nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2022‒07‒18
fifteen papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. A Theory of Visionary Disruption By Joshua S. Gans
  2. Covid or not Covid? Psychological Distress and Entrepreneurial Intentions among Canadian Workers during the Pandemic By Simon Coulombe; Marcus Dejardin; Sylvain Luc
  3. Productivity Dispersion, Entry, and Growth in U.S. Manufacturing Industries By Cindy Cunningham; Lucia Foster; Cheryl Grim; John Haltiwanger; Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia; Jay Stewart; Zoltan Wolf
  4. Reassessing women’s participation in entrepreneurial activities in the nineteenth century: A review of the literature By Sonia Baijot; Charlotte Le Chapelain
  5. Figuring it out: Configurations of high-performing entrepreneurial ecosystems in Europe By Mirella Schrijvers; Erik Stam; Niels Bosma
  6. A Comprehensive Model for Idea Evaluation at Early-Stage Level (Pre-Seed) By Mai, Nhat Chi
  7. The development of entrepreneurial orientation among female migrants and its influence on venture internationalization: a qualitative studybased on the French Context. By Eunice Cascant
  8. Policy brief on access to finance for inclusive and social entrepreneurship: What role can fintech and financial literacy play? By OECD; European Commission
  9. Corporate Social Responsibility in Small and Medium Enterprises in Vietnam By Mai, Nhat Chi
  10. Gender Gap in Business Angel financing By Andrea Bellucci; Gianluca Gucciardi; Rossella Locatelli; Cristiana Schena
  11. Culture and the creative economy in Emilia-Romagna, Italy By OECD
  12. Determinants of Campaign Success: Empirical evidence from equity crowdfunding in Japan By KURIHARA Koki; HONJO Yuji
  13. Entwicklung der hybriden Selbstständigkeit in Deutschland - Analysen anhand des Taxpayer-Panels 2001-2016 By Butkowski, Olivier K.; Kay, Rosemarie; Suprinovič, Olga
  14. What is a Scalable Business? By Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki; Hyytinen, Ari; Pajarinen, Mika; Rouvinen, Petri
  15. Les déterminants des stratégies de protection de l’innovation des start-ups au sein d’un écosystème de la mobilité By Pauline Brunner; Veronique Schaeffer

  1. By: Joshua S. Gans
    Abstract: Exploitation of disruptive technologies often requires resource deployment that creates conflict if there are divergent beliefs regarding the efficacy of a new technology. This arises when a visionary agent has more optimistic beliefs about a technological opportunity. Exploration in the form of experiments can be persuasive when beliefs differ by mitigating disagreement and its costs. This paper examines experimental choice when experiments need to persuade as well as inform. It is shown that, due to resource constraints, persuasion factors more highly for entrepreneurial than incumbent firms. However, incumbent firms, despite being able to redeploy resources using authority, are constrained in adoption as exploration cannot mitigate the costs of disagreement
    JEL: L26 M1 O32
    Date: 2022–05
  2. By: Simon Coulombe (Département des relations industrielles - Université Laval (Québec), Canada); Marcus Dejardin (UNamur - Université de Namur [Namur], UCL - Université Catholique de Louvain = Catholic University of Louvain); Sylvain Luc (Département des relations industrielles - Université Laval (Québec), Canada)
    Abstract: Triggering events can be associated with entrepreneurial intentions. Using data from a survey on the mental health of Canadian workers carried out in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis, we specifically test the association between entrepreneurial intentions and psychological distress, along with other individual demographic and personal-level measurements such as risk-aversion, and financial concern. Our results substantiate a positive relationship between entrepreneurial intention and individual psychological distress, as well as financial deterioration measured at the household level. Taken as a whole, our contribution helps to feed a discussion on the links between mental health and entrepreneurship in a process of personal resilience and, more generally, on well-being as a motivational factor in the entrepreneurial process.
