nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2019‒03‒04
ten papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. Big Data and Firm Dynamics By Farboodi, Maryam; Mihet, Roxana; Philippon, Thomas; Veldkamp, Laura
  2. Data Science for Entrepreneurship Research : Studying Demand Dynamics for Entrepreneurial Skills in the Netherlands By Prüfer, Jens; Prüfer, Patricia
  3. Motherhood, Migration, and Self-Employment of College Graduates By Cai, Zhengyu; Stephens, Heather M.; Winters, John V.
  4. Evolution of entrepreneurial teams in technology-based new ventures By Zabara, Tatiana
  5. Community Origins of Industrial Entrepreneurship in Pre-Independence India By Gupta, Bishnupriya; Mookherjee, Dilip; Munshi, Kaivan; Sanclemente, Mario
  6. Sida and innovative finance: The case of loan guarantee schemes By Andersson, Per-Åke
  7. Optimal Capital Taxation in an Economy with Innovation-Driven Growth By Chen, Ping-ho; Chu, Angus C.; Chu, Hsun; Lai, Ching-Chong
  8. The past and Future of Manufacturing in Central and Eastern Europe: Ready for Industry 4.0? By Naudé, Wim; Surdej, Aleksander; Cameron, Martin
  9. Impact de la qualité du capital humain sur la capacité d’innovation des PME : application sur un pays en développement By TEKAM OUMBE, Honoré; PILAG KAKEU, Charles Bertin; Miamo Wendji, Clovis
  10. ENTREPRENEURIAT ET CAPACITE D’INNOVATION, CAS DES PME AGROALIMENTAIRES. Une évidence empirique sur données camerounaises et implications pour une politique de développement sectoriel By TEKAM OUMBE, Honoré; Pilag Kakeu, Charles Bertin

  1. By: Farboodi, Maryam; Mihet, Roxana; Philippon, Thomas; Veldkamp, Laura
    Abstract: We study a model where firms accumulate data as a valuable intangible asset. Data accumulation affects firms' dynamics. It increases the skewness of the firm size distribution as large firms generate more data and invest more in active experimentation. On the other hand, small data-savvy firms can overtake more traditional incumbents, provided they can finance their initial money-losing growth. Our model can be used to estimate the market and social value of data.
    Keywords: Big Data; firm size
    Date: 2019–01
  2. By: Prüfer, Jens (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research); Prüfer, Patricia (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research)
    Abstract: The recent rise of big data and artificial intelligence (AI) is changing markets, politics, organizations, and societies. It also affects the domain of research. Supported by new statistical methods that rely on computational power and computer science --- data science methods --- we are now able to analyze data sets that can be huge, multidimensional, unstructured, and are diversely sourced. In this paper, we describe the most prominent data science methods suitable for entrepreneurship research and provide links to literature and Internet resources for self-starters. We survey how data science methods have been applied in the entrepreneurship research literature. As a showcase of data science techniques, based on a dataset of 95% of all job vacancies in the Netherlands over a 6-year period with 7.7 million data points, we provide an original analysis of the demand dynamics for entrepreneurial skills in the Netherlands. We show which entrepreneurial skills are particularly important for which type of profession. Moreover, we find that demand for both entrepreneurial and digital skills has increased for managerial positions, but not for others. We also find that entrepreneurial skills were significantly more demanded than digital skills over the entire period 2012-2017 and that the absolute importance of entrepreneurial skills has even increased more than digital skills for managers, despite the impact of datafication on the labor market. We conclude that further studies of entrepreneurial skills in the general population --- outside the domain of entrepreneurs --- is a rewarding subject for future research.
    Keywords: data science; machine learning; entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial skills; big data; artificial intelligence
    JEL: L26 C50 C87 O32
    Date: 2019
  3. By: Cai, Zhengyu (Southwestern University of Finance and Economics); Stephens, Heather M. (West Virginia University); Winters, John V. (Iowa State University)
    Abstract: Women face unique challenges in starting and running their own businesses and may have differing motives to men for pursuing self-employment. Previous research suggests that married women with families value the flexibility that self-employment can offer, allowing them to balance their family responsibilities with their career aspirations. This may be especially true for college graduates, who tend to have more successful businesses. Access to childcare may also affect their labor force decisions. Using American Community Survey microdata, we examine how birth-place residence, a proxy for access to extended family and child care, relates to self-employment and hours worked for college-graduate married mothers. Our results suggest that flexibility is a major factor pulling out-migrant college-educated mothers into self-employment. Additionally, it appears that, in response to fewer childcare options, self-employed mothers away from their birth-place work fewer hours, while self-employed mothers residing in their birth place are able to work more hours per week.
    Keywords: motherhood, migration, self-employment, childcare, hours worked
    JEL: J13 J22 L26
    Date: 2019–02
  4. By: Zabara, Tatiana (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Abstract: The doctoral dissertation consists of one literature review and two empirical studies in the field of entrepreneurial teams in technology-based new ventures. The first chapter is a systematic literature review that critically maps the current state of the art in research on teams in academic entrepreneurship. The second chapter examines the role of a lead founder’s personality in the entrepreneurial team formation. The third chapter investigates multilevel antecedents of a new managerial hire in technology-based new venture teams.
