nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2017‒10‒29
seven papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. The Demography of Enterprises and Employment in the European Union Countries By Rafik Abdesselam; Jean Bonnet; Patricia Renou-Maissant
  2. Gender, Access to Finance, Occupational Choice, and Business Performance By Nelli S. Gazanchyan; Nigar Hashimzade; Yulia Rodionova; Natalia Vershinina
  3. On the Origins of Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Sibling Correlation By Lindquist, Matthew; Sol, Joeri; van Praag, C. Mirjam; Vladasel, Theodor
  4. The increasing presence of large firms and its consequences for US startup rates By Garnadt, Niklas
  5. Motivations to Start Businesses: Institutional Context By Aleksandrova, Ekaterina A.; Verkhovskaya, Olga R.
  6. Do Bank Shocks Hamper Firms’ Innovation? By Mariana Spatareanu; Vlad Manole; Ali Kabiri
  7. The Importance of Mittelstand Firms for Regional Apprenticeship Activity By Jahn, Vera

  1. By: Rafik Abdesselam (Université de Lyon, Lumière Lyon 2, COACTIS, France); Jean Bonnet (Normandie University, UNICAEN, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France); Patricia Renou-Maissant (Normandie University, UNICAEN, CREM UMR CNRS 6211, France)
    Abstract: The aim of this contribution is to establish a typology of European entrepreneurship countries with respect to variables related to entrepreneurial activity and economic development. Using a combined use of multidimensional data analyses allows to extend the concept of “entrepreneurial regimes” proposed by Audretsch and Fritsch (2002) and leads to distinguish five entrepreneurial regimes. Moreover, in order to better characterize classes, a wide set of illustrative variables representative of national economic development, labour market functioning, formal and unformal institutional environment as well as variables specific to the entrepreneurial population are considered. Finally, discriminant analyzes show that the five explanatory themes that are considered (Innovation, Employment, Formal Institutions, Entrepreneurship and Governance) differentiate the classes and significantly explain the diversity of entrepreneurial regimes. These findings have important implications for the implementation of public policy in order to promote entrepreneurial activity and reduce unemployment.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Cluster analysis, Discriminant analysis, Entrepreneurial regimes
    JEL: L26 C38 O1
    Date: 2017–10
  2. By: Nelli S. Gazanchyan; Nigar Hashimzade; Yulia Rodionova; Natalia Vershinina
    Abstract: We present a theoretical and empirical analysis of the links between the gender of an entrepreneur, access to finance, occupational choice, and business performance. Our theoretical model predicts that, when lenders discriminate against women entrepreneurs, the average entrepreneurial skill of women who become entrepreneurs or enter paid employment as managers is higher than that of their men counterparts. This suggests that the firms owned or managed by women should perform better than the firms owned or managed by men, ceteris paribus. We find empirical support for the assumptions and the predictions of our model using firm-level data for 28 emerging economies in Europe and Asia; the effect is especially strong in the small and medium enterprises, possibly, because in large firms borrowing is a less essential source of finance. An important policy implication of our findings is that discrimination in the capital market spills over to the labour market, leading to the distortion of occupational choice and inefficiency in allocation of physical and human resources.
    Keywords: occupational choice, discrimination, finance, gender, small and medium enterprises
    JEL: J24 J71
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Lindquist, Matthew (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University); Sol, Joeri; van Praag, C. Mirjam; Vladasel, Theodor
    Abstract: We assess the broad importance of family and community background for entrepreneurship outcomes. We go beyond traditional, intergenerational associations by estimating sibling correlations in unincorporated and incorporated entrepreneurship using register data from Sweden. Sibling correlations range from 20% to 50%. They are consistently higher for more committed and incorporated entrepreneurship than for less committed or unincorporated entrepreneurship; they are also higher for brothers than sisters. We then assess what factors drive these correlations: parental entrepreneurship, neighborhoods, shared genes and financial resources help explain these high correlations, whereas immigration status, family structure and sibling peer effects have a limited contribution. The higher correlation for incorporated versus unincorporated entrepreneurship is explained mainly by the type of parental entrepreneurial engagement and financial resources, while the gap between brother and sister correlations in unincorporated entrepreneurship is largely driven by the geographic concentration of male dominated industries.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Family Background; Intergenerational Persistence; Neighborhood Effects; Occupational Choice; Sibling Correlations
    JEL: D13 J62 L26
    Date: 2017–10–17
  4. By: Garnadt, Niklas
    Abstract: While the significant decline in US startup rates over the past 30 years has raised concern about the health of the US economy its causes have not yet been fully understood. I document the concurrent increase in the size and presence of large firms in the US economy and link it to the decline in firm creation rates. I construct a simple model that rationalizes this channel by increases in the span of control of managers.
    JEL: E24 L25 L26
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Aleksandrova, Ekaterina A.; Verkhovskaya, Olga R.
    Abstract: This paper presents the results of a research which purpose was to investigate the link between institutional features and the motivation of entrepreneurial activity on the country level. Taking into account Scott's institutional theory, the main factors of the institutional environment were identified. The empirical analysis was conducted using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Survey for 2009 - 2014. Using data from various sources, such as GCR, WB, Doing Business, Economic Freedom, Hofstede's Indicators, we determined proxy-variables for every institutional dimension. The results of econometric analysis indicate that the regulatory, normative, and cognitive factors influence not only the level of TEA, but also the share of necessity-driven entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, necessity-driven entrepreneurship, institutional, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Survey, cross-country analysis,
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Mariana Spatareanu; Vlad Manole; Ali Kabiri
    Abstract: Using a unique matched bank-firm-innovation data for the UK, this paper finds that bank shocks negatively affected firms’ innovations during the recent crises. After carefully controlling for several potential biases in estimation we find that firms whose relationship banks were distressed patented less, and those patents were of lower technological value, less original and of lower quality. The impact is larger in the case of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). We also show that banks’ specialization in financing innovation mitigates the impact of bank distress on firms’ innovation. The results highlight the significantly negative impact of distress in the banking sector on firm’s innovation and potential future economic growth.
    Keywords: innovation, bank distress, crisis, UK
    JEL: G21 G34 O16 O30
    Date: 2017–09
  7. By: Jahn, Vera
    Abstract: German politicians frequently emphasize the importance of Mittelstand firms for the economy, thereby particularly referring to their enormous engagement in training apprentices. However, there is yet almost no empirical evidence on the question whether Mittelstand firms are in fact excessively active in training apprentices. We study whether the relative importance of owner-managed small and medium sized enterprises has an effect on firms' apprenticeship activity on the county level.
    JEL: C21 D23 I21
    Date: 2017

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