nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2023‒06‒26
thirteen papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. Entrepreneurship culture: Aggregate trait or collective programming of the mind? By Stützer, Michael
  2. COVID-19 and Entrepreneurship By Sorgner, Alina
  3. Occupational segregation in the digital economy? A Natural Language Processing approach using UK Web Data By Occhini, Giulia; Tranos, Emmanouil; Wolf, Levi John
  4. Regional Eco-Innovation Trajectories By Hendrik Hansmeier; Sebastian Losacker;
  5. Female access to finance: A survey of literature By Pavlova, Elitsa; Gvetadze, Salome
  6. Intergenerational Followership of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) By Julia M. Puaschunder
  7. Female unemployment, mobile money innovations and doing business by females By Simplice A. Asongu; Nicholas M. Odhiambo
  8. Entrepreneurial Orientations and Growth of Moroccan Family Businesses in the Era of Crises By Azzeddine Allioui
  9. The role of financial inclusion in moderating the incidence of entrepreneurship on energy poverty in Ghana By Asongu, Simplice A; Odhiambo, Nicholas M
  10. The SME Finance Gap in The European Union By Thorsten Beck; Natalie Kessler
  11. European Small Business Finance Outlook 2022 By Kraemer-Eis, Helmut; Botsari, Antonia; Gvetadze, Salome; Lang, Frank; Torfs, Wouter
  12. Innovation durch Kooperation: Wie Mittelstand und Start-ups in der Automobilbranche kooperieren By Engels, Barbara; Röhl, Klaus-Heiner
  13. Progress of Digitalization and Industrial Revitalization: Employment and productivity dynamics of firms in Japan (Japanese) By IKEUCHI Kenta; ITO Keiko; KIM Younggak; KWON Hyeog Ug

  1. By: Stützer, Michael
    Abstract: The answer is yes to both. For decades, research on entrepreneurship culture has relied on two competing theoretical foundations for the important concept of entrepreneurship culture. One camp views entrepreneurship culture as an aggregate of personality traits conducive for entrepreneurship. The other camp applies Hofstede's (1980) definition of culture as 'collective programming of the mind' towards entrepreneurship (e.g., Beugelsdijk, 2007, Hofstede et al., 2004; Stephan and Uhlander, 2010). In this paper I present empirical evidence that measures of entrepreneurship culture reflecting both approaches explain entrepreneurial intentions and action. Entrepreneurship culture is thus both - an aggregate personality trait and a collective programming of the mind.
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Sorgner, Alina (John Cabot University)
    Abstract: This chapter presents the results of a systematic review of literature (SLR) on impacts of Covid-19 on entrepreneurship published in the first three years since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, covering the period between January 2020 and January 2023. Main developments in the literature over time, space and themes are identified. The literature body has been growing constantly over time, with most studies included in this SLR published in 2022 that remained unconsidered in previous SLRs. In terms of spatial distribution of published research, a significant number of studies focus on North American and European countries, while low-income countries and countries in Latin American, Sub-Saharan and South Asian regions are underrepresented. Six main themes (and multiple sub-themes) were identified in the literature: entrepreneurial process, resilience and opportunity, entrepreneurial finance, policy responses to the Covid-19 crisis, gender, and well-being. Research on the impact the pandemic has had on entrepreneurial process, sources of financing, resilience of start-up firms, and opportunities emerging from the crisis has been dominating the literature since the early days of the pandemic and has been growing since then. Emerging themes include policy responses to the Covid-19 crisis and their (unintended) consequences for entrepreneurship, as well as differential impact of Covid-19 on female and male entrepreneurs. Studies on well-being of entrepreneurs, including their physical and mental health, represent a relatively low share of the literature on Covid-19 and entrepreneurship. Implications of the results for entrepreneurship research and practice are discussed.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, COVID-19, systematic literature review
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2023–05
  3. By: Occhini, Giulia; Tranos, Emmanouil; Wolf, Levi John (University of Bristol)
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether and how occupational segregation affects the digital economy. Despite the continuous growth of entrepreneurial activity in the digital, little is known about the demographic characteristics of people actively engaging with it and bene ting from it. Further, while popular discourse portrays the digital as a \level playing eld" for economic engagement, the literature has yet to empirically test these claims. Gaining a better understanding of whether occupational segregation is replicated in the digital can assist us in bridging new types of digital inequalities and demystify meritocratic narratives around success in the digital economy. To address this question, we use textual data extracted from UK commercial websites and model digital economic activities through Natural Language Processing techniques. We compare our findings across different gender and ethnicity groups, adopting a research framework informed by intersectionality theory. Our results indicate that occupational segregation persists in the digital economy, as male and female entrepreneurs tend to engage with economic activities stereotypically associating with their gender. However, we do not find the same results when comparing entrepreneurial outputs of female and male entrepreneurs of colour. Our results pave the way for more research in entrepreneurship using Natural Language Processing, textual data and analyses at the intersectional level.
