nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2018‒08‒27
twenty-two papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. How do Firms Grow? The Life Cycle of Products Matters By David Argente; Munseob Lee; Sara Moreira
  2. Choosing between Growth and Glory By Sharon Belenzon; Aaron Chatterji; Brendan Daley
  3. Patents to Products: Innovation and Firm Performance By David Argente; Douglas Hanley; Salome Baslandze; Sara Moreira
  4. Barriers to Reallocation and Economic Growth: the Effects of Firing Costs By Toshihiko Mukoyama; Sophie Osotimehin
  5. Skills, Scope, and Success: An Empirical Look at the Start-up Process in Creative Industries in Germany By Kohn, Karsten; Wewel, Solvejg A.
  6. On Average Establishment Size across Sectors and Countries By Pedro Bento; Diego Restuccia
  7. Taxes, Regulations of Businesses and Evolution of Income Inequality in the US By Sebastian Dyrda; Benjamin Pugsley
  8. The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) : A Quantitative Evaluation By Herve Zeida
  9. Entrepreneurial Risk and Diversification through Trade By Federico Esposito
  10. R&D cooperation in SMEs: the direct effect and the moderating role of human capital By Cantabene, Claudia; grassi, iacopo
  11. Financial Frictions, Trade, and Misallocation By David Kohn; Fernando Leibovici; Michal Szkup
  12. Low literacy levels likely to impede rural women’s success in business By Guloba, Madina; Sarah Ssewanyana; Elizabeth Birabwa
  13. Truth and consequences: Bogus pipeline experiment in informal small business lending By Römer, Ulf; Mußhoff, Oliver; Weber, Ron; Turvey, Calum G.
  14. Rural Women Entrepreneurship in Uganda : A Synthesis Report On Policies, Evidence, and Stakeholders By Guloba, Madina; Sarah Ssewanyana; Elizabeth Birabwa
  15. The Virtual is Reality! On Physical and Virtual Space in Software Firms’ Knowledge Formation By Aslesen, Heidi Wiig; Martin, Roman; Sardo, Stefania
  16. Improving the growth and transition of small and medium Enterprises in the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area By Kuteesa, Annette; Paul Lakuma; Rakesh Gupta; Ibrahim Kasirye
  17. Mothers’ Non-Farm Entrepreneurship and Child Secondary Education in Rural Ghana By Janssens, Charlotte; Van Den Broeck, Goedele; Maertens, Miet; Lambrecht, Isabel
  18. Industry 4.0 and the SME: a technology-focused review of the empirical literature By Alexandre Moeuf; Samir Lamouri; Robert Pellerin; Romain Eburdy; Simon Tamayo
  19. Fostering rural women nonfarm household enterprises financing through local groups By Guloba, Madina; Sarah Ssewanyana; Elizabeth Birabwa
  20. Female underperformance or goal-oriented behavior? By Watson, John; Stuetzer, Michael; Zolin, Roxanne
  21. Strategien kleiner und mittlerer Betriebe in angespannten Arbeitsmarktlagen. Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel der niedersächsischen Ernährungswirtschaft By Margarian, Anne; Lankau, Matthias; Lilje, Alena
  22. Innovations entrepreneuriales en Afrique : défis agricoles et enjeux alimentaires By Cheriet, Foued

  1. By: David Argente (University of Chicago); Munseob Lee (University of California San Diego); Sara Moreira (Northwestern University)
    Abstract: We exploit detailed product- and firm-level data to study the size of firms and products over their life cycles. We build a dataset that contains information on the product portfolio of each firm in the consumer goods sector over the period 2006-2015. We document that, with the exception of the first few quarters, sales of products decline at a steady pace throughout most of their life cycle. These dynamics are robust across very heterogenous types of products, and contrast with the profile of firms, which grow throughout most of their life cycle. Motivated by these results, we create a statistical framework of firm growth as a function of the vintages of products. Using this decomposition we quantify, for young and mature firms, the importance of new product introduction (both the intensive and extensive margins) and the impact of decreasing sales of older vintages. We find that firms must grow by continuously adding products that generate sufficiently large revenue in order to compensate the reduction in revenue accruing from previous vintages of products. We structurally estimate a model of heterogeneous multiproduct firms and decompose sales over the life cycle of the product to understand the mechanisms behind their decline. Our results indicate that demand-side factors are behind the decline in sales of products and are consistent with preferences for newer vintages of products.