    Keywords: well-being,psychological distress,entrepreneurial intention,COVID-19
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Cindy Cunningham; Lucia Foster; Cheryl Grim; John Haltiwanger; Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia; Jay Stewart; Zoltan Wolf
    Abstract: Within-industry productivity dispersion is pervasive and exhibits substantial variation across countries, industries, and time. We build on prior research that explores the hypothesis that periods of innovation are initially associated with a surge in business start-ups, followed by increased experimentation that leads to rising dispersion potentially with declining aggregate productivity growth, and then a shakeout process that results in higher productivity growth and declining productivity dispersion. Using novel detailed industry-level data on total factor productivity and labor productivity dispersion from the Dispersion Statistics on Productivity along with novel measures of entry rates from the Business Dynamics Statistics and productivity growth data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics for U.S. manufacturing industries, we find support for this hypothesis, especially for the high-tech industries.
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Sonia Baijot (CLHDPP, University Lyon III, France); Charlotte Le Chapelain (CLHDPP, University Lyon III, France)
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Mirella Schrijvers; Erik Stam; Niels Bosma
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship is an important driver of economic development, but its success depends on a large set of interdependent factors and actors: an ecosystem for entrepreneurship. Is there one way to a successful entrepreneurial ecosystem or are there different paths? This paper applies Qualitative Comparative Analysis to identify and analyze configurations of successful regional entrepreneurial ecosystems in Europe. We test two rivalling causal logics: one stating that all entrepreneurial ecosystem elements need to be present and the weakest link is the most important constraint, and the other arguing that elements are substitutable. High entrepreneurship outputs can be realized with a small variety of entrepreneurial ecosystem configurations. But the higher the entrepreneurship output, the more convergence there is to an all-round entrepreneurial ecosystem.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial ecosystem, regional diversity, QCA
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Mai, Nhat Chi
    Abstract: Nowadays, governments encourage people to be an entrepreneur and start their businesses. Because small and medium enterprises play a critical role in economic growth as well as social subjects. However, statistics show a larger number of start-ups eventually fail due to several reasons. Among all, the cause of this failure could be a lack of correct evaluation of the idea at the early stage. Therefore, this study is seeking the most crucial criteria of the idea evaluation process to aid entrepreneurs to take the right assessment and prevent failure. The study uses a mixed method, which consists of narratives and systematic review, and then follows a series of qualitative interviews with start-up coaches, business investors, and both successful and failed start-up founders to have comprehensive opinions about the explored criteria. In the conclusion, the study suggests a framework of idea evaluation that is consists of the 16 most significant idea evaluation criteria which distributed among four stages. This framework could be considered as a feed for future studies to use artificial intelligence for assessing start-up ideas at the early stage.
    Date: 2021–11–10
  7. By: Eunice Cascant (Laboratoire de Recherche Magellan - UJML - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon 3 - Université de Lyon - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Lyon)
    Abstract: Despite being on top of geopolitical and economic agendas, migration has continued drastically increase especially in the 21 ST century. This phenomenon has led to the rise on an intertwined migrant activity referred to as Migrant entrepreneurship, with no exception of female migrant entrepreneurship as a result of the loopholes that exist in the economic and main stream labor integration policies .Migrant entrepreneurship not only contributes to the gross domestic product of the host countries but also that of the country of origin through remittances, hence making it a win-win situation. However, most studies reveal the existence of a gender gap between the male and female migrant entrepreneurs as both groups are far from homogeneity as they come from different countries of origins, age groups, past experience and motivating factors. Nevertheless, recent studies have depicted migrants as more entrepreneurial then the host country natives. Whereas other literature credits migrant entrepreneurship as a way of integration with in the host society. Based on the mixed embeddedness and effectual approaches, the research will investigate how female migrants develop entrepreneurial orientations and its influence on venture creation. In supportive of the effectual approach, an analysis of the impact of the host country's extant resources, opportunity recognition and decision making based on volatile and uncertain environments. We will as well highlight the role of the individual habitus, social capital and networks. This research is qualitative in nature based on female migrant case studies in the context of France. Our key findings, are four-fold; First, the results reveal when it comes to migrant entrepreneurship ,there is a significant gap between male and female migrant entrepreneurs.Secondly ,we un cover that female migrants develop entrepreneurial orientations through five main dimensions namely: (i) Innovativeness (ii) Proactiveness (iii) Risk taking (iv) Competitive aggressiveness and (v) Autonomy .Thirdly our research highlights the key role female migrant entrepreneurs play by including sustainability in their business models .Lastly, results show that female migrant entrepreneurial orientation development can be encouraged by policies designed to promote resources fit for migrants that in the end helps them leverage their capabilities and networks to open up ventures with in the host countries and further to international markets.