    Date: 2019
  5. By: Gupta, Bishnupriya (University of Warwick); Mookherjee, Dilip (Boston University); Munshi, Kaivan (University of Cambridge); Sanclemente, Mario (University of Warwick)
    Abstract: We argue that community networks played an important role in the emergence of Indian entrepreneurship in the early stages of the cotton textile and jute textile industries in the late 19th and early 20th century respectively, overcoming the lack of market institutions and government support. From business registers, we construct a yearly panel dataset of entrepreneurs in these two industries. We find no evidence that entry is affected by prior trading experience or price shocks in the corresponding upstream sector. Firm directors exhibited a high degree of clustering of entrepreneurs by community. The dynamics of entry is consistent with a model of network-based dynamics
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Andersson, Per-Åke (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: Sida is exploiting loan guarantee schemes to leverage finance from the private sector in partner countries. This paper is a literature review of the rationale for and experiences of this type of schemes, focusing on Small and Medium Enterprises. Since, credit rationing and moral hazard problems certainly occur in partner countries, loan guarantee schemes could become an important instrument for Sida. Loan guarantee schemes are popular in many countries and the overall experience seems to be positive. Unfortunately, impact evaluations are uncommon. The schemes have positive effects on short-run financial outcome of companies and, in the long run, economic outcomes are more often positive than negative.
    Keywords: Loan guarantee schemes; SMEs; development cooperation
    JEL: F35 G21 G23
    Date: 2019–02
  7. By: Chen, Ping-ho; Chu, Angus C.; Chu, Hsun; Lai, Ching-Chong
    Abstract: This paper examines whether the Chamley-Judd result of a zero optimal capital tax rate is valid in an innovation-driven growth model. We examine how the optimal capital tax rate varies with externalities associated with R&D and innovation. Our results show that the optimal capital tax rate is higher when (i) the "stepping on toes effect" is smaller, (ii) the "standing on shoulders effect" is stronger, or (iii) the extent of creative destruction is greater. By calibrating our model to the US economy, we find that the optimal capital tax rate is positive, at a rate of around 11.9 percent. We also find that a positive optimal capital tax rate is more likely to be the case when there is underinvestment in R&D.
    Keywords: Optimal capital taxation; R&D externalities; innovation
    JEL: E62 O31 O41
    Date: 2019–02
  8. By: Naudé, Wim (Maastricht University); Surdej, Aleksander (OECD); Cameron, Martin (Trade Advisory Research (Pty) Ltd)
    Abstract: In this paper we determine the industry 4.0 (I4.0) readiness of eight Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs): Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic and Slovenia. We outline the nature of manufacturing in the region, describe three distinct time periods of industrialization since 1990, and explain the nature of I4.0. Using measures reflecting three key dimensions of I4.0-readiness, namely technological, entrepreneurial and governance competencies, we find that the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Hungary and Slovenia are most I4.0-ready, and that Bulgaria, Slovakia, Romania and Poland are the least ready of the CEECs. We make a number of recommendations. All the countries in the region could do more to promote entrepreneurship; to diversify and grow manufacturing export markets through focused trade facilitation and competitive exchange rates; and to cooperate regionally on industrial policy - through for instance establishing a regional CEEC I4.0 Platform.
    Keywords: industrialization, technology, manufacturing, innovation, entrepreneurship, Eastern and Central Europe, industry 4.0, industrial policy
    JEL: O14 O25 O33 O52 P27
    Date: 2019–02
  9. By: TEKAM OUMBE, Honoré; PILAG KAKEU, Charles Bertin; Miamo Wendji, Clovis
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to analyze the influence of the quality of human capital on the innovation capacity of SMEs. The empirical analysis consisted of constructing a human capital indicator based on the main correspondence factor analysis. The data analysis based on a sample of 512 SMEs located in the cities of Douala, Yaoundé and Bafoussam. The results of the logistic regression show that SMEs that employ highly educated managers are more likely to innovate. However, this assumption nuanced with respect to product innovations. On the other hand, the training of managers on the job does not influence their ability to innovate. These results question the relevance of current policies for the creation and development of SMEs and suggest the importance of placing a particular emphasis on the quality of human capital as a vector of innovation. They also challenge public decision-makers on the need to initiate training programs and upgrade the skills of SME managers on new managerial practices.
    Keywords: innovation, quality of human capital, SMEs, training, technological skills
    JEL: L26 O34
    Date: 2019–02
  10. By: TEKAM OUMBE, Honoré; Pilag Kakeu, Charles Bertin
    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to analyze innovation capacity and describe innovation trends in agro-food SMEs in Cameroon. The data analysis based on a subsample of 96 agro-food companies located in the cities of Douala, Yaoundé and Bafoussam. The descriptive analyzes reveal an innovation trend of agribusiness SMEs oriented towards adaptive innovations, as opposed to radical innovations. They are also more engaged in commercial and organizational innovations. In terms of the characteristics of innovation, the results of logistic regression reveal a wide range of external and internal factors influencing the direction of innovation. These factors are R&D activity, size, the role of competition and the geographical location of companies.
    Keywords: SME, innovation, agribusiness, entrepreneurship.
    JEL: L26 O32 O38
    Date: 2019–02

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