    Date: 2023–05–18
  4. By: Hendrik Hansmeier; Sebastian Losacker;
    Abstract: Given that eco-innovations and the associated renewal of economic structures are pivotal in addressing environmental problems, economic geography research is increasingly focusing on their spatio-temporal dynamics. While green technological and industrial path developments in specific regions have received considerable attention, little effort has been made to derive general patterns of environmental inventive activities across regions. Drawing on unique data capturing both green incumbent and green start-up activities in the 401 German NUTS-3 regions over the period 1997-2018, this article aims to trace and compare the long-term green regional development. For this purpose, we introduce social sequence analysis methods to economic geography that allow us to understand the constitution of regional eco-innovation trajectories. The findings suggest that regions mainly display distinct trajectories. Yet, structural similarities emerge in the sense that regions of the same type occur in spatial proximity to each other and show persistent specialization patterns. These range from the simultaneous presence or absence of green incumbents and green start-ups to the dominance of just one of the two groups of actors. Only some regions manage to establish an above-average eco-innovation specialization over time. Since this greening originates from either green incumbent or green start-up specialization, green regional trajectories can be assumed to unfold mainly in a path dependent and less radical manner. In summary, this study provides important empirical and methodological impulses for further in-depth analyses to disentangle spatio-temporal phenomena in economic geography.
    Keywords: eco-innovation, green regional development, path dependency, regional transitions, social sequence analysis
    Date: 2023–06
  5. By: Pavlova, Elitsa; Gvetadze, Salome
    Abstract: This working paper examines the current academic literature on access to finance for female entrepreneurs and female-led enterprises. It covers two main financing markets: credit and venture capital (VC). The paper finds wide consensus in the academic field that gender-related credit and VC gaps exist in Europe. It also collects some of the most prominent empirical findings with respect to the gender imbalance in the European credit and VC markets during the last decade. This suggests an important role for gender-smart policy interventions at EU-level through the use of both equity and debt financing instruments.
    Keywords: Finance, Gender bias, small businesses
    Date: 2023
  6. By: Julia M. Puaschunder (Columbia University, USA)
    Abstract: The contemporary business and management literature offers an ample account of leadership theory and practice guidance. Future corporate employees are trained to climb up the hierarchy to obtain the aspirational goal of leadership. Leadership theory in the Western world appears to focus on large corporations and multi-national businesses. Most recently, literature emerged that points at drawing attention to small-medium enterprises (SMEs), which are actually the majority of businesses, especially dominating in smaller more fractionate market economics, such as the European continent. SMEs are also the most predominant form of business in developing and transition economies. This article draws attention to the importance of shedding light on SMEs in the overall business, economics and management literature. Currently there is also literature emerging on the importance of attention to followership in the wealth of insights already derived for leadership management and practice. Strategic followership aids decision-makers decide wisely how to follow, whom to follow and when to follow. This paper will address followership in SMEs. Lastly, this paper also contributes by drawing attention to an overlooked feature of SMEs in mainly being family firms. The SMEs nature of family business will be investigated from an intergenerational aspect in order to derive strategic followership advice with respect for intergenerational family influences. The paper closes with an outlook of future research in the field of SME strategic followership with respect for intergenerational family business characteristics.
