nep-env New Economics Papers
on Environmental Economics
Issue of 2009‒04‒18
twenty-one papers chosen by
Francisco S.Ramos
Federal University of Pernambuco

  1. Greenhouse-gas Emission Controls and International Carbon Leakage through Trade Liberalization By Ishikawa, Jota; Okubo, Toshihiro
  2. Co-Benefits of Climate Change Mitigation Policies: Literature Review and New By Johannes Bollen; Bruno Guay; Stéphanie Jamet; Jan Corfee-Morlot
  3. The Distributional Impact of Environmental Policy: The Case of Carbon Tax and Energy Pricing Reform in Indonesia By Arief Anshory Yusuf
  4. Is Coal King? An Environmental and Economic Assessment from South Kalimantan By Luthfi Fatah
  5. Assessing the Impacts of Climate Change: A Literature Review By Stéphanie Jamet; Jan Corfee-Morlot
  6. Carbon Motivated Regional Trade Arrangements: Analytics and Simulations By Yan Dong; John Whalley
  7. Technological choice under environmentalists’ participation in Emissions Trading Systems By Elias Asproudis; Maria José Gil-Moltó
  8. Experimental Economics: Applications to Environmental Policy By Andrew Reeson; Karel Nolles
  9. Global Financial Structure and Climate Change By John Whalley; Yufei Yuan
  10. Policy Instruments For Irrigation Water Demand Management: Flat Pricing, Volumetric Pricing and Quota regulations By António Cipriano Pinheiro; João Paulo Saraiva
  11. A Dynamic Analysis of Human Welfare in a Warming Planet By Humberto Llavador; John E. Roemer; Joaquim Silvestre
  12. An Elaborated Global Climate Policy Architecture: Specific Formulas and Emission Targets for All Countries in All Decades By Jeffrey A. Frankel
  13. Assessing the Value of Seasonal Climate Forecasts on Farm-level Corn Production through Simulation Modeling By Reyes, Celia M; Gonzales, Kathrina G.; Predo, Canesio D.; de Guzman, Rosalina G.
  14. Climate Change Vulnerability Mapping for Southeast Asia By Arief Anshory Yusuf; Herminia Francisco
  15. The Impacts of Smoking Bans on Smoking in Korea By Beomsoo Kim; Ahram Kim
  16. The Pig Waste Question: An Assessment of Slurry Disposal Options in Thailand By Siriporn Kiratikarnkul
  17. Climate Variability, Seasonal Climate Forecast, and Corn Farming in Isabela, Philippines: a Farm and Household Level Analysis By Reyes, Celia M; Domingo, Sonny N.; Gonzales, Kathrina G.; Mina, Christian D.
  18. Valuing A Life: An Assessment from Metro Manila By Rosalina Palanca Tan
  19. Toxic exposure in America: estimating fetal and infant health outcomes By Nikhil Agarwal; Chanont Banternghansa; Linda T.M. Bui
  20. Valuing urban accessibility and air quality in Sweden: A regional welfare analysis By Li, Chuan-Zhong; Isacsson, Gunnar
  21. Profitable Use of SCF in a Policy Context: the Case of Rice Stockholding in the Philippines By Reyes, Celia M; Mina, Christian D.

  1. By: Ishikawa, Jota; Okubo, Toshihiro
    Abstract: This paper studies greenhouse-gas (GHG) emission controls in the presence of carbon leakage through international firm relocation. The Kyoto Protocol requires developed countries to reduce GHG emissions by a certain amount. Comparing emission quotas with emission taxes, we show that taxes coupled with lower trade costs facilitate more firm relocations than quotas do, causing more international carbon leakage. Thus, if a country is concerned about global emissions, emission quotas would be adopted to mitigate the carbon leakage. Firm relocation entails a trade-off between trade liberalization and emission regulations. Emission regulations may be hampered by trade liberalization, and vice versa.