    Keywords: female migrant entrepreneurship,Migrant entrepreneurship,migrant entrepreneurial orientation,migrant ventures,migrant internationalisation,female entrepreneurship
    Date: 2021–12–10
  8. By: OECD; European Commission
    Abstract: This policy brief on access to finance for inclusive and social entrepreneurship was produced by the OECD and the European Commission. It presents evidence on the access to finance challenges faced by entrepreneurs from under-represented and disadvantaged groups and social entrepreneurs, and discusses how public policy could harness the potential of fintech to address these challenges. This covers crowdfunding, blockchain and the application of big data to finance for inclusive and social entrepreneurship. The policy brief also discusses the growing need for governments to strengthen financial literacy among the target groups of inclusive and social entrepreneurship policy, including with respect to fintech. Different policy approaches are discussed, including embedding financial literacy training in financial intermediation.
    Date: 2022–07–04
  9. By: Mai, Nhat Chi
    Abstract: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has received growing attention over recent years. However, scant attention has been paid to investigating the implementation of CSR from the perspective of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in a developing country context. Along with the focus on developed countries, existing research underpinned by the institutional theory has mainly focused on macro-institutional determinants and cross-national variations in CSR practices. Despite the pivotal role of SMEs owner-managers, there is a lack of understanding on the underlying mechanisms by which institutional structure and owner-managers’ agency interact to influence the construction of CSR in different contexts.
    Date: 2021–10–14
  10. By: Andrea Bellucci (Universita' degli Studi dell'Insubria and Mo.Fi.R.); Gianluca Gucciardi (UniCredit and Universita' degli Studi di Milano); Rossella Locatelli (Universita' degli Studi dell'Insubria); Cristiana Schena (Universita' degli Studi dell'Insubria)
    Abstract: We study the relevance of the gender of contracting parties involved in equity early-stage financing using transaction-level data on Business Angel (BA) investments around the world between 2018 and 2020. In particular, we analyze whether the gender of BA investor has an impact on the size of the financial transaction and whether female-owned businesses are disadvantaged with respect to male-owned businesses. Then, we offer insights into possible channels and underlying mechanisms that could drive BAs' behaviors. According to our findings, female-owned businesses receive less equity financing than their male counterparts. This effect is independent from the information available to BAs on the target and persists even when unobservable individual factors are taken into consideration. This disadvantage seems to be linked to male Business Angels' taste prejudice, independently from the information available to the investor.
    Keywords: Gender-based discrimination, Female-owned enterprises, Access to finance, start-up; SME financing, Business Angel
    JEL: G21 G24 G32 J16 G41 M13
    Date: 2022–06
  11. By: OECD
    Abstract: Cultural and creative sectors are a significant driver of local development through job creation and income generation, spurring innovation across the economy. Beyond their economic impacts, they also have significant social impacts, from supporting health and well-being to promoting social inclusion and local social capital. This paper offers a review of cultural and creative sectors in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy, highlighting issues and trends in regards to employment, business, entrepreneurship and financing in cultural and creative sectors. It also reviews issues and trends relating to cultural participation and offers in-depth analysis on the role of museums in supporting local development. The paper provides analysis and recommendations to support the region in strengthening the local cultural and creative ecosystem.