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Sharon Belenzon; Aaron Chatterji; Brendan Daley
    Abstract: Prior work has established that the financing environment can impact firm strategy. We argue that this influence can shape the earliest strategic choices of a new venture by creating a potential tradeoff between two objectives: rapid growth and reaping the benefits of a positive reputation (glory). We leverage a simple reputation-building strategic choice, naming the firm after the founder (eponymy), that is associated with superior profitability. Next, we argue via a formal model that the availability of/dependence on external financing can explain why high-growth firms are rarely eponymous. We find empirical support for the model's predictions using a large dataset of 1 million European firms. Eponymous firms grow considerably more slowly than similarly profitable firms. Moreover, eponymy varies in accordance with the firm's financing environment in a pattern consistent with our model. We discuss implications for the literature on new venture strategy.
    JEL: D21 D22 D23 D8 M13
    Date: 2018–08
  3. By: David Argente (University of Chicago); Douglas Hanley (University of Pittsburgh); Salome Baslandze (EIEF - Einaudi Institute for Economics a); Sara Moreira (Northwestern University)
    Abstract: What do standard patent-based innovation measures capture? Using the unique match of firms’ patenting activities and their product introduction in the con sumer goods sector, we study the relationship between patents and innovation. Our current results indicate that both at the extensive margin and the intensive margin, patents (and citations-adjusted patents) are strongly associated with higher product introduction as well as product destruction and hence larger re allocation at the firm level. We provide additional evidence that this association is at least partly causal. Firms that are patenting also introduce products of higher quality, enjoy larger sales and hold more diverse set of products. We disentangle the effect of patents on product versus process innovation, distinction that has been hard to measure from standard data sources. We find that the effect of patenting on product creation is larger for smaller firms, while the process innovation seems more pronounced in larger firms. Textual analysis of patents and product descriptions sheds additional light on the exact transmission of innovation embedded in the patents into specific product creation.
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Toshihiko Mukoyama (Department of Economics, Georgetown University); Sophie Osotimehin (Department of Economics, University of Virginia)
    Abstract: We study how factors that hinder the reallocation of inputs across firms influence aggregate productivity growth. We extend Hopenhayn and Rogerson's (1993) general equilibrium firm dynamics model to allow for endogenous innovation. We calibrate the model using US data, and then evaluate the effects of firing taxes on reallocation, innovation, and aggregate productivity growth. In our baseline specification, we find that firing taxes reduce overall innovation and productivity growth. We also show that firing taxes can have opposite effects on the entrants' innovation and the incumbents' innovation, and thus the overall outcome depends on the relative strengths of these forces.
    Keywords: Innovation, R&D, Reallocation, Firing costs
    JEL: E24 J24 J62 O31 O47
    Date: 2018–08–13
  5. By: Kohn, Karsten (KfW Bankengruppe); Wewel, Solvejg A. (Boston College)
    Abstract: Creative industries comprise enterprises focusing on the creation, production, and distribution of creative or cultural goods and services. Following an explorative empirical approach, we analyze start-ups in creative industries regarding three issues along the start-up process: (1) personal characteristics of creative entrepreneurs, (2) their use of labor and capital as input factors, and (3) start-up success as measured by start-up survival, degree of innovativeness, and change in household income. Based on individual-level data from the KfW Start-up Monitor, a large-scale survey on entrepreneurship in Germany, our regression results show that entrepreneurs in creative industries tend to be younger and better educated than entrepreneurs in other economic sectors. Businesses in creative industries are prevalently started on a small scale, as part-time occupations, and with less financial resources. Yet they show a higher persistence and an above-average degree of innovativeness.
    Keywords: creative industries, cultural industries, entrepreneurship, business start-ups, start-up decision, start-up success, innovation
    JEL: L26 M13 J21
    Date: 2018–06
  6. By: Pedro Bento; Diego Restuccia
    Abstract: We construct a new dataset for the average employment size of establishments across sectors and countries from hundreds of sources. Establishments are larger in manufacturing than in services, and in each sector they are larger in richer countries. The cross-country income elasticity of establishment size is remarkably similar across sectors, about 0.3. We discuss these facts in light of several prominent theories of development such as entry costs and misallocation. We then quantify the sectoral and aggregate impact of entry costs and misallocation in an otherwise standard two-sector model of structural transformation with endogenous firm entry and firm-level productivity. We find that observed measures of misallocation account for the entire range of establishment-size differences across sectors and countries and almost 50 percent of the difference in non-agricultural GDP per capita between rich and poor countries.