    Keywords: Behavioral Economics, Behavioral Insights, Development, Economics, Family
    Date: 2023–04
  7. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Nicholas M. Odhiambo (Pretoria, South Africa)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to complement extant literature by examining how mobile money innovations can moderate the unfavorable incidence of female unemployment on female doing of business in 44 countries from sub-Saharan Africa for the period 2004 to 2018. The empirical evidence is based on interactive quantile regressions. The employed doing business constraints are the procedures a woman has to go through to start a business and the time for women to set up a business, while the engaged mobile money innovations are: (i) registered mobile money agents (registered mobile money agents per 1000 km2 and registered mobile money agents per 100 000 adults) and (ii) active mobile money agents (active mobile money agents per 1000 km2 and active mobile money agents per 100 000 adults). The hypothesis that mobile money innovation moderates the unfavorable incidence of female unemployment on business constraints is overwhelmingly invalid. The invalidity of the tested hypothesis is clarified, and the policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Mobile phones; financial inclusion; women; doing business; sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: G20 O40 I10 I20 I32
    Date: 2023–01
  8. By: Azzeddine Allioui (ESCA Ecole de Management, Morocco)
    Abstract: This paper aims to propose, in an original way, a first step which is the use of the social capital theory as an integrative theory of the strategic entrepreneurship specificities of Moroccan family firms. Our study covered a sample of 14 unlisted Moroccan family businesses, 8 of which are SMEs, and 6 are large firms, through qualitative research based on semi-directive interviews with the managers of family firms. Our findings explain the background of strategic entrepreneurship orientations for each of the two categories surveyed. Large family-owned companies are oriented towards diversification and strong involvement in social entrepreneurship, benefiting from a history of entrepreneurial dynamics, succession, family size, and degree of familiarism. Meanwhile, family-owned SMEs move toward strategic refocusing based on a history of stability, social network closure, and social norms. This result is original in that it is the first to explain the relationship between social capital, entrepreneurship strategies, and the size of family firms in the Moroccan context.
    Keywords: family business, family SMEs, large family businesses, strategic orientation, entrepreneurial orientation, social capital, entrepreneurship
    Date: 2023–04
  9. By: Asongu, Simplice A; Odhiambo, Nicholas M
    Abstract: This paper assesses the role of financial inclusion in moderating the incidence of entrepreneurship on energy poverty in Ghana. The assessment is made by using pooled data and two stage least squares. The exposition builds from the 7th (GLSS7) and 6th (GLSS6) rounds focusing on the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GSS, 2014, 2019) that is collected by the Ghana Statistical Service (GSS) from ten principal regions in the country. The findings show that entrepreneurship has an unconditional positive incidence on energy poverty while the interactive incidence between entrepreneurship and financial inclusion on energy poverty is negative. The corresponding financial inclusion policy thresholds that should be exceeded in order for financial inclusion to effectively moderate entrepreneurship for negative outcomes in energy poverty: (i) are between 0.154 and 0.280 index for the full sample; (ii) is between 0.187 index for the rural sub-sample; (iii) are between 0.200 and 0.333 index for the male sample. (iv) Thresholds are not computed for the rural and female sub-samples because at least one estimated coefficient that is needed for the computation of such thresholds is not significant. Policy implications are discussed. This study has complemented the existing literature by assessing how financial inclusion can be employed to influence the nexus between entrepreneurship and poverty in Ghana.
    Keywords: Energy poverty; Financial inclusion; Consumption poverty; Education; Household income
    Date: 2023–06
  10. By: Thorsten Beck; Natalie Kessler
    Abstract: This paper presents SME financing gaps across European countries over the period 2013 to 2020, using two different methodologies, one reliant on firm balance sheets and one on firm-level surveys. We show significant variation in financing gaps across countries and sectors. Variation over time, on the other hand, is not as strong or intuitive. The account- and survey-based measures are only weakly correlated with each other, reflecting their different nature, and both are only weakly correlated with a survey-based measure of self-reported firm financing constraints.