    Keywords: creative industries, cultural employment, culture and local development
    JEL: I31 Z1
    Date: 2022–06–17
  12. By: KURIHARA Koki; HONJO Yuji
    Abstract: This study investigates campaign success in equity crowdfunding, using campaigns listed on a leading Japanese equity crowdfunding platform. We examine how success depends on campaign- and firm-specific characteristics, including the campaign target amount. We provide evidence that campaigns launched by venture capital-backed firms are more likely to succeed than others. We also find that patenting has a positive effect on campaign success, as well as on the campaign target amount. Moreover, campaigns that have already provided services or products have a lower probability of success, although not always, and tend to set a lower target amount. Furthermore, campaigns launched by firms eligible for the Angel Tax System, introduced in Japan as a tax incentive for investment in young and small firms, have a higher tendency to succeed in equity crowdfunding.
    Date: 2022–06
  13. By: Butkowski, Olivier K.; Kay, Rosemarie; Suprinovič, Olga
    Abstract: Hybrider Selbstständigkeit wird zunehmend Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. Über das wahre Ausmaß und die Besonderheiten dieser Erwerbsform ist allerdings nur wenig bekannt. Diese Studie widmet sich ihr erstmals auf Basis des Taxpayer-Panels. Es zeigt sich, dass es deutlich mehr hybride Selbstständige gibt als bislang, z.B. auf Basis des Mikrozensus, angenommen werden konnte. Ihre Anzahl hat zwischen 2001 und 2016 merklich zugenommen, insbesondere unter Frauen und Älteren. Wenngleich ein Teil dieser Entwicklungen auf die steigende Erwerbsbeteiligung von Frauen und die Alterung der Bevölkerung im erwerbsfähigen Alter zurückzuführen ist, hat zugleich auch die Neigung der Erwerbstätigen, diese Erwerbsform zu ergreifen, zugenommen. Dies trifft insbesondere auf Ältere, Verheiratete und Personen mit Kindern zu. Die Anzahl der hybriden Selbstständigen übersteigt im Jahr 2016 erstmals diejenige der ausschließlich selbstständig Tätigen.
    Keywords: Hybrid self-employment,taxpayer panel,socio-demographic characteristics,Hybride Selbstständigkeit,Taxpayer-Panel,sozio-demografische Charakteristika
    JEL: L26 M13 O17
    Date: 2022
  14. By: Ali-Yrkkö, Jyrki; Hyytinen, Ari; Pajarinen, Mika; Rouvinen, Petri
    Abstract: Abstract Scalable business creates good opportunities for productivity growth. Unlike previous studies, in this study, scalability was defined through a business model. This metric does not require growth in the past but is forward-looking in nature and indicates the scalability potential. Our descriptive analyses indicate that companies’ own perceptions on their scalability significantly varies between industries. Interestingly, based on our empirical results, companies’ digital business, international orientation and growth aspiration are positively linked on scalability. Moreover, an indicator for the ventures that report having created their business idea predicts scalability.
    Keywords: Scalability, Scaling, Digital, Growth, Potential, Company, Firm-level
    JEL: D24 L25 L23
  15. By: Pauline Brunner (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Veronique Schaeffer (BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, BETA - Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée - AgroParisTech - UNISTRA - Université de Strasbourg - UL - Université de Lorraine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: Cet article caractérise l'influence des facteurs propres aux start-ups et aux écosystèmes de mobilité orchestrés par des acteurs publics, sur les stratégies de protection de l'innovation des start-ups. Nous identifions quatre stratégies et montrons : (1) la diversité des modes de protection employés, le rôle des contrats et l'importance de la problématique de la protection des données ; (2) l'influence des facteurs propres aux start-ups (type d'innovation, nature de la concurrence, taille de l'entreprise) et des facteurs propres à l'écosystème de la mobilité (orchestrateur public, écosystème local émergent), qui conditionnent l'intensité de la concurrence, la taille des marchés et les risques liés aux collaborations entre les acteurs.
    Date: 2021–03–31

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