourselves from fossil fuels to save the planet from environmental catastrophe, wars and economic collapse. However, we have the technological capability to use fossil fuels without emitting climate-threatening greenhouse gases or other pollutants. The natural transition from conventional oil and gas to unconventional oil, unconventional gas and coal for producing electricity, hydrogen and cleaner-burning fuels will decrease energy dependence on politically unstable regions. In addition, our vast fossil fuel resources, perhaps especially coal, are likely to remain among the cheapest sources of clean energy for the next century and perhaps longer, which is critical for the economic and social development of the world's poorer countries. By buying time for increasing energy efficiency, developing renewable energy technologies and making nuclear power more attractive, fossil fuels will play a key role in humanity's quest for a sustainable energy system.
    Keywords: Sustainable energy systems; clean fossil fuels
    JEL: Q40 Q42 Q55 Q56
    Date: 2007–06–25
  3. By: Piciu, Gabriela Cornelia (Centrul de Cercetari Financiare si Monetare Victor Slavescu)
    Abstract: In developing countries, there is a risk of attracting foreign investment in energy areas, highly polluting, so the benefits of reducing time social pressure by creating new jobs and training effect on the economy can turn on the medium and under the major drawbacks in terms of environmental costs unbearable. Therefore, investment policy must entail improving economic performance and thus enhance funding including environmental costs, without accepting the practices seriously affecting, sometimes irreversible, environmental quality.
    Keywords: investment environment; environmental costs; input-output model
    JEL: Q01
    Date: 2009–06–01
  4. By: Joseph E. Aldy; Alan J. Krupnick; Richard G. Newell; Ian W.H. Parry; William A. Pizer
    Abstract: This paper provides an exhaustive review of critical issues in the design of climate mitigation policy by pulling together key findings and controversies from diverse literatures on mitigation costs, damage valuation, policy instrument choice, technological innovation, and international climate policy. We begin with the broadest issue of how high assessments suggest the near and medium term price on greenhouse gases would need to be, both under cost-effective stabilization of global climate and under net benefit maximization or Pigouvian emissions pricing. The remainder of the paper focuses on the appropriate scope of regulation, issues in policy instrument choice, complementary technology policy, and international policy architectures.
    JEL: H23 Q48 Q54
    Date: 2009–06
  5. By: Kolev, Atanas (European Investment Bank, Economic and Financial Studies); Riess, Armin (European Investment Bank, Economic and Financial Studies)
    Abstract: Recognising that environmental and technology externalities affect the development of renewable energy technologies, this paper illustrates how environmental policies induce technological change and how market failures that hinder technological progress weaken the impact of environmental policies on technological change; examines the rationale for and type of policies in support of renewables at an early stage of their commercialisation; analyses to what extent so-called experience curves enlighten the debate on the rationale of such policies; and - assuming that early-stage renewables cannot establish themselves in the market - develops a method for assessing the economics of renewable energy projects based on new technologies.
    Keywords: Environmental externalities; learning; renewables
    JEL: L52 O38 Q40 Q48
    Date: 2007–06–25
  6. By: Zhang, ZhongXiang
    Abstract: Given that China is already the world’s largest carbon emitter and its emissions continue to rise rapidly in line with its industrialization and urbanization, there is no disagreement that China eventually needs to take on binding greenhouse gas emissions caps. However, the key challenges are when that would occur and what credible interim targets China would need to take on during this transition period. This paper takes these challenges by mapping out the roadmap for China’s specific commitments towards 2050. Specifically, I suggest that China make credible quantified domestic commitments during the second commitment period, commit to voluntary no lose targets during the third commitment period, adopt binding carbon intensity targets during the fourth commitment period, and take on binding emissions caps starting the fifth commitment period and aimed for the global convergence of per capita emissions by 2050. These proposed commitments should be viewed as China’s political commitments, not necessarily China’s actual takings in the ongoing international climate change negotiations, in order to break the current political impasse between developed and developing countries. It is worthwhile China considering these political commitments either on its own or through a joint statement with U.S. and other major countries, provided that a number of conditions can be worked out. These commitments are principles, and still leave flexibility for China to work out details as international climate change negotiations move on. But in the meantime, they signal well ahead that China is seriously committed to addressing climate change issues, alleviate, if not completely remove, U.S. and other industrialized country’s concerns about when China would get in, an indication that the whole world has long awaited from China, help U.S. to take on long-expected emissions commitments, and thus pave the way for reaching an international climate agreement at Copenhagen.
