nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2023‒03‒20
nine papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Performance of Start-Ups By Marco Caliendo; Alexander S. Kritikos; Daniel Rodriguez; Claudia Stier
  2. Reassessing Women’s Participation in Entrepreneurial Activities in the Nineteenth Century: A Review of the Literature By Sonia Baijot; Charlotte Le Chapelain
  3. Spatial Agglomeration, Innovation and Firm Survival for Italian Manufacturing Firms By Arnab Bhattacharjee; Ornella Maietta; Fernanda Mazzotta
  4. Spatial concentration and firm-level innovation Evidence from Ghana By Anthony Krakah; Gonzague Vannoorenberghe
  5. Back For Business: The Link Between Foreign Experience and Entrepreneurial Activity in Latvia By Kata Fredheim; Marija Krumina; Anders Paalzow; Zane Varpina
  6. Firm Size and Financing Behavior during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from SMEs in Istanbul By Aysan, Ahmet Faruk; Babacan, Mehmet; Gür, Nurullah; Süleyman, Selim
  7. Government Enterprise and Empowerment Programme (GEEP) and Women’s Performance in Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria By Elda N. Okolo-Obasi; Joseph I. Uduji
  8. Company-Building als Ergänzung des deutschen Innovationssystems: Wie beschäftigungsstarke Gründungen in der Digitalisierung unterstützt werden können By Scheuplein, Christoph
  9. Transmission/cession d’entreprises en région Corse : enjeux et perspectives 2022 Focus sur les entrepreneurs de plus de 55 ans By Nathalie Lameta; Jean-Pierre Boissin; Laetitia Gabay Mariani

  1. By: Marco Caliendo; Alexander S. Kritikos; Daniel Rodriguez; Claudia Stier
    Abstract: Self-efficacy reflects the self-belief that one can persistently perform difficult and novel tasks while coping with adversity. As such beliefs reflect how individuals behave, think, and act, they are key for successful entrepreneurial activities. While existing literature mainly analyzes the influence of the task-related construct of entrepreneurial self-efficacy, we take a different perspective and investigate, based on a representative sample of 1, 405 German business founders, how the personality characteristic of generalized self-efficacy influences start-up performance as measured by a broad set of business outcomes up to 19 months after business creation. Outcomes include start-up survival and entrepreneurial income, as well as growthoriented outcomes such as job creation and innovation. We find statistically significant and economically important positive effects of high scores of self-efficacy on start-up survival and entrepreneurial income, which become even stronger when focusing on the growth-oriented outcome of innovation. Furthermore, we observe that generalized self-efficacy is similarly distributed between female and male business founders, with effects being partly stronger for female entrepreneurs. Our findings are important for policy instruments that are meant to support _rm growth by facilitating the design of more target-oriented offers for training, coaching, and entrepreneurial incubators.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, firm performance, general self-efficacy, survival, job creation, innovation
    JEL: L26 M13 D91
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Sonia Baijot (UJML3 Droit - Université Jean Moulin Lyon 3 - Faculté de Droit - UJML - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon 3 - Université de Lyon); Charlotte Le Chapelain (UJML3 Droit - Université Jean Moulin Lyon 3 - Faculté de Droit - UJML - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon 3 - Université de Lyon, MSH-LSE - Maison des Sciences de l’Homme Lyon Saint-Etienne (MSH Lyon St-Etienne) - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - IEP Lyon - Sciences Po Lyon - Institut d'études politiques de Lyon - Université de Lyon - UJML - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon 3 - Université de Lyon - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Étienne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Nineteenth-century businesswomen were almost entirely neglected, the historiography having adopted the hypothesis of the withdrawal of women from the business sphere after the eighteenth century. A growing body of literature is challenging this view, claiming that women did in fact actively contribute to the industrialization process and occupied key positions as investors and entrepreneurs, and revealing the constant and non-negligible presence of women at the head of businesses. This article reviews recent literature on women entrepreneurship in the nineteenth century. On the one hand, we analyze the reasons invoked by recent studies in order to explain why female entrepreneurship has so long remained ignored. The separate spheres ideology, the rise of industrialization, legal systems, the narrow definition of entrepreneurship and the issue of the sources might have contributed to maintain the idea that women would have withdrawn from business. On the other hand, we review the methods used in the recent revisionist literature in order to identify women entrepreneurs in the historical records and to assess the importance of their participation in entrepreneurial activities. Whereas some sources (tax rolls, censuses, directories, articles of association, etc.) help drawing general conclusions about female entrepreneurship supporting quantitative research, others (private family papers and objects, newspapers and advertisements, public and legal records) are particularly helpful for qualitative investigations permitting to draw in-depth portraits of these women.
