nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2022‒05‒23
ten papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. Green start-ups and the role of founder personality By Chapman, Gary; Hottenrott, Hanna
  2. Optimal Taxation of Risky Entrepreneurial Capital By Corina Boar; Matthew P. Knowles
  3. Are industrial policy instruments effective?: A review of the evidence in OECD countries By Chiara Criscuolo; Nicolas Gonne; Kohei Kitazawa; Guy Lalanne
  4. Industries, Mega Firms, and Increasing Inequality By John C. Haltiwanger; Henry R. Hyatt; James Spletzer
  5. Entry, exit and market structure in a changing climate By Cascarano, Michele; Natoli, Filippo; Petrella, Andrea
  6. Does risk aversion affect individuals’ actions and interests in angel investing? Empirical evidence from Japan By HONJO Yuji; IKEUCHI Kenta; NAKAMURA Hiroki
  7. The Economy of Collaboration between Reciprocity and Profit By Leogrande, Angelo
  8. Improving Entrepreneurs' Digital Skills and Firms' Digital Competencies through Business Apps Training: A Study of Small Firms By Drydakis, Nick
  9. Has Open Innovation Taken Root in India Evidence from Startups working in Food Value Chains By Chandra S.R. Nuthalapati
  10. Vers une performance écologique des activités en mer : Quels apprentissages tirer des entreprises maritimes innovantes de la transition ? By Charlotte Bigard; Charlotte Michel; Maya Leroy

  1. By: Chapman, Gary; Hottenrott, Hanna
    Abstract: Green start-ups play a vital role in the needed transition towards more environmentally sustainable economies. Yet our understanding of why some founders start green ventures and others do not remains incomplete. We build on the cognitive and decision-making perspectives on start-ups proenvironmental engagement to shed light on the role of founders' personality traits - focusing on the 'Big 5' and risk tolerance - in explaining whether founders' start new ventures with environmentally friendly products. Our analysis of a large, representative, manufacturing and service sector sample of German start-ups illustrates the important role of founder personality traits. Specifically, openness and extraversion promote environmentally friendly products while neuroticism inhibits it. We discuss the implications of these insights.
    Keywords: emission reduction,environmentally friendly products,green innovation,Big Fivepersonality traits,sustainability
    JEL: G24 L26 O25 O31
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Corina Boar; Matthew P. Knowles
    Abstract: We study optimal taxation in a model with endogenous financial frictions, risky investment and occupational choice, where the distribution of wealth across entrepreneurs affects how efficiently capital is used. The planner chooses linear taxes on wealth, capital and labor income to maximize the steady state utility of a newborn agent. Most agents in the model are poor, leading to a redistributive motive for taxation. Optimal tax rates can be written as a closed-form function of the size of the tax bases and their elasticities with respect to tax rates. We find that it is optimal to tax capital income because financial frictions reduce the elasticity of capital income with respect to taxes and because capital income taxes prevent excessive entry into entrepreneurship. Optimal wealth taxes are positive but close to zero, since they strongly discourage capital accumulation.
    JEL: E2 E6 H2
    Date: 2022–04
  3. By: Chiara Criscuolo (OECD); Nicolas Gonne (OECD); Kohei Kitazawa (OECD); Guy Lalanne (OECD)
    Abstract: While the case for industrial policy is gaining traction across OECD countries, little consensus exists on the effectiveness of such interventions. Building on a new analytical framework for industrial policy developed in a companion paper, this paper reviews the empirical literature on the effectiveness of industrial policy instruments, laying out the knowns and unknowns. Overall, it strongly supports the premise that well-designed economic incentives for firms and good framework conditions shaping the business environment are effective. At the same time, it emphasises the limited and inconclusive nature of the evidence regarding the increasingly frequent targeted and demand-side instruments. Finally, it underlines the complementarities between economic incentives and other interventions such as skill policies or framework conditions, notably competition and trade policies. Framework conditions are indeed key in enabling the most productive firms to grow and an important channel for structural change.
