nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2019‒12‒23
eleven papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. Top management team nationality diversity, corporate entrepreneurship, and innovation in multinational firms By C Boone; B Lokshin; H Guenter; Rene Belderbos
  2. EIDES 2019 - The European Index of Digital Entrepreneurship Systems By Erkko Autio; Laszlo Szerb; Eva Komlosi; Monika Tiszberger
  3. Determinants of growth in research spin-offs: a resource-based perspective By Elisa Salvador; Cristina Marullo; Andrea Piccaluga
  4. Financial Constraints of Entrepreneurs and the Self-Employed By Mikhed, Vyacheslav; Raina, Sahil; Scholnick, Barry
  5. A Third Sector-Led Economic Model: Scopes of Islamic Entrepreneurship By Alam, Md. Mahmudul; Molla, Rafiqul Islam
  6. Mainstreaming Third-Sector Economics by Adopting Islamic Principles of Entrepreneurship By Alam, Md. Mahmudul; Molla, Rafiqul Islam
  7. What have Vietnamese scholars learned from researching entrepreneurship?: A systematic review By Vuong, Quan-Hoang; La, Viet-Phuong; Ho, Toan Manh; Vuong, Thu-Trang; Hoang, Hanh Phuong
  8. Re-inventing corporate innovation through incubation. The VINCI Leonard case study By Pierrick Bouffaron; Benoit Weil; Pascal Le Masson; Cédric Denis-Remis
  9. The limitations of microcredit for promoting microenterprises in Bangladesh By Alam, Md. Mahmudul; Molla, Rafiqul Islam
  10. Determinants of financing of agricultural microenterprises by microfinance institutions: the case of Burundi By Théogène Nsengiyumva; Célestin Mayoukou
  11. Apprendre aux entrepreneurs à correspondre avec les parties prenantes By Odile PAULUS

  1. By: C Boone; B Lokshin; H Guenter; Rene Belderbos
    Abstract: We integrate insights from upper echelon theory and the literature on innovation and multinational corporations (MNCs) to develop a framework explaining when and why nationality diversity in top management teams (TMTs) affects corporate entrepreneurship—as evidenced by diversity in global knowledge sourcing—and through this innovation performance in MNCs. In a panel of 165 manufacturing MNCs based in 20 countries, we confirm that the positive effects of TMT nationality diversity on corporate entrepreneurship and innovation are only unleashed in TMTs with low social stratification and in MNCs located in home countries that are low in national power distance. Our study contributes to opening up the black box of the upper echelon’s strategic role in spurring entrepreneurship and innovation in MNCs embedded in different cultures.
    Date: 2018–10–23
  2. By: Erkko Autio (Imperial College London Business School); Laszlo Szerb (University of Pécs); Eva Komlosi (University of Pécs); Monika Tiszberger (University of Pécs)
    Abstract: Digitalisation is shaping and even transforming both the location and nature of entrepreneurial opportunities in the economy and the practices to pursue them. In order to help maximise the productivity potential of the digitally enhanced entrepreneurial dynamic in countries, policymakers need to understand the state of their countries' digital framework conditions for entrepreneurship. The European Index of Digital Entrepreneurship Systems (EIDES) addresses this gap by monitoring digital framework and systemic conditions for entrepreneurial stand-up, start-up, and scale-up in the EU28 countries.
    Keywords: Digital Economy, Entrepreneurship, Start-up.
    Date: 2019–11
  3. By: Elisa Salvador (ESSCA - Groupe ESSCA); Cristina Marullo (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna [Pisa]); Andrea Piccaluga (Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna [Pisa])
    Abstract: There are strong expectations towards research spin-offs, but insufficient empirical evidence still exists on the determinants of growth of such companies. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the debate on growth -or non-growth- of research spin-offs through a focus on Italy. A resource-based perspective is adopted for identifying the crucial determinants of competitive advantage of these companies, and an OLS regression analysis is performed to assess the impact of initial resources on growth in revenues and employees. Our analysis highlights unexpected results about the involvement of industrial partners, venture capitalists, size of IPRs' portfolio at founding and previous experience of the promoting partners.