    Abstract: Une littérature récente remet en question le présupposé, dominant dans l'historiographie, selon lequel les femmes se seraient retirées du monde des affaires au XIXe siècle. Elle montre en effet que l'entrepreneuriat féminin n'a pas disparu au XIXe siècle. Les femmes ont activement contribué au processus d'industrialisation, à des postes clés, en tant qu'investisseurs et en tant qu'entrepreneurs. Cette revue de littérature fait, d'une part, le bilan des facteurs d'invisibilisation des femmes dans l'historiographie traditionnelle, tel qu'invoqués par les récents travaux. L'idéologie des sphères distinctes, le développement du capitalisme industriel, les droits nationaux, la définition restrictive de l'entrepreneuriat ou encore le problème des sources sont invoqués comme ayant contribué à entretenir l'idée que les femmes se seraient retirées du monde des affaires au XIXe siècle. Par ailleurs, afin de délivrer des pistes de recherche et des outils pour de futurs travaux, cette revue de littérature présente les sources et les méthodes utilisées dans les récentes études. Alors que certaines sources (rôles d'imposition, recensements, annuaires, actes de sociétés, etc.) permettent de dresser des conclusions générales sur les femmes en affaires et viennent plutôt soutenir des recherches quantitatives, d'autres (documents et objets privés, articles de journaux et publicités, documents publics et légaux) sont plutôt appropriées aux recherches qualitatives et permettent de dresser un portrait approfondi de ces femmes.
    Keywords: Female entrepreneurship, nineteenth century, separate spheres ideology, sources, methods
    Date: 2022–09–01
  3. By: Arnab Bhattacharjee; Ornella Maietta; Fernanda Mazzotta
    Abstract: Innovativeness of a firm improves not only its own survival chances but can also generate externalities on its neighboring firms. We empirically examine the role of agglomeration economies in how innovativeness affects firm survival in Southern Italy, using spatial weights to model spillovers. Spatial Durbin probit model estimates confirm that innovation is a determinant of firm survival not only for firms that are themselves innovative but also ones located close to other innovative firms. Definition of spatial scale and weight plays an important role. Spillover benefits are enhanced by agglomeration economies, but only at a very local scale.
    Keywords: Firm survival, Spatial models, Innovation, Spillovers, Southern Italian SMEs
    JEL: L20 O3 D22 C21 C41
    Date: 2023–02
  4. By: Anthony Krakah (Ghana Statistical Service); Gonzague Vannoorenberghe (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES))
    Abstract: We analyze how the spatial concentration of economic activity affects innovation among firms in Ghana. We use the 2014 census of all establishments to map economic activity at a precise geographic level and the responses to a detailed survey of more than 5000 firms to capture measures of innovation and firm-level characteristics. We find a strong positive effect of the overall density of economic activity on innovation (urbanization economies) but a negative effect of the density of employment in an establishment’s sector (localization economies). Several questions in the survey allow us to address the issue of endogeneity and shed some light on the mechanisms. We control for many firm characteristics and confirm our results on a subsample of establishments declaring that their location is that of their founder’s origin, i.e. firms with a plausibly exogenous geographic location. We find that firms in regions with denser economic activity report less problems to access funding and knowledge, while the presence of firms in the same sector is associated with more uncertainty about the gains from innovating.