    Keywords: industrial policy, public guarantees, public loans, public venture capital, subsidies, tax expenditures
    JEL: L52 L53 O25 O38 Q58
    Date: 2022–05–03
  4. By: John C. Haltiwanger; Henry R. Hyatt; James Spletzer
    Abstract: Most of the rise in overall earnings inequality is accounted for by rising between-industry dispersion from about ten percent of 4-digit NAICS industries. These thirty industries are in the tails of the earnings distribution, and are clustered especially in high-paying high-tech and low-paying retail sectors. The remaining ninety percent of industries contribute little to between-industry earnings inequality. The rise of employment in mega firms is concentrated in the thirty industries that dominate rising earnings inequality. Among these industries, earnings differentials for the mega firms relative to small firms decline in the low-paying industries but increase in the high-paying industries. We also find that increased sorting and segregation of workers across firms mainly occurs between industries rather than within industries.
    JEL: J21 J31
    Date: 2022–04
  5. By: Cascarano, Michele; Natoli, Filippo; Petrella, Andrea
    Abstract: Climate change has long run effects on the size and composition of a country's corporate sector. Using administrative data on the universe of Italian firms, we find that an increase in the incidence of very hot days over a multiyear period persistently reduces the growth rate of active firms in the market. This is due to a drop in firm entry and an increase in firm exit, with relocation playing a minor role. A firm-level investigation reveals a dichotomy between smaller firms, which suffer from high temperatures, and larger firms that successfully adapt, increasing production and net revenues. According to an average climatic scenario, the projected evolution of local temperatures will impact corporate demography further, also exacerbating the divergent effects across warmer and colder areas over the current decade.
    Keywords: climate change; temperatures; firm dynamics
    JEL: D22 Q54 R12
    Date: 2022–04–26
  6. By: HONJO Yuji; IKEUCHI Kenta; NAKAMURA Hiroki
    Abstract: This study explores individuals’ actions and interests in angel investing, using a sample of more than 7,000 Japanese individuals obtained from original survey data. We examine whether risk aversion and discount rate are associated with angel investing. To provide a clear picture of potential and actual angel investors, we classify individuals’ attitudes toward angel investing into “no interest,†“interest only,†and “action.†The results reveal that individuals’ risk aversion is negatively associated with their actions and interests in angel investing. We also find that wealthy individuals are more likely to engage in and have an interest in angel investing. Moreover, we find that among individuals with entrepreneurial experience, the discount rate is positively associated with angel investing, suggesting that entrepreneurs with a higher expected rate of return are more likely to engage in and have an interest in angel investing.
    Date: 2022–04
  7. By: Leogrande, Angelo
    Abstract: The book entitled “L’Economia della Collaborazione. Le Nuove Piattaforme Digitali della Produzione e del Consumo” was written by Francesco Ramella and Cecilia Manzo in 2019 and published in Bologna for il Mulino. The book has 245 pages and a cover price of 22.00 euros. The book consists of an introduction, 8 chapters and conclusions.
    Keywords: Business Objectives of the Firm, Firm Organization and Market Structure, Organization of Production, Contracting Out • Joint Ventures • Technology Licensing, Firm Performance: Size, Diversification, and Scope, Entrepreneurship
    JEL: L20 L21 L22 L23 L24 L25 L26
    Date: 2022–04–24
  8. By: Drydakis, Nick (Anglia Ruskin University)
    Abstract: The lack of awareness of digital services and outcomes is a concern in business environments since small firms need to improve their digital competencies. The present exploratory study investigated whether business apps training was associated with entrepreneurs' and firms' digital advancements. The business apps training was offered to migrant entrepreneurs running small firms in Athens (Greece) over three months, with data collected before and after the training. The analysis revealed that business apps training was positively associated with entrepreneurs' attitudes toward technology, willingness to change (relating to technology/skills/operations), and internet/digital skills, as well as increased use of business apps. Moreover, the training was positively associated with firms' digital competencies related to communication, networking, social media, customer relationship management, payments, accounting and finance, and project management operations. Furthermore, the business apps training was positively associated with migrant entrepreneurs' integration into Greek society. Given the increased number of migrants in Europe, factors that positively impact their entrepreneurship and integration merit consideration. The study provides researchers with a systematic method for evaluating the association between business app training and entrepreneurs' and firms' digital advancements.