    Abstract: Il existe de fortes attentes en ce qui concerne les entreprises spin-off de la recherche, mais il existe encore peu d'évidence empirique sur les déterminants de la croissance de ces entreprises. L'objectif de cet article est de contribuer au débat sur la croissance -ou la non-croissance- des entreprises spin-off de la recherche en mettant l'accent sur l'Italie. Une perspective basée sur les ressources est adoptée pour identifier les déterminants cruciaux de l'avantage concurrentiel de ces entreprises, et une analyse de régression OLS est effectuée pour évaluer l'impact des ressources initiales sur la croissance des revenus et des employés. Notre analyse met en évidence des résultats inattendus concernant la participation de partenaires industriels, de capital-risqueurs, la taille du portefeuille de DPI à la fondation et l'expérience antérieure des partenaires de promotion.
    Keywords: Academic entrepreneurship,research spin-offs,Technology transfer,Knowledge valorisation,Resource-based view
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Mikhed, Vyacheslav (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia); Raina, Sahil (University of Alberta); Scholnick, Barry (University of Alberta)
    Abstract: Growth-oriented entrepreneurial start-ups generate more economic growth than other self-employed businesses, yet they only constitute a small fraction of start-ups. We examine whether financial constraints impede these types of start-ups by exploiting lottery wins as exogenous wealth shocks. We find that lottery-win magnitude increases winners’ subsequent incorporation, implying that entrepreneurs face financial constraints, but not business registration, implying that financial constraints do not bind as much for the self-employed. Our results, that financial constraints bind for incorporations among men, for serial entrepreneurs, during economic booms, and in neighborhoods without local lenders, are important for understanding the financial impediments to entrepreneurial start-ups.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; self-employment; financial constraints
    JEL: G21 L26 M13
    Date: 2019–12–11
  5. By: Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia); Molla, Rafiqul Islam
    Abstract: Private (first sector) and public (second sector) sector economics, both individually and jointly, have failed to ensure the wellbeing of human societies on the national and global levels. In response, social enterprise (third sector) economics, which features cooperatives and not-for-profit social enterprises, foundations (awqāf), and similar undertakings, has emerged as a make-up strategy in an attempt to counter the deficiencies of the market-state economic model. However, there is a strongly felt belief that the third sector needs to be broadened and mainstreamed in order to include both not-for-profit and for-profit businesses blended with social justice (via provision of such social welfare programs as corporate social responsibility) so that they can play a major role in poverty alleviation and economic growth. Islamic entrepreneurship, which is basically a community-centric mode of business initiative, is an antidote to the problem of intolerable economic and social dualism, a natural strategy against all forms of capitalist exploitation and attempts to control a nation’s resources. Moreover, it is the natural model for solving economic inequity, wealth concentration, and social divides. Based on its potential and using examples from Bangladesh and Malaysia, we present the Islamic style of entrepreneurship. We contend that this particular style is the most efficient and desirable one for effectively widening and mainstreaming community-centric third sector economics so that it can ensure development with equity and social justice especially in developing countries.