    Keywords: Carbon intensity target; Binding emissions caps; Post-Kyoto climate negotiations; Energy saving; Renewable energy; Clean development mechanism; China; USA; India
    JEL: Q52 Q48 O53 Q42 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2009–06–02
  7. By: Ralf Martin; Ulrich J. Wagner; Laure B. de Preux
    Abstract: We estimate the impacts of an energy tax - the Climate Change Levy (CCL) - on the manufacturing sectorusing panel data from the UK production census. Our identification strategy builds on the comparison of trendsin outcomes between plants subject to the CCL and plants that were granted an 80% discount on the levy afterjoining a so-called Climate Change Agreement (CCA). Since the CCAs stipulate specific targets for energyusage or carbon emissions, this comparison yields a lower bound on the impact of the discount. To address alikely selection endogeneity in CCA participation, we adopt an IV approach that exploits exogenous variation inpollution discharges that determined eligibility for CCA participation. We find robust evidence that CCAparticipation had a strong positive impact on growth in both energy intensity and energy expenditures. Ananalysis of fuel choices at the plant level reveals that this effect is mainly driven by stronger growth inelectricity use and translates into a positive impact on CO2 emissions. We do not find any statisticallysignificant impacts of the tax on employment, gross output or total factor productivity. We conclude that, hadthe CCL been implemented at full rate for all businesses, further cuts in energy use of substantial magnitudecould have been achieved without jeopardizing economic performance.
    Keywords: Climate change, Climate Change Levy (CCL), Climate Change Agreement (CCA), trends, firmbehaviour
    JEL: Q41 Q48 Q54 D21
    Date: 2009–03
  8. By: Horn, Henrik
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of the burden of proof (BoP) in National Treatment (NT) disputes under trade agreements. In the situation under study, imports may cause environmental damage, in which case less favorable treatment of imported products may be globally desirable from an international efficiency point of view. But adjudicators do not with full certainty know the motives for policies that are allegedly pursued to protect the environment, but that also give commercial advantages to domestic products. The paper points to a tension between NT and environmental concerns, in that NT will primarily target countries exposed to environmental shocks. But contrary to what might be expected, this tension is not likely to arise when the environmental threats are very severe. The paper also shows why a shift of the BoP in environmental disputes toward complaining (exporting) countries will not necessarily reduce the environmental damage in importing countries.
    Keywords: burden of proof; environment; National Treatment; trade agreements; WTO
    JEL: F13 Q56
    Date: 2009–06
  9. By: Meredith Fowlie; Stephen P. Holland; Erin T. Mansur
    Abstract: A perceived advantage of cap-and-trade programs over more prescriptive environmental regulation is that enhanced compliance flexibility and cost effectiveness can make more stringent emissions reductions politically feasible. However, increased compliance flexibility can also result in an inequitable distribution of pollution. We investigate these issues in the context of Southern California's RECLAIM program. We match facilities in RECLAIM with similar California facilities also located in non-attainment areas. Our results indicate that emissions fell approximately 24 percent, on average, at RECLAIM facilities relative to our counterfactual. Furthermore, we find that observed changes in emissions do not vary significantly with neighborhood demographic characteristics.
    JEL: L5 Q52 Q53 R20
    Date: 2009–06
  10. By: Piciu, Gabriela Cornelia (Centrul de Cercetari Financiare si Monetare Victor Slavescu)
    Abstract: Preventing of environmental damage, restoration and maintenance of quality parameters, improving the quality of the environment involves investment environment, labor consumption, materials and technologies, which requires financial support, financing of environmental investments which are concretize in financial flows, currency, the currency providers of any kind, for recipients, executives or end.
    Keywords: funding mechanisms; European funds; financing capacity
    JEL: Q29
    Date: 2009–06–01
  11. By: Dorothée Boccanfuso (GREDI, Faculte d'administration, Université de Sherbrooke); Antonio Estache (European Centre for Advanced Research in Economics and Statistics at the Free University of Brussels); Luc Savard (GREDI, Faculte d'administration, Université de Sherbrooke)
    Abstract: In this paper we present an analysis of distributional impact analysis of climate change policies envisaged or implemented to reduce greenhouse gasses emissions on Senegal. We consider policies implemented in developed countries (namely the ones engaged in the Kyoto protocol) and their impact on a developing country. Moreover, we simulate a diminishing productivity of land used in agriculture as a potential result of CC for Senegal. This country is exposed to the direct consequences of CC and is vulnerable to changes in world prices of energy given is lack of substitution capacity. According to Winters et al (1998), countries with this profile will bear the greatest burden of CC and its mitigating policies. Our results reveal slight increases in poverty when world price of fossil fuels increase and the negative impact are amplified with decreases in land productivity. However, subsidizing electricity consumption to protect consumers for price world price increases in fossil fuels provides a weak cushion to poverty increase.