    Keywords: trade liberalization, global warming, Kyoto Protocol, emission tax, emission quota, carbon leakage
    JEL: F18 Q54
    Date: 2008–11
  2. By: Johannes Bollen; Bruno Guay; Stéphanie Jamet; Jan Corfee-Morlot
    Abstract: There are local air pollution benefits from pursuing greenhouse gases emissions mitigation policies, which lower the net costs of emission reductions and thereby may strengthen the incentives to participate in a global climate change mitigation agreement. The main purpose of this paper is to assess the extent to which local air pollution co-benefits can lower the cost of climate change mitigation policies in OECD and non-OECD countries and can offer economic incentives for developing countries to participate in a post- 2012 global agreement. The paper sets out an analytical framework to answer these questions. After a literature review on the estimates of the co-benefits, new estimates, which are obtained within a general equilibrium, dynamic, multi-regional framework, are presented. The main conclusion is that the co-benefits from climate change mitigation in terms of reduced outdoor local air pollution might cover a significant part of the cost of action. Nonetheless, they alone may not provide sufficient participation incentives to large developing countries. This is partly because direct local air pollution control policies appear to be typically cheaper than indirect action via greenhouse gases emissions mitigation.<P>Les bénéfices connexes des politiques d’atténuation du changement climatique : Revue de la littérature et nouveaux résultats<BR>Les politiques de réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre ont des bénéfices en termes de pollution atmosphérique locale, ce qui diminue le coût net de ces politiques et ainsi renforce les incitations à participer à un accord mondial d'atténuation du changement climatique. Le principal objectif de ce document est d'évaluer dans quelle mesure les bénéfices connexes sur la pollution atmosphérique locale peuvent, d'une part réduire le coût des politiques d'atténuation du changement climatique dans les pays de l'OCDE et dans les pays en dehors de l'OCDE et d'autre part fournir des incitations économiques aux pays en développement à participer à un accord mondial pour l'après 2012. Le document établit un cadre d'analyse pour répondre à ces questions. Après une revue de la littérature des estimations des bénéfices connexes, de nouvelles estimations, obtenues dans un cadre d'équilibre général dynamique couvrant l'ensemble des régions du monde, sont présentées. La principale conclusion est que les bénéfices connexes de l'action climatique en termes de réduction de la pollution atmosphérique locale couvriraient une part importante du coût des politiques. Néanmoins, à eux seuls, ils seraient insuffisants pour amener les grands pays en développement à participer. Cela tient en partie au fait que l'application de mesures visant directement la pollution atmosphérique locale est généralement meilleur marché qu'une action indirecte via la réduction des émissions de gaz à effet de serre.
    Keywords: health, santé, climate change, changement climatique, co-benefits, mitigation policy, politique d'atténuation, local air pollution, pollution atmosphérique locale, bénéfices connexes
    JEL: I10 Q53 Q54
    Date: 2009–04–14
  3. By: Arief Anshory Yusuf (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University)
    Abstract: This research is an attempt to further understand the social and environmental dimension of sustainable development focusing on the impact of environmental reforms, such as pollution reduction and energy pricing policy, has on inequality and poverty for the case of Indonesia. A multi-sector, multi-household, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model is used to provide the basis for two important empirical case studies: (i) the effects of a carbon tax, and (ii) energy pricing reforms. The main finding from the carbon tax study suggests that in contrast to most studies from developed countries, the introduction of a carbon tax in Indonesia would not necessarily be regressive. It is shown to be strongly progressive in rural areas, and either neutral or slightly progressive in urban areas, with overall progressive distributional effect nationwide. The industries that experience the largest contraction are generally more energy intensive. The owners of factors of production in these industries are largely concentrated among higher income households and people living in the cities. For the analysis of counter factual scenarios on energy price reforms, the results suggest recognizing the difference between urban and rural household's income and expenditure patterns are crucial in the attempt to minimize the adverse distributional impacts of the energy pricing reform. In general, this study shows there is not necessarily a conflict between environmental and equity objectives, especially when the policies or reforms to achieve environmental goals are carefully designed.