    Date: 2019–02–24
  6. By: Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia); Molla, Rafiqul Islam
    Abstract: The ‘private’ and ‘public’ sector economics found their own strong places to play roles in the mainstream economy. At the end, however, these two systems – the private, popularly called the first sector economy, and the public, called the second sector economy - both individually and jointly have been found seriously inadequate and incapable to ensuring wellbeing of human societies nationally and globally. Responding to such a situation a number of nonconventional approaches like cooperatives and social enterprises, waqaf, foundations, and other non-profit institutions, etc., together called third sector economy, were moved and promoted to ensure social justice and wellbeing of mankind. Initially it emerged as a make-up and defensive strategy of the market-state model to meet the minimum of unmet requirements in the sectors where the market and state have grossly failed. It, thus, played only a subordinate role. As a result, it could not help much to solve the problem of economic inequity, concentration of wealth, and social divides. However it is strongly felt that a broadly based third sector economic model with both not for-profit business like enterprises and for-profit businesses blended with social justice is necessary to play its role as a mainstream model not only for poverty alleviation but also for economic growth to bridge the economic and social divides. Mainstreaming the third sector is the urgent call of the day. Islamic entrepreneurship, which is basically a community-centric mode of business initiative, is an antidote to the problem of intolerable economic and social dualism in the economies. It is a natural strategy against all forms of capitalist exploitations, like in the past through European colonialism and now through American led terrorism, to control resources. Accordingly it is the natural model for solving the problems of economic inequity, concentration of wealth, and social divides. Therefore, this study finds the Islamic mode of entrepreneurship as most suitable and effective for widening and mainstreaming the third sector economics, more particularly in the developing countries. Johor Corporation (JCorp) in Malaysia and Sheba Polly in Bangladesh are examples of two types of Islamic style third sector enterprises – one is staunchly business like initiative and the other is cost based charity initiative for social benefit. For the development and promotion of the community-centric third sector economics model, the paper recommends for urgently establishing a research and development centre on third sector economics preferably under an Islamic Research and Development Institute in any reputed university
    Date: 2019–02–23
  7. By: Vuong, Quan-Hoang; La, Viet-Phuong; Ho, Toan Manh (Thanh Tay University Hanoi); Vuong, Thu-Trang; Hoang, Hanh Phuong (Vietnam National Institute of Educational Sciences)
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship has contributed to the rise and stability of Vietnamese economy through innovation, job creation, and nurturing entrepreneurial spirit. Using a structured database of Vietnamese researchers’ scientific publications, the study was able to identify 111 research on entrepreneurship from 2008 to 2018. Then, a homemade software was designed to analyze the data, and produce descriptive tables, charts, and network maps. The results show limited scope and quantity over the past ten years. Moreover, research topics were scattered with most interests focused on management, finance, and legal issues. Technology, gender, and internationalization are attracting public attention but remain underresearched. In the future, entrepreneurial venture and startups in Vietnam will benefit from the growing number of scientific publications.
    Date: 2019–02–24
  8. By: Pierrick Bouffaron (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Benoit Weil (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Pascal Le Masson (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Cédric Denis-Remis (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - UCA - Université Côte d'Azur - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: While incubation has long been found to foster innovativeness, corporate incubation offers new possibilities of interaction and cooperation among peers from within and outside the firm, as well as the firm-backed acceleration of new ventures. However, the surge in practical implementations contrasts with the restricted body of academic knowledge in the field. To close this gap, we examine whether and how the competitive setting of corporate incubation leads to both corporate endogenous and exogeneous innovativeness and growth. We explore the innovation capability management of a corporate incubator-Leonard-within VINCI, a global construction and concession company. We analyze a dataset collected during the incubation program spanning 18 months, tracing the evolution paths of 30 internal and external ventures through their incubation journey. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods is used to analyze the corporate incubator role on the firm strategy and performance. Findings suggest that corporate incubators can act as flexible innovation vehicles serving the firm top management in complementary ways. We propose a multidimensional framework for assessing the incubator performance that reflects the benefits for a range of strategic, managerial and operational stakeholders. Four distinct performance dimensions emerge: the (1) financial, (2) market, (3) ecosystem, and (4) foundational dimensions, whose importance varies through time and according to the nature and characteristics of the incubated ventures. We discuss how these dimensions coexist during a corporate venture's selection, incubation and growth, and identify future research directions.
    Keywords: corporate incubation,firm performance,innovation management
    Date: 2019–06–17
  9. By: Alam, Md. Mahmudul (Universiti Utara Malaysia); Molla, Rafiqul Islam
    Abstract: Microcredit is regarded as a tool for poverty alleviation. A stereotyped delivery system is designed and used for promoting and serving survival- and subsistencelevel economic activities, particularly for poor female clients. In Bangladesh its success has raised social expectations as to its potential as also a promoter of microenterprises, which are growth-yielding small businesses beyond subsistencelevel economic activity. The field survey shows that about 11.7% of the microcredit borrowers are this kind of potential or growing microentrepreneur. It also shows that microcredit’s standardised delivery system, particularly in respect of gender preference, loan size, loan disbursement, and repayment schedules, is a strong limiting factor in effectively serving the microenterprises, which require a more flexible credit package. Therefore a methodological modification is necessary to accommodate flexibility in the microcredit delivery system.