    Keywords: training, entrepreneurs, small firms, business apps, digital skills, digital competencies, artificial intelligence, integration
    JEL: M53 L26 O31 O33
    Date: 2022–04
  9. By: Chandra S.R. Nuthalapati (Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi)
    Abstract: Open innovation represents a paradigm shift in the technology development process from the advent of the New Millennium. Though evidenced mainly in technology-intensive sectors of developed countries, several ‘erosion factors’ and their interplay catalyse open innovation in relatively traditional sectors of developing countries. The rise of startups with supplementary venture capital industry is hypothesised to play this role in the Indian food system. This paper examines this hypothesis by leveraging a large database of startups. Several types of startups have come up in the last decade and are filling the gaps in the food value chains in infrastructure deficit regions and introducing innovations. The interconnections between startups themselves and their business partnerships with input companies, processors, aggregators, traders, hotels and restaurants, supermarkets, e-commerce companies, research organisations, various governments, international institutions like the World Bank, various crop associations like the tea growers association, constitute a complex web. The knowledge flows are both outbound from the startups to the companies and other actors and sometimes in the opposite direction as well as bi-directional. These fast expanding knowledge flows have brought several innovations that could not be imagined just a few years back in developing countries. The emergence of open innovation in agriculture bodes well to food value chain flows and to harness the higher level of technologies. There is a need to internalise these innovations in the national food policy for addressing issues of inclusion. The paradigm shift also calls for rigorous research on the business models, and collaboration and licensing agreements between companies, universities, and governmental agencies
    Date: 2021–01
  10. By: Charlotte Bigard (AgroParisTech, MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School - UM - Université de Montpellier); Charlotte Michel; Maya Leroy (MRM - Montpellier Research in Management - UPVM - Université Paul-Valéry - Montpellier 3 - UPVD - Université de Perpignan Via Domitia - Groupe Sup de Co Montpellier (GSCM) - Montpellier Business School - UM - Université de Montpellier, AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: La transition écologique suppose une modification de notre mode de fonctionnement. Toutefois, cette modification peut aller d'une légère évolution à une réelle mutation. C'est ce gradient des activités que nous proposons d'analyser à travers ce projet. Dans un contexte où la maritimisation de l'économie doit s'articuler avec un développement plus durable des activités en mer, la notion de transition écologique est sous le feu des projecteurs. C'est pourquoi, dans cette étude, nous nous intéressons en particulier au jeunes TPE/PME, créées à partir de 2008 et donc après l'essor du concept de transition écologique, dont l'activité est liée à la mer, et qui se disent "de la transition". Ce projet est un projet court (1 an), dont les résultats sont issus de l'analyse de 25 entreprises à travers des entretiens qualitatifs et un workshop. Nous avons notamment pu montrer que : -La transition est un leitmotiv affiché par les entrepreneurs mais les définitions sous-jacentes varient. -Selon les critères de l'Allier et Audet (2020) : les entreprises peuvent être groupées en 3 grands types : les entreprises « du régime », se revendiquant de la transition mais dont le fonctionnement est basé sur la recherche de gain économique avant tout ; les entreprises « ambivalentes », proposant une réflexion en lien avec la transition, mais dont les caractéristiques traduisent une faible performance écologique et les entreprises « de la transition », engagées dans un modèle économique ou dans une production faisant rupture avec le régime notamment au regard des enjeux écologiques. -Il est possible de définir des trajectoires de la transition pour chacun des objectifs environnementaux recensés, à savoir, l'énergie, les déchets, la biodiversité. Ces trajectoires peuvent être plus ou moins performantes d'un point de vue écologique. -Un certain nombre de limites organisationnelles et d'opportunités ont enfin été recensées et discutées. Enfin, nous mettons en avant l'intérêt de réunir des informations sur les 4 volets suivants : 1) communication, 2) vision de l'entrepreneur, 3) productions/services proposés, 4) actions menées par l'entreprise, pour pouvoir prétendre à une évaluation de la participation de chaque entreprise à la transition écologique.
    Keywords: entreprise,maritime,transition,transition écologique,performance écologique,mer,innovation
    Date: 2022–03–22

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