    Keywords: establishment size, manufacturing, services, distortions, misallocation, productivity.
    JEL: O1 O4 O5 E02 E1
    Date: 2018–08–18
  7. By: Sebastian Dyrda (University of Toronto); Benjamin Pugsley (University of Notre Dame)
    Abstract: From 1980 to 2012 the share of U.S.~business receipts from businesses organized as pass-through entities (for example LLCs and S-corporations) rather than traditional C-corporations nearly triples following a sequence of tax reforms that reduced the tax rate on business income that "passes through" to an entrepreneur's individual income tax form. We show this shift in the pattern of business organization is economically significant. We provide novel evidence, using firm-level administrative data, that the tax reforms had significant effects on the employment dynamics of the US firms. We also propose a reduced form decomposition of data from the Survey of Consumer Finances, which reveals the increase in pass through entities explains over 50 percent of the increase in the share of pre-tax income for the top 1 percent of households. Importantly, this increase is not just accounting: there is an economic trade-off when choosing a legal form that affects the investment behavior of the entrepreneurs. We develop a heterogeneous agent equilibrium model with workers, entrepreneurs and endogenous choice of legal forms to capture a key trade-off between tax benefits and diversification of investment risk. We test the model using confidential firm-level microdata from the U.S.~ Census, and with the model calibrated to capture the actual firm dynamics across legal forms following several tax reform episodes, we quantify the contribution of tax reforms through the business reorganization channel on the evolution of income, wealth and consumption inequality of workers and entrepreneurs.
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Herve Zeida (University of Montreal)
    Abstract: Should entrepreneurs be taxed preferentially over wage earners? The recent overhaul of the US tax code rekindles public debate surrounding differential taxation and fairness, since entrepreneurs receive more generous tax deductions. This paper then addresses the quantitative implications of a differential income taxation using a life cycle model with occupational choice and accumulation of entrepreneurial human capital. Calibrated to US data, the model economy shows as much heterogeneity within entrepreneurs’ group as within that of workers with respect to the effective tax burden. This provides rationale for alleviating taxation on entrepreneurs, at least, up to the median of the income distribution. When salient provisions of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) are implemented, the economy experiences over a ten-year window, an average GDP growth rate of 0.64% and capital stock increases by 1.40%. These effects are reinforced in the long run given that output and capital stock grow on average by 1.7% and 4.5%, respectively. The 20%-deduction provision for entrepreneurs is the key driver of the TCJA’s effects since the corporate tax cut generates adverse outcomes. Nonetheless, economic growth is mitigated by a rise of inequality. On average, entrepreneurs are better off while workers experience welfare loss even with a wage increase of 2%. An optimal flat tax of 26.75% solely applied to entrepreneurs, surprisingly generates 2.4% reduction in output and is costly for poor-income individuals. On the welfare basis, preferential business income taxation over wage income does not have majority support.
    Date: 2018
  9. By: Federico Esposito
    Abstract: Demand shocks have been shown to be an important determinant of firm sales' variation across different markets. The key insight of this paper is that, in presence of incomplete financial markets, firms can reduce demand risk through geographical diversification. I first develop a general equilibrium trade model with monopolistic competition, characterized by stochastic demand and risk-averse entrepreneurs, who exploit the imperfect correlation of demand across countries to lower the variance of their total sales. Despite its complexity, I provide a novel analytical characterization of the firms problem and show that both entry and trade flows to a market are affected by its risk-return profile, which in turn depends on the multilateral covariance of the country's demand with all other markets. Moreover, I show that welfare gains from trade can be significantly higher than the gains predicted by standard models which neglect firm level risk. After a trade liberalization, risk-averse firms boost exports to countries that offer better diversification benefits. Hence, in these markets foreign competition becomes stronger, lowering the price level more. Therefore, countries with better risk-return profiles gain more from international trade, while riskier markets reap lower gains. I then use data on Portuguese firm-level international trade flows, from 1995 to 2005, to provide evidence that exporters behave in a way consistent with my model's predictions. Finally, policy counterfactuals reveal that, for the median country in the sample, the risk diversification channel increases welfare gains from trade by 15% relative to traditional models with risk neutrality.
