nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2021‒10‒11
seven papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. Do Targeted R&D Grants Towards Potential Highgrowth Firms Increase Employment and Demand for High Human Capital Workers? By Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov; Halvarsson, Daniel; Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik; McKelvie, Alexander
  2. Determinants of Small Business Reopening Decisions After COVID Restrictions Were Lifted By Dylan Balla-Elliott Author-1-Name-First: Dylan Author-1-Name-Last: Balla-Elliott; Zoë B. Cullen Author-2-Name-First: Zoë Author-2-Name-Last: Cullen; Edward L. Glaeser Author-3-Name-First: Edward Author-3-Name-Last: Glaeser; Michael Luca Author-4-Name-First: Michael Author-4-Name-Last: Luca; Christopher Stanton Author-5-Name-First: Christopher Author-5-Name-Last: Stanton
  3. Incidence and Performance of Spinouts and Incumbent New Ventures: Role of Selection and Redeployability within Parent Firms By Natarajan Balasubramanian; Mariko Sakakibara
  4. A survey on funding MSMEs and female entrepreneurs in MENA countries and the microfinance issue By Philippe Adair; Imène Berguiga
  5. Exogenous vs. endogenous obstacles to funding female entrepreneurs in MENA countries By Philippe Adair; Imène Berguiga
  6. Freiwillige Arbeitslosenversicherung: Nur wenige Selbstständige versichern sich gegen die Folgen von Arbeitslosigkeit (Unemployment insurance for the self-employed: Few business founders insure themselves against unemployment) By Jahn, Elke; Oberfichtner, Michael

  1. By: Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov (Institute of Retail Economics (Handelns Forskningsinstitut)); Halvarsson, Daniel (the Ratio Institute); Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik (Södertörn University Stockholm, Sweden); McKelvie, Alexander
    Abstract: Most previous studies on the employment effects of government R&D grants targeting SMEs are characterized by data-, measurement-, and selection problems, making it difficult to construct a relevant control group of firms that did not receive a R&D grant. We investigate the effects on employment and firm-level demand for high human capital workers of two Swedish programs targeted towards growth-oriented SMEs using Coarsened Exact Matching. Our most striking result is the absence of any statistically significant effects. We find no robust evidence that the targeted R&D grant programs had any positive and statistically significant effects on the number of employees recruited into these SMEs, or that the grants are associated with an increase in the demand for high human capital workers. The lack of statistically significant findings is troublesome considering that government support programs require a positive impact to cover the administrative costs associated with these programs.
    Keywords: Innovation policy; R&D grants; Matching grants; Statistical matching methods; High human capital; Firm growth; Outcome additionality
    JEL: H81 L25 L26 O38
    Date: 2021–10–01
  2. By: Dylan Balla-Elliott Author-1-Name-First: Dylan Author-1-Name-Last: Balla-Elliott (Harvard Business School); Zoë B. Cullen Author-2-Name-First: Zoë Author-2-Name-Last: Cullen (Harvard Business School, Entrepreneurial Management Unit); Edward L. Glaeser Author-3-Name-First: Edward Author-3-Name-Last: Glaeser (Harvard University); Michael Luca Author-4-Name-First: Michael Author-4-Name-Last: Luca (Harvard Business School, Negotiation, Organizations & Markets Unit); Christopher Stanton Author-5-Name-First: Christopher Author-5-Name-Last: Stanton (Harvard Business School, Entrepreneurial Management Unit)
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic led to dramatic economic disruptions, including government-imposed restrictions that temporarily shuttered millions of American businesses. We use a nation-wide survey of thousands of small business owners to establish three main facts about business owners’ decisions to reopen at the end of the lockdowns. First, roughly 60% of firms planned to reopen within days of the end of legal restrictions, suggesting that the lockdowns were generally binding for businesses - although nearly 30% expected to delay their reopening by at least a month. Second, decisions to delay reopenings did not seem to be driven by concerns about employee or customer health; even businesses in high-proximity sectors with the highest health risks generally reported intentions to reopen as soon as possible. Third, pessimistic demand projections primarily explain delays among firms that could legally reopen. Owners expected demand to be one-third lower than before the crisis throughout the pandemic. Using experimentally induced shocks to perceived demand, we find that a 10% decline in expected demand results in a 1.5 percentage point (8%) increase in the likelihood that firms expected to remain closed for at least one month after being legally able to open. We use follow-up surveys to cross-validate expectations with realized outcomes. Overall, our results suggest that governments were setting more stringent guidelines for reopening, relative to what many businesses would have selected, suggesting that governments may have internalized costs of contagion that businesses did not.
