nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2019‒07‒22
six papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. Youth Drain, Entrepreneurship and Innovation By Massimo Anelli; Gaetano Basso; Giuseppe Ippedico; Giovanni Peri
  2. Entrepreneurial beginnings: Transitions to selfemployment and the creation of jobs By Fabling, Richard
  3. Business Dynamics in the National Establishment Time Series (NETS)/Leland Crane, Ryan Decker By Leland Crane; Ryan Decker
  4. Technology and employment in a vertically connected economy: a model and an empirical test By Giovanni Dosi; Mariacristina Piva; Maria Enrica Virgillito; Marco Vivarelli
  5. Productivity Drag from Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Japan By Mariana Colacelli; Gee Hee Hong
  6. Types of indies entrepreneurship in the video game industry By Myriam Davidovici-Nora

  1. By: Massimo Anelli; Gaetano Basso; Giuseppe Ippedico; Giovanni Peri
    Abstract: Migration outflows, especially of young people, may deprive an economy of entrepreneurial energy and innovative ideas. We exploit exogenous variation in emigration from Italian local labor markets to show that between 2008 and 2015 larger emigration flows reduced firm creation. The decline affected firms owned by young people and innovative industries. We estimate that for every 1,000 emigrants, 10 fewer young-owned firms were created over the whole period. A simple accounting exercise shows that about 60 percent of the effect is generated simply by the loss of young people; the remaining 40 percent is due to a combination of selection of emigrants among highly entrepreneurial people, negative spillovers on the entrepreneurship rate of locals, and negative local firm multiplier effect.
    JEL: J61 M13 O3
    Date: 2019–07
  2. By: Fabling, Richard
    Abstract: Owner-operated firms are an important part of the New Zealand economy. They employ approximately 30% of the private-for-profit workforce, as well as providing jobs and income to the working proprietors themselves. This paper addresses two questions: what characteristics are associated with entrepreneurship (starting a self-employed business); and which sorts of entrepreneurs are more successful (create jobs)? We pay particular attention to differences in start-up and survival rates by business owner sex and ethnicity, but also consider whether other individual characteristics (including age and skill) and prior job characteristics also relate to the decision to start a business or to create jobs. We find substantial negative gaps in entrepreneurship for females and non-European-only ethnicity groups – gaps that arise in large part because of differential rates of entry into self-employment and, in the case of non- European-only ethnicities, higher attrition rates from self-employment after entry. These gaps persist in the presence of controls for skill, prior labour market experience and other individual characteristics.
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital, Public Economics
    Date: 2018–10
  3. By: Leland Crane; Ryan Decker
    Abstract: Business microdata have proven useful in a number of fields, but the main sources of comprehensive microdata are subject to significant confidentiality restrictions. A growing number of papers instead use a private data source seeking to cover the universe of U.S. business establishments, the National Establishment Time Series (NETS). Previous research documents the representativeness of NETS in terms of the distribution of employment and establishment counts across industry, geography, and establishment size. But there exists considerable need among researchers for microdata suitable for studying business dynamics---birth, growth, decline, and death. We evaluate NETS in terms of its ability to corroborate key insights from the business dynamics literature with a particular focus on the behavior of new and young firms. We find that NETS microdata exhibit patterns of business dynamics that are markedly different from official administrative sources, limiting the usefuln ess of NETS for studying these topics.
    Keywords: Business Microdata ; Economic Measurement ; Entrepreneurship ; Firm Dynamics ; High-Growth Firms ; Job Flows
    JEL: C81 M13 D22 L26
    Date: 2019–05–13
  4. By: Giovanni Dosi (Institute of Economics, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa); Mariacristina Piva (DISCE, Università Cattolica); Maria Enrica Virgillito (DISCE, Università Cattolica); Marco Vivarelli (DISCE, Università Cattolica - UNU-MERIT, Maastricht, The Netherlands and IZA, Bonn, Germany)
    Abstract: This paper addresses, both theoretically and empirically, the sectoral patterns of job creation and job destruction in order to distinguish the alternative effects of embodied vs disembodied technological change operating into a vertically connected economy. Disembodied technological change turns out to positively affect employment dynamics in the “upstream’’ sectors, while expansionary investment does so in the “downstream’’ industries. Conversely, the replacement of obsolete capital vintages tends to exert a negative impact on labour demand, although this effect turns out to be statistically less robust.
    Keywords: Innovation, disembodied and capital-embodied technological change, employment, job-creation, job-destruction, sectoral interdependencies
    JEL: O14 O31 O33
    Date: 2019–06
  5. By: Mariana Colacelli; Gee Hee Hong
    Abstract: Productivity growth in Japan, as in most advanced economies, has moderated. This paper finds supportive evidence for the important role of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in explaining Japan’s modest productivity growth. Results show a substantial dispersion in firm-level productivity growth across sectors and even across firms within the same sector. SMEs, on average, exhibit lower productivity growth than non-SMEs in Japan, with smaller and older SMEs showing particularly low productivity growth. Estimates suggest that boosting productivity growth in all of the worst-performing SMEs could improve overall productivity growth by up to 1.8 percentage points. The SME credit guarantee system, SME financing constraints, demographic factors, and lack of intangible capital investment are discussed as contributors to the slow productivity growth of Japan’s small and old SMEs.
    Date: 2019–07–01
  6. By: Myriam Davidovici-Nora (ECOGE - Economie Gestion - I3, une unité mixte de recherche CNRS (UMR 9217) - Institut interdisciplinaire de l’innovation - X - École polytechnique - Télécom ParisTech - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Date: 2018–09–21

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