    Keywords: Global warming, environmental policies, income distribution, developing countries
    JEL: Q53 D58 Q54 Q58 I32
    Date: 2009–05–22
  12. By: Barton, D.N.; Rusch, G.; May, P.; Ring, I.; Unnerstall, H.; Santos, R.; Antunes, P.; Brouwer, R.; Grieg-Gran, M.; Similä, J.; Primmer, E.; Romeiro, A.; DeClerck, F.; Ibrahim, M.
    Abstract: In this paper we review a number of methodological challenges of evaluating and designing economic instruments aimed at biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services provision in the context of an existing policy mix. In the context of the EU 2010 goal of halting biodiversity loss, researchers have been called upon to evaluate the role of economic instruments for cost-effective decision-making, as well as non-market methods to assess their benefits. We argue that cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and non-market valuation (NMV) methods are necessary, but not sufficient, approaches to assessing the role of economic instruments in a policy mix. We review the principles of “social-ecological-systems”(SES) (Ostrom et al. 2007) and discuss how SES can complement economic cost and benefit assessment methods, in particular in policy design research. To illustrate our conceptual comparison of assessment methodologies, we look at two examples of economic instruments at different government levels – payments for ecosystem services (PES) at farm level and ecological fiscal transfers to municipal /county government. What conceptual problems are introduced when evaluating policies in an instrument mix? How can the SES framework complement CEA and NMV in policy assessment and design? We draw on experiences from Brazil and Costa Rica to exemplify these questions. We conclude with some research questions.
    Keywords: biodiversity, ecosystem services, policy mix, social ecological systems, payments for environmental services, ecological fiscal transfers
    JEL: Q23 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2009–06–01
  13. By: Benjamin Dachis (C.D. Howe Institute)
    Abstract: In pursuit of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions, policymakers in some Canadian provinces are contemplating a low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS), a regulation that would require transportation fuel providers to distribute a mix of fuel that, on average, emitted a declining amount of GHG per unit of energy produced. This report examines the drawbacks of the LCFS concept and suggests that economy-wide measures would be a better way to reduce GHG emissions.
    Keywords: economic growth and innovation, cap-and-trade, transportation fuel providers
    JEL: Q4 Q55 L91 Q48 Q54
    Date: 2009–05
  14. By: Eliza M. Lis (WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management, Chair of Macroeconomics, Burgplatz 2, D-56179 Vallendar, Germany.); Christiane Nickel (European Central Bank, Kaiserstrasse 29, D-60311 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.)
    Abstract: This paper explores implications of climate change for fiscal policy by assessing the impact of large scale extreme weather events on changes in public budgets. We apply alternative measures for large scale extreme weather events and conclude that the budgetary impact of such events ranges between 0.23% and 1.1% of GDP depending on the country group. Developing countries face a much larger effect on changes in budget balances following an extreme weather event than do advanced economies. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for fiscal policy and publicly-provided disaster insurance. Our policy conclusions point to the enhanced need to reach and maintain sound fiscal positions given that climate change is expected to cause an increase in the frequency and severity of natural disasters. JEL Classification: Q54, Q58, F59, H87.
    Keywords: Global warming, climate change, fiscal sustainability, disasters.
    Date: 2009–05
  15. By: Geoffrey Heal
    Abstract: Greater use of renewable energy is seen as a key component of any move to combat climate change, and is being aggressively promoted as such by the new U.S. administration and by other governments. Yet there is little economic analysis of renewable energy. This paper surveys what is written and adds to it. The conclusion is that the main renewables face a major problem because of their intermittency (the wind doesn't always blow nor the sun always shine) and that this has not been adequately factored into discussions of their potential. Without new storage technologies that can overcome this intermittency, much of the decarbonization of the economy will have to come from nuclear, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and energy efficiency (geothermal and biofuels can make small contributions). Nuclear and CCS are not without their problems. New energy storage technologies could greatly increase the role of renewables, but none are currently in sight.