    Keywords: SME Finance, financing gap, firm-level surveys, access to banking
    Date: 2023–03
  11. By: Kraemer-Eis, Helmut; Botsari, Antonia; Gvetadze, Salome; Lang, Frank; Torfs, Wouter
    Abstract: This working paper provides an overview of the main markets relevant to the EIF, thereby documenting the impact of the current inflationary environment, the war in Ukraine and the aftermath of the pandemic on the SME financing environment. The publication first discusses the general market environment and then covers the markets for SME equity and debt products. In addition, it focuses on a number of thematic policy areas that are of particular interest to the EIF, such as Inclusive Finance, Fintech and Green finance & investment.
    Keywords: SMEs, SME financing, private equity, bank guarantee, microfinance, financial technology, sustainable investment, Europe
    Date: 2022
  12. By: Engels, Barbara; Röhl, Klaus-Heiner
    Abstract: Die Kooperation zwischen etablierten Unternehmen und Start-ups bietet erweiterte Möglichkeiten, Innovationen durchzuführen und die Digitalisierung der Wirtschaft voranzutreiben. Die Automobilindustrie zählt bereits zu den überdurchschnittlich innovativen Wirtschaftszweigen in Deutschland, sie steht aber durch die notwendige Elektrifizierung des Antriebs und die hohe internationale Wettbewerbsintensität im Automobilsektor vor großen Herausforderungen. Für die Bewältigung dieser Herausforderungen birgt die Zusammenarbeit mit innovativen jungen Firmen große Potenziale. Bislang ist noch nicht wissenschaftlich untersucht worden, ob und wie die Unternehmen der Automobilbranche mit Start-ups kooperieren. Im vorliegenden IW-Report werden deshalb die Ergebnisse einer Befragung vorgestellt, die unter 78 Unternehmen aus der Automobilbranche zum Bestand der Kooperationen sowie ihren Zielen und Hemmnissen durchgeführt wurde. Es zeigt sich, dass mit 60 Prozent der befragten Unternehmen bereits ein großer Anteil mit Start-ups zusammengearbeitet hat. Die größten Potenziale sehen die Unternehmen im Bereich Forschung und Entwicklung, dennoch ist der Anteil der Unternehmen, der Produkt- und Prozessinnovationen per Start-up-Kooperation initiiert, mit 51 Prozent noch ausbaufähig. Unter anderem mangelnde Ressourcen und das Fehlen eines passenden Kooperationspartners stehen einer Kooperation oft entgegen.
    Keywords: Kfz-Industrie, Unternehmenskooperation, Mittelständische Industrie, Unternehmensgründung, Innovation, Befragung, Deutschland
    JEL: L14 L23 L26
    Date: 2023
  13. By: IKEUCHI Kenta; ITO Keiko; KIM Younggak; KWON Hyeog Ug
    Abstract: Entry and exit of firms and changes in employment and productivity are expected to bring about an increase in national economic growth and productivity. However, there is concern that the increasing importance of digital technology with its network externalities will make it more difficult for new firms to grow and overcome the advantages of incumbents, widening the productivity gap among firms. On the other hand, in industries where new technologies, such as digital technologies, are advancing rapidly, it is possible that there will be increasing activity of new firms entering and exiting the market. In this paper, we measure the entry and exit, job creation and destruction, and inter-firm productivity gap within each industry in Japan and discuss the relationship between the progress of digitalization and the metabolism within industries, comparing results with those of European countries. Unlike the results for European countries, the intensity of intangible assets, including digital assets, did not increase substantially in Japan, nor did the productivity gap between firms within industries increase significantly. By examining the differences from European countries, we explore the factors behind Japan's sluggish productivity growth.
    Date: 2023–06

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