    Keywords: Carbon tax, Climate change, Indonesia
    JEL: Q58 Q54
    Date: 2008–10
  4. By: Luthfi Fatah (Faculty of Agriculture, Lambung Mangkurat University)
    Abstract: Coal mining is an engine of economic growth in many developing countries, but it is also responsible for a great deal of environmental pollution and social disruption. This study has looked at the * impact of coal mining on the economy and environment of the province of South Kalimantan - one of the country's most important coal producing regions. It also investigates what policy options will best reduce its negative environmental impacts at least cost to the province's economy.
    Keywords: Coal, Kalimantan
    JEL: Q32
    Date: 2008–06
  5. By: Stéphanie Jamet; Jan Corfee-Morlot
    Abstract: Climate change is expected to have significant implications for the world economy and, more broadly, for many areas of human activity. The purpose of this review is twofold. First, it is to summarise current estimates of the impacts of climate change and to explain how these estimates are built in order to identify the main sources of uncertainty and approximation affecting them. Second, the paper discusses how this uncertainty should influence policymaker?s decisions. A main conclusion of the review is that there are large uncertainties, which are not fully reflected in existing estimates of global impacts of climate change in monetary units. Nonetheless, despite these uncertainties, policy action may be justified, provided that policies are cost-effective, even if the marginal cost of GHG emissions mitigation exceeds the marginal damage of one additional ton of carbon. This is because two features of the impacts of climate change tilt the balance in favour of action: their irreversibility, and the risk that they are extreme.<P>Évaluer les impacts du changement climatique : Une revue de la littérature<BR>Le changement climatique devrait avoir des conséquences importantes sur l'économie mondiale et, plus généralement, sur un large éventail d'activités humaines. L'objectif de cette revue est double. D?une part, il s'agit de résumer les estimations récentes des impacts du changement climatique et d'expliquer comment ces estimations sont obtenues afin d'identifier les principales sources d'incertitude et d'approximation qui les entourent. D'autre part, la façon dont cette incertitude devrait influencer les décisions des responsables politiques est discutée. L'une des conclusions principales de cette revue est qu'il existe un grand nombre d'incertitudes autour des impacts du changement climatique qui ne sont pas pleinement reflétées dans les estimations des impacts globaux exprimés en unité monétaire. Néanmoins, en dépit de ces incertitudes, une politique active pourrait être justifiée, à condition que ces politiques soient efficaces au regard des coûts, même si le coût marginal de réduction des émissions des gaz à effet de serres est supérieur au coût marginal d'une tonne additionnelle de carbone. Ce résultat provient de deux caractéristiques des impacts qui inclinent la balance en faveur de l'action : leur irréversibilité et le risque qu'ils soient extrêmes.
    Keywords: uncertainty, incertitude, climate change, changement climatique, impact, impact, irreversibility, irréversibilité, extreme events, événements extrêmes
    JEL: Q00 Q54
    Date: 2009–04–03
  6. By: Yan Dong; John Whalley
    Abstract: This paper presents both analytics and numerical simulation results relevant to proposals for carbon motivated regional trade agreements summarized in Dong & Whalley(2008). Unlike traditional regional trade agreements, by lowing tariffs on participant’s low carbon emission goods and setting penalties on outsiders to force them to join such agreements , carbon motivated regional trade agreements reflect an effective merging of trade and climate change regimes, and are rising in profile as part of the post 2012 Copenhagen UNFCC negotiation. By adding country energy extraction cost functions, we develop a multi-region general equilibrium structure with endogenously determined energy supply. We calibrate our model to business as usual scenarios for the period 2006-2036. Our results show that carbon motivated regional agreements can reduce global emissions, but the effect is very small and even with penalty mechanisms used, the effects are still small. This supports the basic idea in our previous policy paper that trade policy is likely to be a relatively minor consideration in climate change containment.