    JEL: Q3 Q4 Q5
    Date: 2009–06
  16. By: Finon, Dominique (Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Developpement, France)
    Abstract: Following a brief review of the rationale for promoting renewable energy sources, this paper compares alternative policies to promote the production of renewable electricity. The focus is on feed-in tariffs (used in Germany, Spain, and France - for instance) and tradable green certificate (TGC) systems (United Kingdom and Italy, for instance). Considering economic theory and practical experience, the criteria for comparing these two alternatives are: cost-effectiveness, environmental effectiveness, and compatibility with market liberalisation. The paper argues that economic theory does not suggest a clear-cut advantage of one instrument over the other and it emphasises that, in any event, the choice of instrument depends on the relative importance attached to these criteria and on cultural factors such as faith - or lack thereof - in markets to help solve environmental problems. In this context, the paper questions the practical usefulness of a European-wide TGC system.
    Keywords: Renewable energy sources; feed-in tariffs; green certificates
    JEL: L52 Q40 Q42 Q48
    Date: 2007–06–25
  17. By: Andrew Leach; Charles F. Mason; Klaas van't Veld
    Abstract: In this paper, we present what is to our knowledge the first theoretical economic analysis of CO2- enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This technique, which has been used successfully in a number of oil plays (notably in West Texas, Wyoming, and Saskatchewan), entails injection of CO2 into mature oil fields in a manner that reduces the oil's viscosity, thereby enhancing the rate of extraction. As part of this process, significant quantities of CO2 remain sequestered in the reservoir. If CO2 emissions are regulated, oil producers using EOR should therefore be able to earn sequestration credits in addition to oil revenues. We develop a theoretical framework that analyzes the dynamic co-optimization of oil extraction and CO2 sequestration, through the producer's choice at each point in time of an optimal CO2 fraction in the injection stream (the control variable). We find that the optimal fraction is likely to decline monotonically over time, and reach zero before the optimal termination time. Numerical simulations, based on an ongoing EOR project in Wyoming, confirm this result. They show also that cumulative sequestration is positively related to the oil price, and is in fact much more responsive to oil-price increases than to increases in the carbon tax. Only at very high taxes does a tradeoff between oil output and sequestration arise.
    JEL: Q32 Q40 Q54
    Date: 2009–06
  18. By: Lise Tole (University of Strathclyde, UK; The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis, Rimini, Italy); ;
    Abstract: This paper uses plant level data on the worlds copper min- ing industry to measure changes in e¢ ciency from the adoption of the ISO 14001 environmental standard. The ISO 14001 is a voluntary standard that sets out minimum guidelines and procedures that …rms should follow in order to achieve more e¤ective management of the environment. Anecdotal and case study lit- erature suggests that …rms are motivated to adopt the ISO 14001 standard and seek certi…cation for a number of reasons. One important reason is the desire to achieve greater e¢ ciency and cost savings through changes in operating proce- dures and processes aimed at the minimization of waste pollution and reduction in the use of resource inputs. Using plant level data from 1992-2007 on virtually all of the worlds industrial copper mines the study tests this hypothesis in a stochastic frontier and random e¤ects model framework. The study measures the impact on operations of ISO 14001 adoption both in respect to the inten- tion to seek ISO 14001 certi…cation (the period before certi…cation when …rms must make necessary changes to their operations and management) and the pe- riod when and after certi…cation is achieved. The study …nds no evidence that adoption of the ISO 14001 standard imposes a cost on …rms either through lower e¢ ciencies or higher costs. In fact, in many cases adoption is associated with higher e¢ ciency, and to a certain extent, lower costs. Thus, the studys …ndings would tend to go against the claims of much of the academic literature that regulation has negative impacts on the …rm. Although …ndings were not robust to model choice or a subset sample, our results clearly indicate that, at a minimum, the adoption of the ISO 14001 does not raise costs or lower e¢ ciency for …rms.
    Keywords: ISO 14001; stochastic frontier production function; e¢ - ciency; cost savings; mining.
    Date: 2009–01
  19. By: Arguedas, Carmen (Departamento de Análisis Económico (Teoría e Historia Económica). Universidad Autónoma de Madrid.); Rousseau, Sandra (Center of Economic Studies, K.U.Leuven, Naamsestraat 69, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium,)
    Abstract: Despite the well-known static cost-inefficiency of uniform emission standards to control pollution, governments continue to use them in a variety of settings. In this paper, we show that inspection agencies can sometimes use their informational advantage to design monitoring strategies that complement uniform emission standards in restoring efficiency.
    Keywords: pollution standards; monitoring; non-compliance.