    Date: 2019–02–23
  10. By: Théogène Nsengiyumva (CREAM - Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée à la Mondialisation - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - IRIHS - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire Homme et Société - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université); Célestin Mayoukou (CREAM - Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquée à la Mondialisation - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université - IRIHS - Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire Homme et Société - UNIROUEN - Université de Rouen Normandie - NU - Normandie Université)
    Abstract: Cette étude a comme objectif, d'identifier les déterminants du faible financement des microentreprises agricoles par les IMF au Burundi. Les données utilisées sont issues des 6IMF du Burundi. A l'aide du modèle économétrique probit, les résultats révèlent que plusieurs facteurs empêchent les IMF à financer plus efficacement les microentreprises agricoles. C'est le cas du manque et/ou faible qualité des garanties de la part des MPE, les besoins financiers exprimés par l'exploitant agricoles, la faible organisation des exploitants agricoles en groupement solidaire. De même la nature de l'activité agricole à financer constitue également un facteur déterminant pour le financement. Ainsi la restructuration des fonds de garantie en général et ceux des micro entrepreneurs agricoles en particulier, l'organisation des micro entrepreneurs dans des groupements associatifs inciteraient plus les IMF à contribuer plus efficacement au financement des micro-activités agricoles entrepreneuriales. Abstarct This study has as objective, to identify the determinants of the selectivity of the agricultural entrepreneurial microcredits by MFIs in Burundi. The data used are from the 6MFIs of Burundi. The econometric model using logit, the results show that several factors prevent the MFIs to finance more effectively the agricultural entrepreneurial Small-activities. For example the lack of guarantees on the part of MEPs, the financial needs expressed by the farm operator, the weak organization of farmers in solidarity group. In addition to these factors, forcing the MFIs to contribute more intensely to the financing of the agricultural entrepreneurial Small-activities, the nature of agricultural activity to finance is also a determining factor for the funding. In this way, restructuring of guarantee funds and those of the micro farming entrepreneurs in particular, the Organization of micro entrepreneurs in associative groupings would encourage more MFIs to contribute more effectively to the financing of entrepreneurial farming Small-activities.
    Keywords: Microfinance,Microentreprises agricoles,entrepreneuriat,finance,contraintes,Burundi Keywords: Microfinance,agricultural entrepreneurial Small-activities,entrepreneurship,forced,Burundi 2
    Date: 2018–11
  11. By: Odile PAULUS (LaRGE Research Center, Université de Strasbourg)
    Abstract: Un entrepreneur a besoin de parties prenantes pour réaliser son projet : il implique au minimum des clients ou des usagers. L’importance des parties prenantes pour un entrepreneur est mentionnée dans les modèles d’affaires (Osterwalder, Pigneur, 2010 et Verstraete, Jouison Laffitte, 2009) et dans l’effectuation (Sarasvathy, 2001). Cette relation aux parties prenantes est enrichie par le recours à la notion de correspondance définie l’anthropologue Ingold (2017). Ainsi, un entrepreneur correspond avec des parties prenantes en modifiant le projet, dans le cadre d’un processus et grâce à une attention à ces parties prenantes. Pour apprendre aux étudiants entrepreneurs à correspondre avec les parties prenantes, il est possible de pratiquer des tutorats collectifs. Il s’agit de réunir un groupe d’étudiants entrepreneurs avec un enseignant durant deux demies journées par mois. Des questionnaires ont été posés à 13 étudiants entrepreneurs tout au long de leur année de formation à l’entrepreneuriat pour montrer qu’ils correspondent de plus en plus avec les parties prenantes dans leur projet entrepreneurial grâce aux tutorats collectifs. Ainsi, les tutorats collectifs sont un dispositif possible pour apprendre aux entrepreneurs à correspondre avec les parties prenantes.
    Keywords: Education à l’entrepreneuriat, Apprentissage coopératif, Correspondance, Parties prenantes, Intelligence collective
    Date: 2019

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