    JEL: F1
    Date: 2017
  10. By: Cantabene, Claudia; grassi, iacopo
    Abstract: We analyze the determinants of R&D cooperation for SMEs in Italy. We introduce in the literature human capital as one of the main determinants of R&D cooperation, concentrating on its moderating role, and specifically focusing on the high-tech sector. Using an extremely rich dataset, we improve the literature, building robust explanatory variables, and disaggregating the cooperation by partner. We find that human capital facilitates cooperation, but its moderating role depends on the type of disaggregation and/or the partner.
    Keywords: R&D cooperation; subsidy; firm behavior; human capital; moderating effect
    JEL: C23 C25 H32 O32
    Date: 2018–07–13
  11. By: David Kohn (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile); Fernando Leibovici (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis); Michal Szkup (University of British Columbia)
    Abstract: We investigate the extent to which financial frictions shape the effects a trade liberalization has on aggregate total factor productivity (TFP) and capital misallocation. We study a small open economy populated with heterogeneous entrepreneurs who differ in their productivity and are subject to financing constraints. Individuals choose whether to be workers or entrepreneurs, and entrepreneurs choose whether to export or not. We show how financial frictions distort these decisions and aggregate TFP. We calibrate the model to match key features of Chilean plant-level data and use it to quantify TFP losses due to misallocation. We then investigate how the presence of financial constraints affects the output and TFP gains from a trade liberalization. We find that lowering trade barriers has a stronger positive effect in less financially developed economies. The higher profits that result from a trade liberalization allow firms to accumulate assets and relax their credit constraint, which is particularly valuable in economies where firms are severely constrained.
    Date: 2018
  12. By: Guloba, Madina; Sarah Ssewanyana; Elizabeth Birabwa
    Abstract: Being literate is a prerequisite in business management and sustainability. While evidence shows that Uganda’s entrepreneurial potential is high globally, female entrepreneurs were still being presented with limited opportunities to expand their business and few tried to increase or independently manage their enterprises. Education levels for women especially in rural areas and among the youth is still low and hence most likely to miss out of government programmes that aim to uplift their livelihoods such as those targeting income enhancement amidst agricultural shortfalls. Programmes must offer mixed approaches in enterprise business chain and emphasis on adult literacy programmes along entrepreneurship is vital for rural business sustainability.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2017–04–28
  13. By: Römer, Ulf; Mußhoff, Oliver; Weber, Ron; Turvey, Calum G.
    Abstract: The prevention of asymmetric information plays a major role in successful small business lending. The purpose of this research is to determine if small business applicants report their income information correctly when requesting a loan. Therefore, a randomized controlled trial bogus pipeline experiment was set up during a typical cash-flow analysis of a bank for small businesses in the Philippines. Results indicate that loan applicants of the treatment group reported a lower income, an effect which is most pronounced in the lowest income percentile. Moreover, our analyses reveal higher loan delinquencies in the control group.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Financial Economics
    Date: 2017
  14. By: Guloba, Madina; Sarah Ssewanyana; Elizabeth Birabwa
    Abstract: There is growing emphasis in the policy debate on rural women’s entrepreneurship as a poverty alleviation strategy and a preferred tactic to spur economic development. To this end, this synthesis report puts into perspective the nature of Uganda’s rural woman entrepreneurs, paying close attention to the women targeted by the Uganda Women Entrepreneurship Programme (UWEP). This report focuses on rural women’s entrepreneurship. However, challenges identified may not be limited to this category alone but also extend to the poorest urban entrepreneurs with similar characteristics. Using qualitative and quantitative data from the Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBoS), findings indicate that: Most rural women are illiterate (about 75 percent) and run informal non-farm enterprises that are micro and seasonal in nature. Accessing finance through local groups such as Rotating Savings and Credit Associations was most common for rural women in business. Thus, training materials particularly the financial component, mentoring and an early warning system for these entrepreneurs should be established together with effective management and leadership of these groups. For growth to occur, it is important for groups to take bigger loans as an indication of business expansion and growth. The government needs to resume adult literacy programmes within the UWEP.