    JEL: F13 Q54
    Date: 2009–04
  7. By: Elias Asproudis; Maria José Gil-Moltó
    Abstract: We model competition in an emissions trading system (ETS) as a game between two firms and environmental group. In a previous stage, firms endogenously choose their manufacturing technologies. Our results show that there is an inverted U-shape relationship between how polluting the chosen technology is and the degree of the environmentalists' impure altruism. Firms choose a less polluting technology in the presence of the environmentalists than in their absence only if they are characterised by intermediate degrees of impure altruism.
    Keywords: ETS; Technology Choice; Induced Technological Change; Impure Altruism
    JEL: L13 Q30 O31
    Date: 2009–04
  8. By: Andrew Reeson; Karel Nolles (CSIRO Sustainable Ecosystems, Australia)
    Abstract: Incentives, regulations and other policy interventions intended to promote sustainability work through influencing human behaviour. There is therefore much to be gained from a thorough understanding of exactly how various policy interventions relate to the decision-making process. Experimental economics, and the closely related fields of behavioural economics and behavioural finance, apply an empirical approach to study how people act when faced with a range of economic and social scenarios. The experimental approach was pioneered by Vernon Smith and Daniel Kahneman and others, building on early studies by Chamberlin (1948). In recognition of this work, Kahneman and Smith were awarded the 2002 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences. This paper briefly reviews the applications and methods of experimental economics, relates some key research findings and describes some examples of its use in informing environmental policy.
    Keywords: Experimental economics; Behavioral economics; Environmental economics; Environmental markets; Market-based instruments; MBIs
    JEL: C90 Q50 Q58
    Date: 2009–01
  9. By: John Whalley; Yufei Yuan
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the medium to long-term implications of global warming for the evolution of global financial structures. Stern (2007) and other related scientific literature reports that greenhouse gas emissions generated by human activities will very possibly lead to global temperature increase of 1-5 degrees C by 2050. This will cause a dramatic increase in global risks to human life. The response to this will be the seeking-out of financial innovation by major forms, primarily in the area of insurance, but also in the diversification of asset holdings. We suggest in this paper that, with modest climate changes of 1-2 degrees C, the global insurance market will expand dramatically. However, under more extreme climate change scenarios, the entire global financial structure will undergo major changes, with a re-focusing of major financial activity away from intermediation between borrowers and lenders and the facilitation of the accumulation of assets, and towards a focus on insurance arrangements and the diversification of risks associated with climate change.
    JEL: G21 Q54
    Date: 2009–04
  10. By: António Cipriano Pinheiro (Department of Economics, University of Évora); João Paulo Saraiva (Department of Environmental Science and Technoloy, Imperial College London)
    Abstract: In the fifty years since the foundation of the European Community, Europe has evolved in many fields. From being exclusively concerned with economic integration – reflected by policies to increase agricultural productivity and improvement of intra-communitarian trade –, nowadays, the European Union is gradually advancing towards a political integration, in the direction of common environmental values and towards the sustainability of natural resources. While in the Treaties of the European Community of Steel and Coal (1952) and Rome (1957) there is no direct reference to environmental issues, since the Treaty of Amsterdam this problematic issue has been a central theme of EU development, being clearly defined as one community objective to be reached. Frequently, in sustainability concepts only the degradation and misuse of natural resources are taken in account. This paper follows a different concept, where the discussion of sustainability is transferred to and placed in the context of a wider notion, integrating the political, social and economic dimensions of agricultural sustainability. Having this framework in mind, this paper analyses the major implications that an environmental policy, such as the EU Water Framework Directive, may have when different policy measures are adopted. To accomplish this goal, the irrigated region of Baixo Alentejo, Portugal, was taken as a case study, using as a policy analysis tool a Multi-Objective programming model, based on the Multi-Attribute Utility Theory and on goal programming techniques, reproducing farmers’ preferred behavior. The study focuses on the adoption and comparison of volumetric pricing and flat pricing policy measures, as well as on a consumption quota associated with the use of water resources