    JEL: K42 L51 Q58
    Date: 2009–06
  20. By: Awerbuch, Shimon (was Senior Fellow, Sussex Energy Group, SPRU, University of Sussex); Yang, Spencer (Sussex Energy Group - SPRU - University of Sussex - Brighton)
    Abstract: This paper applies portfolio-theory optimisation concepts from the field of finance to produce an expository evaluation of the 2020 projected EU-BAU (business-as-usual) electricity generating mix. We locate optimal generating portfolios that reduce cost and market risk as well as CO2 emissions relative to the BAU mix. Optimal generating portfolios generally include greater shares of wind, nuclear, and other nonfossil technologies that often cost more on a standalone engineering basis, but overall costs and risks are reduced because of the portfolio diversification effect. They also enhance energy security. The benefit streams created by these optimal mixes warrant current investments of about Euro 250 - Euro 500 billion. The analysis further suggests that the optimal 2020 generating mix is constrained by shortages of wind, especially offshore, and possibly nuclear power, so that even small incremental additions of these two technologies will provide sizeable cost and risk reductions.
    Keywords: Efficient electricity portfolios; electricity generation; investment
    JEL: G11 L52 Q40 Q49
    Date: 2007–06–25
  21. By: Marius-Cristian Frunza (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne et Sagacarbon); Dominique Guegan (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: The aim of this work is to bring an econometric approach upon the CO2 market. We identify the specificities of this market, and regarding the carbon as a commodity. We investigate the econometric particularities of CO2 prices behavior and their result of the calibration. We apprehend and explain the reasons of the non-Gaussian behavior of this market focusing mainly upon jump diffusion and generalized hyperbolic distributions. We test these results for the risk modeling of a structured product specific to the carbon market, the swap between two carbon instruments : The European Union Allowances and the Certiified Emission Reductions. We estimate the counterparty risk for this kind of transaction and evaluate the impact of different models upon the risk measure and the allocated capital.
    Keywords: Carbon, Normal Inverse Gaussian, CER, EUA, Swap.
    Date: 2009–05
  22. By: Matti Liski; Juan-Pablo Montero
    Abstract: It has been long recognized that an exhaustible-resource monopsonist faces a commitment problem similar to that of a durable-good monopolist. Indeed, Hörner and Kamien (2004) demonstrate that the two problems are formally equivalent under full commitment. We show that there is no such equivalence in the absence of commitment. The existence of a choke price at which the monopsonist adopts the substitute (backstop) supply divides the surplus between the buyer and the sellers in a way that is unique to the resource model. Sellers receive a surplus share independently of their cost heterogeneity; a result in sharp contrast with the durable-good monopoly logic. The resource buyer can distort the equilibrium through delayed purchases, but the Coase conjecture arises under extreme patience (zero discount rate).
    Date: 2009–04
  23. By: Michael Hoel; Aart de Zeeuw
    Abstract: In a recent paper, Barrett (2006) reaches the conclusion that in general the answer to the question in the title is no. We show in this paper that a focus on the R&D phase in the development of breakthrough technologies changes the picture. The stability of international treaties improves and thus the possibility of realizing benefits of cooperation.
    JEL: C72 F42 Q28
    Date: 2009–06
  24. By: Schleich, Joachim (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, Germany)
    Abstract: Improving energy efficiency is seen as a core strategy for a sustainable energy system, because it may contribute to cost savings for companies and private households, cost-effectively reduces greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants, increases security of supply for required energy services. The thrust of engineering-economic analyses suggests that there is a large potential for energy efficiency measures that are also profitable, but - because of barriers to energy efficiency - are not being adopted. This paper presents a taxonomy of these barriers, distinguishing between barriers that would warrant policy intervention and those that do not. As a case study, barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector and measures to overcome those barriers are discussed.