    Date: 2017–05–31
  15. By: Aslesen, Heidi Wiig (BI Norwegian Business School); Martin, Roman (Gothenburg University); Sardo, Stefania (BI Norwegian Business School)
    Abstract: To understand how knowledge is created, it is necessary to unwrap the role played by the physical and virtual spaces in knowledge exchange and formation. The extant research offers interesting findings when it comes to the relationships among regional institutional and organizational characteristics, innovation, and firms’ abilities to link up to global knowledge sources. A focus on the role of informal and low-cost mechanisms, both regional and global, has extended our understanding of their role in knowledge formation. However, the physical space has dominated the discussion in the literature on sources of knowledge formation, while the virtual space has seldom been addressed. The inclusion of the virtual space, both as an interaction space and as a different and complementary dimension, makes it possible to gain new insights into knowledge formation in a digitalizing world. Based on in-depth interviews with small and medium-sized software companies in two urban agglomerations in Norway and Sweden, this paper explores the use of physical and virtual spaces. The findings show that these spaces interact and mutually influence each other. The world is not ‘flattening’ due to ongoing digitalization. Rather, urban agglomerations are still important places in which these spaces are optimized and unified.
    Keywords: virtual space; knowledge sources; geographical proximity; software firm; Norway; Sweden
    JEL: L86 O30 O31
    Date: 2018–08–17
  16. By: Kuteesa, Annette; Paul Lakuma; Rakesh Gupta; Ibrahim Kasirye
    Abstract: Urban areas in Uganda are increasingly facing competition for their resources in the face of rising population. More than one out of every five Ugandans are residing in urban areas and the urban population is expected to triple in next two decades. Most of the urban population resides in GKMA—a region challenged with unemployment and inadequate opportunities. Enhancing firm performance in urban areas offers a promise for jobs and local revenue to boost city development. Local governments and city council need to create mechanisms that address firm constraints and harness the factors that drive firm competiveness, growth and transition. Potential opportunities lie in collaborating with financial institutions to provide affordable credit, improving taxation procedures, establishing of business spaces for the small firms and influencing vocational schools to impact relevant skills.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Institutional and Behavioral Economics
    Date: 2017–04–20
  17. By: Janssens, Charlotte; Van Den Broeck, Goedele; Maertens, Miet; Lambrecht, Isabel
    Keywords: International Development
    Date: 2018–01–29
  18. By: Alexandre Moeuf (Quartz - Laboratoire Quartz - ENSEA - Ecole Nationale Supérieure de l'Electronique et de ses Applications - SUPMECA - Institut supérieur de mécanique de Paris - EISTI - Ecole Internationale des Sciences du Traitement de l'Information); Samir Lamouri (Arts et Métiers ParisTech); Robert Pellerin (EPM - École Polytechnique de Montréal); Romain Eburdy; Simon Tamayo (MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris, CAOR - Centre de Robotique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University)
    Abstract: The concept of Industry 4.0 has many advantages for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME) in relation to other industrial management methods such as Just-In-Time or MRPII. Its adoption can be achieved through the use of many technologies. However, these technologies are not well mastered by SMEs. In order to identify the difficulties encountered by SMEs, this article presents an analysis of the exploitation of the different means of realization of the industry 4.0. From a scientific literature review, we show disparities in the exploitation of different technological group. Among the important elements, we note a sub-consideration of the data generated as a source of added value for SMEs, an under-exploitation of certain means of realization and a lack of expertise in SMEs that slows penetration of certain technological groups. The exploitation of the different technologies is often approached individually and targeted, which leads us to conclude that the concept of industry 4.0 is not approached from the angle of industrial management strategy.
    Keywords: SME,Industry 40,Production Planning and Control
    Date: 2017–10–11
  19. By: Guloba, Madina; Sarah Ssewanyana; Elizabeth Birabwa
    Abstract: Rural women entrepreneurs in Uganda continue to face multiple challenges that impede their enterprise growth and expansion, despite pragmatic interventions from government and non-state actors to enhance entrepreneurship. Uganda’s female managed nonfarm household enterprises continue to be micro, informal and face bottlenecks to access high credit to grow their business as they do not have the necessary collateral that formal credit institutions demand. Hence, many resort to borrowing from locally managed community or village credit associations to start or grow their businesses and yet, these financing mechanisms are limited. The Uganda Women Entrepreneurship Programme (UWEP) should therefore ensure that the distribution of funds is equitable taking into consideration the heterogeneities across spatial areas, region, education level and size of business enterprise.