    Keywords: innovation, development, localization, urbanization, externalities, Ghana
    JEL: R10 R11 R12 O14 O18
    Date: 2023–02–13
  5. By: Kata Fredheim (Stockholm School of Economics in Riga; Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies); Marija Krumina (Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies); Anders Paalzow (Stockholm School of Economics in Riga; Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies); Zane Varpina (Stockholm School of Economics in Riga; Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies)
    Abstract: Research shows that return migrants have a higher propensity to set up an entrepreneurial activity or be self-employed compared to non-migrants. We take a multidisciplinary approach and empirically study the case of Latvia as a migration donor country to learn how re-migrants participate in entrepreneurship back at home. We are interested if foreign experience can be seen as a vehicle for entrepreneurial activity and if it is worth looking at return migrants as agents of business growth and innovation. Not only we measure the fact of being entrepreneurial, but also explore sources that contribute to the higher propensity, attitudes to creating own business venture, level of ambitions and population sentiment towards entrepreneurs. Based on a nationally representative adult population survey of 8000 observations, we find that early-stage entrepreneurial activity, established business ownership as well as intrapreneurship for return migrants exceed that of non-migrant population. We find that self-perceived capabilities to start business is higher for those who have lived abroad, and fear of failure is lower; re-migrants also have better businesses networks and have higher growth and export ambitions. The return migrant entrepreneurship in Latvia is not necessity driven, rather motivated by opportunities. Migration experience, length of stay aboard and capital accumulated abroad are found to be significant predictors of probability to become entrepreneur when controlled for socioeconomic and personal factors.
    Date: 2022–08
  6. By: Aysan, Ahmet Faruk; Babacan, Mehmet; Gür, Nurullah; Süleyman, Selim
    Abstract: This paper examines how small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in Istanbul managed their financial needs during the COVID-19 pandemic. A unique survey was conducted in May–June 2021 to analyze the effect of the pandemic on financial conditions and access to finance. The paper maps the differences between firms in terms of their financing conditions and behavior based on their size during the pandemic. The novel data set helps to conceptualize the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on SMEs. The paper makes a contribution to the literature through using a large number of variables related to firms’ financial conditions and opportunities (e.g., credit restructuring, debt postponing, capital injection). The paper hypothesizes that SMEs are less likely than large firms to access formal finance opportunities, but they tend to rely more on informal financing. The empirical findings suggest that, during the pandemic, micro and small firms tend to borrow more from their acquaintances, such as relatives and friends. Micro firms are less likely to restructure their outstanding loans, borrow from banks, or inject capital. Furthermore, micro firms tend to cut their costs more to avoid further difficulty in their financial positions. Micro and small firms tend to apply for bank loans less than large firms, while medium-size firms are more likely to apply. Micro and small firms are more inclined to report difficulty in accessing credit.
    Keywords: COVID-19, emerging markets, finance, small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs)
    JEL: D22
    Date: 2023
  7. By: Elda N. Okolo-Obasi (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria); Joseph I. Uduji (University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria)
    Abstract: This study examined the impact of the government enterprise and empowerment programme (GEEP) on women’s performance in entrepreneurship development in Nigeria. Results from the use of difference-in-difference (DiD) quasi-experimental design indicate that GEEP intervention has significant impacts on enterprise turnover, reduction in per unit cost of production, increase in profitability and return on investment (ROI). The results also show unequal access to resources and opportunities available in GEEP, between rural and urban residents. The findings suggest that if the rural women had equal access to the resources and opportunities available to their urban counterparts in GEEP, they would participate in traditional industries and build livelihoods in rural economies. This implies that embracing increased GEEP interventions with rural dwellers will enhance women’s entrepreneurship development, raise women’s economic status and deter aggression in Nigeria.
    Keywords: Women’s entrepreneurship development, government enterprise and empowerment programme (GEEP), rural and urban residents, sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2023–01
  8. By: Scheuplein, Christoph
    Abstract: Dem deutschen Innovationssystem werden viele Defizite vorgeworfen: zu wenig Engagement bei der Digitalisierung, zu wenig Wagniskapital und zu wenige Unternehmensgründungen. In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, dass sich mit den sogenannten Company-Buildern eine Form von Wagniskapital herausgebildet hat, die an den Institutionen des deutschen Innovationssystems anknüpft. Die Company-Builder erleichtern den Gründer:innen den Einstieg am Markt und vielen traditionellen mittelständischen Unternehmen den Kontakt mit der Startup-Welt. Dieser erfolgreiche und beschäftigungsorientierte Pfad sollte durch die Gründungs- und Wagniskapitalpolitik unterstützt werden.
    Keywords: Wagniskapital, Unternehmen, Startup, Berlin, Venture
    Date: 2023
  9. By: Nathalie Lameta (Università di Corsica Pasquale Paoli [Université de Corse Pascal Paoli] - Partenaires INRAE); Jean-Pierre Boissin (UGA IAE - Université Grenoble Alpes - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - UGA [2016-2019] - Université Grenoble Alpes [2016-2019]); Laetitia Gabay Mariani (ESSCA School of Management, France)
    Date: 2022

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