    Keywords: Water Framework Directive; Flat Pricing; Volumetric Pricing; Multi-Objective Programming; Goal Programming; Water Management
    JEL: Q28 Q12
    Date: 2009
  11. By: Humberto Llavador (Universitat Pompeu Fabra); John E. Roemer (Yale University); Joaquim Silvestre (University of California, Davis)
    Abstract: Climate science indicates that climate stabilization requires low GHG emissions. Is this consistent with nondecreasing human welfare? Our welfare index, called quality of life (QuoL), emphasizes education, knowledge, and the environment. We construct and calibrate a multigenerational model with intertemporal links provided by education, physical capital, knowledge and the environment. We reject discounted utilitarianism and adopt, first, the Intergenerational Maximin criterion, and, second, Human Development Optimization, that maximizes the QuoL of the first generation subject to a given future rate of growth. We apply these criteria to our calibrated model via a novel algorithm inspired by the turnpike property. The computed paths yield levels of QuoL higher than the year 2000 level for all generations. They require the doubling of the fraction of labor resources devoted to the creation of knowledge relative to the reference level, whereas the fractions of labor allocated to consumption and leisure are similar to the reference ones. On the other hand, higher growth rates require substantial increases in the fraction of labor devoted to education, together with moderate increases in the fractions of labor devoted to knowledge and the investment in physical capital.
    Keywords: Quality of life, Climate change, Education, Maximin, Growth
    JEL: D63 O40 O41 Q50 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2009–04
  12. By: Jeffrey A. Frankel
    Abstract: This paper analyzes a detailed plan to set quantitative national limits on emissions of greenhouse gases, following along the lines of the Kyoto Protocol. It is designed to fill in the most serious gaps: the absence of targets extending as far as 2100, the absence of participation by the United States and developing countries, and the absence of reason to think that countries will abide by commitments. The plan elaborates on the idea of a framework of formulas that can assign quantitative limits across countries, one budget period at a time. Unlike other century-long paths of emission targets that are based purely on science (concentration goals) or ethics (equal rights per capita) or economics (cost-benefit optimization), this plan is based partly on politics. Three political constraints are particularly important. (1) Developing countries are not asked to bear any cost in the early years. (2) Thereafter, they are not asked to make any sacrifice that is different in kind or degree than was made by those countries that went before them, with due allowance for differences in incomes. (3) No country is asked to accept an ex ante target that costs it more than, say, 1% of GDP in present value, or more than, say, 5% of GDP in any single budget period. They would not agree to ex ante targets that turned out to have such high costs, nor abide by them ex post. An announced target path that implies a future violation of these constraints will not be credible, and thus will not provide the necessary signals to firms today.<br><br>The idea is that (i) China and other developing countries are asked to accept targets at BAU in the coming budget period, the same in which the US first agrees to cuts below BAU; and (ii) all countries are asked to make further cuts in the future in accordance with a formula which sums up a Progressive Reductions Factor, a Latecomer Catch-up Factor, and a Gradual Equalization Factor. The paper tries out specific values for the parameters in the formulas (parameters that govern the extent of progressivity and equity, and the speed with which latecomers must eventually catch up). The resulting target paths for emissions are run through the WITCH model. It does turn out to be possible to achieve the carbon abatement goal (concentrations of 500 PPM in 2100) while simultaneously obeying the economic/political constraint (no country suffers a disproportionate loss in GDP). Preliminary efforts to achieve a target of 450 ppm have so far been unable to do so without violating the cost constraint.