    Date: 2017–04–28
  20. By: Watson, John; Stuetzer, Michael; Zolin, Roxanne
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating effect of an owner’s growth goal on the relationship between the gender of new venture owners and the growth outcomes of their ventures. This is a quantitative study using a large, national database and structural equation modelling. Findings indicate that the negative relationship between gender and growth outcomes is fully mediated by the growth goals of new venture owners, their available internal resources, and the amount of time and money they are able (prepared) to invest in their new venture.
    Keywords: New venture performance, Gender, Goals, Resources, Human capital, Social capital, Financial capital
    JEL: L26 M13
    Date: 2017
  21. By: Margarian, Anne; Lankau, Matthias; Lilje, Alena
    Abstract: This report summarises the results of the sub-project “Local strategies for economic development” of the European Research Project TRUSTEE that ran from 2014 to 2016. Against the background of the expected scarcity of professional workers, the Lower Saxon food industry is used as an example to show how local job markets impact mainly small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) in terms of strategies and developments (1); to what extent businesses can achieve independence from the local job market (2); how the businesses, on their part, influence the local job markets (3). The study design includes three core elements: In the summer 2015 a standardized survey was carried out in the food industry in Lower Saxony with 200 responding firms. In autumn 2015 and winter 2015/16 workshops on the topic of professional staff needs were organized, documented and afterwards evaluated in a rural and in a more urban region of Lower Saxony. Finally, interviews were conducted with participants on the regional continuing education landscape in selected lower Saxon regions in the early summer 2016. The regional workshops have shown that the job market actors in the case study regions see their development as limited due to the declining number of available qualified labour. Particularly affected were meat processing firms and large companies which require special qualifications and undertake large growth steps. Efforts to improve the situation are undertaken including the improvement of the attractiveness of jobs and training offers, international recruiting, improvement of internal staff development and increased cooperation between the different employment institutions and the companies. However, the preparedness or the ability to contribute, particularly in small businesses, is often low because of their limited management resources. The example of the participating large businesses has, however, shown that businesses with adequate resources can become partially independent from limited job markets due to their greater attractiveness as employers. One requirement is that they do not rely upon the advantages of their size. On the other hand, due to their specific qualification requirements and greater growth steps, sometimes they are also strongly affected by a scarcity of local professionals. The study of the regional continuing education landscape has shown that the regional further training offerings are not so much adapted to the specific needs of local businesses in either a qualitative or quantitative perspective, but rather much more influenced by the individual targeting of the employment administration, by the presence or absence of chambers of commerce and other providers and by the competition between providers. The desire and ability of smaller businesses from low-technology sectors like the food processing industry to have a targeted impact on the further training offerings is quite low. The main focus of the report is on an extensive presentation of the survey results. These confirmed that the business development is much more strongly affected by firm-level determinants than by the local environment. Free resources and established leadership structures favour the establishment of effective management measures and routines, which, for their part lead to successful communication in the company and an according transfer of knowledge and innovative ability. Only in very small businesses can a lack in formal structure be compensated partially with spontaneous communication. From the different requirements on business management originates a critical growth threshold for small businesses, where new management competence and new staff have to be acquired. If this is successful, the positive development is less likely to be slowed by a shortage in the labour market because growing businesses have fewer recruitment problems than do stagnated or shrinking businesses. Thus structural change due to labour market development tends to be faster and more to the favour of more competitive businesses. Small businesses in rural regions with lower competitive pressure can possibly have more opportunity to overcome the critical growth threshold than do small businesses in urban centres, but only when they succeed in developing their internal labour market. Here, targeted support of continuing education and business consulting provide a toehold for help within the framework of the existing system.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Labor and Human Capital
    Date: 2017
  22. By: Cheriet, Foued
    Abstract: Les recherches actuelles plaident pour une adaptation des modèles d’analyse des innovations entrepreneuriales à la spécificité des contextes africains. L’objet de cette note courte est d’explorer à travers une revue de littérature actualisée des recherches académiques et des applications empiriques, la question des innovations entrepreneuriales dans le contexte africain. Nous examinerons par extension certains liens possibles avec les défis agricoles et les enjeux alimentaires futurs du continent. Abstract: Current academic research strongly suggests adapting models of analysis of entrepreneurial innovations to the specificity of African contexts. The purpose of this short note is to explore through an up-dated literature review of academic research and empirical applications, the question of entrepreneurial innovations in African. By extension, we will examine some possible links with agricultural challenges and future food issues.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2018

This nep-ent issue is ©2018 by Marcus Dejardin. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.