    Keywords: Energy efficiency; barriers; energy policy
    JEL: G31 Q40 Q49
    Date: 2007–06–25
  25. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: In this paper we incorporate interdisciplinary New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics (combining Economics, Organization, Law, Sociology, Behavioral and Political Sciences), and suggest a framework for analysis of mechanisms of governance of agro-ecosystem services. Firstly, we present a new approach for analysis and improvement of governance of agro-ecosystem services. It takes into account the role of specific institutional environment (formal and informal rules, distribution of rights, systems of enforcement); and behavioral characteristics of individual agents (preferences, bounded rationality, opportunism, risk aversion, trust); and transactions costs associated with ecosystem services and their critical factors (uncertainty, frequency, asset specificity, appropriability); and comparative efficiency of market, private, public and hybrid modes of governance. Secondly, we identify spectrum of market and private forms of governance of agro-ecosystem services (voluntary initiatives; market trade with eco-products and services; special contractual arrangements; collective actions; vertical integration), and evaluate their efficiency and potential. Next, we identify needs for public involvement in the governance of agro-ecosystem services, and assess comparative efficiency of alternative modes of public interventions (assistance, regulations, funding, taxing, provision, partnership, property right modernization). Finally, we analyze structure and efficiency of governance of agro-ecosystems services in Zapadna Stara Planina – a mountainous region in North-West Bulgaria. Post-communist transition and EU integration has brought about significant changes in the state and governance of agro-ecosystems services. Newly evolved market, private and public governance has led to significant improvement of part of agro-ecosystems services introducing modern eco-standards and public support, enhancing environmental stewardship, desintensifying production, recovering landscape and traditional productions, diversifying quality, products, and services. At the same time, novel governance is associated with some new challenges such as unsustainable exploitation, lost biodiversity, land degradation, water and air contamination. What is more, implementation of EU common policies would have no desired impact on agro-ecosystem services unless special measures are taken to improve management of public programs, and extend public support to dominating small-scale and subsistence farms.
    Keywords: agro-ecosystem services; market; private; public and hybrid governance; Bulgaria
    JEL: D86 Q28 H41 H23 Q57 L14 Q38 K32 Q13 Q15 D21 D73 D02 K00 O13 Q01 P28 Q12 Q18 D23 Q34 O17 D74 Q56 Q27 L22
    Date: 2009–05–31
  26. By: Luciano PILOTTI
    Abstract: In that work we explore the ability to learning-by-learning of the SME-network as relational capital of sustainable advantage. The nature of the most of those abilities connect resources and competences useful to realize successful of the firm in the long run in the form of intangibles and circulation between tacit and codified resources. This happens “mobilizing creatively” the chain relationship between best practices and standard of management procedure, innovation and communication of it in a diffuse promotion of human creative resources, by both level individuals and community, realizing the interests of all stakeholders (internal and external ones). In this perspective is important to develop and expand the value of identity as intangible resource of visibility and attractor of the most creative resources from environment (real and virtual, close or far). The strategy of the firm assumes a relational form as able to connect the most creative resources and attracting new ones. Sme-network of firms becomes more able to adaptability to the environment in a co-evolutionary trajectory and transformation of it. Interaction learning-by-learning is the key to build and rebuild a sustainable competitive advantage in the long run as an ecological connecting bridge with the future potential knowledge resources.
    Keywords: Networks, SME, relational capabilities, innovation, ecologies
    JEL: M21 M13 M14
    Date: 2008–06–01
  27. By: Corbu, Ion (Universitatea Spiru Haret, Facultatea de Finante si Banci)
    Abstract: Actual energetic paradigm, excessively pollutant, has as consequence the climatic changes, which will affect greater and greater regions of the planet. The fossil combustibles exhaustion will confront the world with a great energetic crisis. Concomitantly, in the world's seas and oceans there are zones in which permanently the waves amplitude is higher than 1,5 m. An immense quantity of energy is lost every second. Within the frame of this work is presented a solution, based on an invention that will assure the recovery of a great part of this energy and, in the future will provide sure and clean energy.
    Keywords: marine ecological electro- central; waves energy; regenerative energy; energetic paradigm; electric energy; mechanical energy; pneumatic energy; water electrolysis.
    JEL: O21
    Date: 2009–06–01
  28. By: Silvia Rita SEDITA; Luciano PILOTTI; Nicolò VALENTINI
    Abstract: The work presented explore the impact of cultural resources on productivity of the firm, in particular a network firm. Culture resources is considered a primary attractor of competences and generator of new knowledges. Our main aim is to compare formal organization with informal one oriented to bottom up mechanism to decision vs. a hierarchical mechanism of a formal organization. The first one is better represented by ecological mechanism where deliberate decision and unexpected consequences converge towards a new state of ecologies of value, adapted particularly to complex context (high uncertainty and complexity) as in case of a meta-corporation. That dynamic meta-corporation is sustained by communities of practice and epistemic communities as in case of H-Farm, a network - firm in north-east of Italy as a complex incubator of new emergent specialized sub-firms. Sharing value of meaning and horizontal and participating trajectories of decision sustain an emergent form of a meta-corporation higly adapted in a complex world of global innovation.
    Keywords: Network, innovation, ecologies, communities of practice, epistemic communities
    JEL: M21 M13 M14
    Date: 2008–10–21

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