    JEL: Q54
    Date: 2009–04
  13. By: Reyes, Celia M; Gonzales, Kathrina G.; Predo, Canesio D.; de Guzman, Rosalina G.
    Abstract: <p>Rainfall variability greatly influences corn production. Thus, an accurate forecast is potentially of value to the farmers because it could help them decide whether to grow their corn now or to delay it for the next cropping opportunity. A decision tree analysis was applied in estimating the value of seasonal climate forecast (SCF) information for corn farmers in Isabela.</p> <p>The study aims to estimate the value of SCF to agricultural decisionmakers under climate uncertainty. Historical climatic data of Isabela from 1951 to 2006 from PAGASA and crop management practices of farmers were used in the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) to test the potential impact of climate change on corn. The approach is developed for a more accurate SCF and to be able to simulate corn yields for wet and dry seasons under different climatic conditions. While SCF may potentially affect a number of decisions including crop management practices, fertilizer inputs, and variety selection, the focus of the study was on the effect of climate on corn production. Improving SCF will enhance rainfed corn farmers’ decisionmaking capacity to minimize losses brought about by variable climate conditions.</p>
    Keywords: seasonal climate forecast (SCF), decision tree analysis, climate uncertainty, Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT)
    Date: 2009
  14. By: Arief Anshory Yusuf (Padjadjaran University/EEPSEA); Herminia Francisco (Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia (EEPSEA))
    Abstract: This paper provides information on the sub-national areas (regions/districts/provinces) most vulnerable to climate change impacts in Southeast Asia. This assessment was carried out by overlaying climate hazard maps, sensitivity maps, and adaptive capacity maps following the vulnerability assessment framework of the United Nations’ Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The study used data on the spatial distribution of various climate-related hazards in 530 sub-national areas of Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Lao PDR, Cambodia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Based on this mapping assessment, all the regions of the Philippines; the Mekong River Delta in Vietnam; almost all the regions of Cambodia; North and East Lao PDR; the Bangkok region of Thailand; and West Sumatra, South Sumatra, West Java, and East Java of Indonesia are among the most vulnerable regions in Southeast Asia.
    Keywords: Climate change, vulnerability, Southeast Asia, Mapping
    JEL: Q54 Q56
    Date: 2009–01
  15. By: Beomsoo Kim (Department of Economics, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea); Ahram Kim (Department of Economics, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea)
    Abstract: There is a growing concern about potential harmful effect of second-hand or environmental tobacco smoke. As a result, smoking bans in workplace become more prevalent. In Korea, workplace smoking ban policy become more restrictive in 2003 when National health enhancing law was changed. Using Korea National Health and Nutrition survey in 2001 and 2005 we examine the impacts of law change on current smoker and cigarettes smoked per day. We compare indoor working occupations which are constrained by the law change and ourdoor working occupations which are less impacted. The estimated impacts on current smoker is 4.6 percentage point decline and cigarettes per day show statistically significant decline of 1.1.
    Keywords: Smoking ban, current smoker, cigarettes per day
    JEL: J28 I18
    Date: 2009
  16. By: Siriporn Kiratikarnkul (Faculty of Economics, Maejo University)
    Abstract: The disposal of pig farm waste is becoming a major environmental challenge across Southeast Asia. To help find the best solution to this problem, this study has looked at the situation in Thailand where the government is promoting the use of biogas conversion plants as a way forward. The study finds that, as it is currently implemented, biogas conversion actually provides fewer benefits than many of the other waste management solutions that are being used. However the report also finds that, if the necessary investment was made to allow farmers to use biogas to produce electricity and sell this to the national grid, then biogas conversion would become a good option.