    Keywords: COVID-19; demand forecasting; reopening
    JEL: D22 E32 I15 L23
    Date: 2020–06
  3. By: Natarajan Balasubramanian; Mariko Sakakibara
    Abstract: Using matched employer-employee data from 30 U.S. states, we compare spinouts with new ventures formed by incumbents (INCs). We propose a selection-based framework comprising idea selection by parents to internally implement ideas as INCs, entrepreneurial selection by founders to form spinouts, and managerial selection to close ventures. Consistent with parents choosing better ideas in the idea selection stage, we find that INCs perform relatively better than spinouts, and more so with larger parents. Regarding the entrepreneurial selection stage, we find evidence consistent with resource requirements being a greater entry barrier to spinouts and greater information asymmetry promoting spinout formation. Parents’ resource redeployment opportunities are associated with lower relative survival of INCs, consistent with their being subject to greater selection pressures in the managerial selection stage.
    Keywords: spinouts, new venture formation process, new venture performance, selection, resource redeployability
    Date: 2021–09
  4. By: Philippe Adair; Imène Berguiga
    Date: 2021
  5. By: Philippe Adair; Imène Berguiga
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Jahn, Elke (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany); Oberfichtner, Michael (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany)
    Abstract: "The number of business founders who insure themselves against unemployment has decreased substantially over the last years. In 2018, merely 3,000 business founders joined the insurance. Using survey data, this policy brief investigates founders’ decisions to insure against unemployment. Founders can insure themselves against unemployment only within the first three months after start-up. About 24 percent of the respondents who did not insure missed this deadline or consider this period too short, 38 percent claim that they could not afford the contributions when starting their business, and 35 percent did not expect to benefit from the insurance. Many respondents are convinced that their business will not fail or that they will quickly find a job again. However, the Corona crisis makes clear how quickly the economic situation can change and that an insurance against unemployment might be important for the self-employed." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Bundesrepublik Deutschland ; Determinanten ; Freiwilligkeit ; Gründungszuschuss ; Informationsbedarf ; altersspezifische Faktoren ; ökonomische Faktoren ; Quote ; qualifikationsspezifische Faktoren ; Selbständige ; Arbeitslosenversicherung ; Arbeitslosenversicherungsbeitrag ; 2013-2018
    Date: 2020–05–19
  7. By: Anne Joyeau (CREM - Centre de recherche en économie et management - UNICAEN - Université de Caen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - UR1 - Université de Rennes 1 - UNIV-RENNES - Université de Rennes - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Qu'est-ce que le métier de dirigeant de PME ? Nous proposons ici une étude qualitative, réalisée auprès de quinze dirigeants, pour identifier les contours de ce métier. Cette étude confirme, d'une part, la diversité du profil des dirigeants ainsi que la complexité et la polyvalence de leur métier. Elle met en avant, d'autre part, l'importance perçue par les dirigeants de la dimension RH de leur métier, tout en révélant leur difficulté à l'assurer tant d'un point vue stratégique, managérial qu'instrumental. Cette contribution questionne de ce fait le besoin de compétences des dirigeants en matière de GRH et les stratégies possibles pour les acquérir.
    Keywords: Manager,SME,Profession,HRM
    Date: 2021

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