    Keywords: Waste, Thailand
    JEL: Q53
    Date: 2008–12
  17. By: Reyes, Celia M; Domingo, Sonny N.; Gonzales, Kathrina G.; Mina, Christian D.
    Abstract: <p>Seasonal climate forecast (SCF) is one of the tools that could help farmers and decisionmakers better prepare for seasonal variability. However, a cloud of uncertainty looms over the true value of SCF to its target users. To shed light on the true value of SCF in local agricultural decisionmaking and operations, farm and household level survey was conducted. A total of 85 corn farmers from the plains and highlands of Echague and Angadanan, Isabela were interviewed.</p> <p>Results showed that climate and climate-related information were undoubtedly among the major factors being considered by farmers in their crop production activities. All aspects explored on the psychology of corn growers pointed to the high level of importance given to climatic conditions and SCF use. This was evident on the farmers’ perceptions, attitudes, and decisionmaking processes. Though the high regard of farmers on climate forecast and information cannot be questioned, actual application of such information seemed still wanting. Reliable indigenous knowledge on climate forecasting was scarce. With corn farmers in Isabela still thirsting for climate-related information, the delivery of appropriate information and accurate forecasts should be addressed through proper extension and provision of support.</p>
    Keywords: seasonal climate forecast (SCF), corn productivity, Isabela corn industry, climate variability, climate information and corn farming
    Date: 2009
  18. By: Rosalina Palanca Tan (Department of Economics, Ateneo de Manila University)
    Abstract: Many environmental policies and programmes help save people's lives. However, it can be difficult to assign this key benefit a value.' Because of this, mortality reduction is often not taken into account when potential projects are assessed. This omission can result in projects being undervalued and cancelled. To try and help fill this crucial information gap, a new EEPSEA study from the Philippines has calculated a 'value of life' estimate for children in Metro Manila of between US$0.70 million and US$o.80 million.
    Keywords: Value of life, Manila
    JEL: Q51
    Date: 2008–08
  19. By: Nikhil Agarwal; Chanont Banternghansa; Linda T.M. Bui
    Abstract: We examine the effect of toxic exposure on U.S. infant and fetal mortality rates between 1989 and 2002 from toxic pollution released by facilities reporting to the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI). Unlike previous studies, we control for toxic pollution from mobile sources and from non-TRI reporting facilities. We find significant adverse effects of TRI exposure on infant mortality. There is evidence that health effects vary across media: air and water having a larger impact than land pollution. And, within air, we find that releases of carcinogens are particularly problematic for infant health outcomes. We estimate that the average county-level decreases in TRI concentrations between 1988 and 2002 saved in excess of 13,800 infant lives.
    Keywords: Newborn infants - Mortality ; Public welfare
    Date: 2009
  20. By: Li, Chuan-Zhong (Department of Economics); Isacsson, Gunnar (Department of Economics, Dalarna University, VTI, Borlänge)
    Abstract: This paper is concerned with the implicit values of urban accessibility and air quality in Sweden. Based on the hedonic wage and rent theory, we construct an econometric model to compute such values, and illustrate their implications for regional sustainability analysis. It is shown that for most Swedish cities, welfare has increased from 1986 to 1998 due to improved air quality but the positive effect is partly offset by the deteriorated accessibility in some areas. The results also indicate that the values people place on urban accessibility and air quality vary considerably across regions.
    Keywords: hedonic pricing; air quality; urban accessibility; welfare analysis
    JEL: Q51 R10
    Date: 2009–03–20
  21. By: Reyes, Celia M; Mina, Christian D.
    Abstract: <p>This paper documents the activities of the National Food Authority (NFA), particularly on rice marketing, in realizing its mandates of buying high and selling low. Because the Philippine agriculture is greatly affected by extreme climate events such as El Niño and La Niña, this paper highlights the importance of seasonal climate forecast (SCF) information as input to the formulation of various policy decisions of the NFA. Among these important policy decisions are: how much volume of paddy rice to procure from farmers to be able to defend its support price; how much volume of rice to maintain in order to achieve stability in the supply and consumer price; and how much volume of rice, as well as when is the best time, to import to be able to position the optimal level of stocks in time for the lean season.</p> <p>It is also argued in the paper that importation has been playing a significant role in the rice supply-demand situation of the country since 1990, making it one of the most significant government interventions in the rice sector. Based on historical data assessment, some of the worst events in the past such as the 1995 rice crisis and over-importation during the 1997-1998 El Niño could have been avoided if policy decisions, particularly on the volume and timing of rice importation, were linked to SCF. Indeed, linking crop production and import decisions more systematically with SCF would enhance the usefulness of these forecasts at a more practical level.</p>
    Keywords: distribution, rice, seasonal climate forecast (SCF), National Food Authority (NFA), importation, storage
    Date: 2009

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