nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2017‒09‒10
eight papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. Knowledge spillovers and absorptive capacity - institutional evidence from the 'German Mittelstand' By Proeger, Till
  2. Shacklean Uncertainty and Cultural Embeddedness as Innovation Constraints in the UK By Tubadji, Annie; Nijkamp, Peter; Santarelli, Enrico
  3. Developing EU Capital Markets for SMEs: Mission impossible? By Thomadakis, Apostolos
  4. Boosting firm dynamism and performance in China By Margit Molnar
  5. The Dynamics of Inter-firm Networks and Firm Growth By FUJII Daisuke; SAITO Yukiko; SENGA Tatsuro
  6. Bringing entrepreneurial methods into the scientific classroom By Karen Johson; Akil Amiraly
  7. Necessity and Opportunity motivations to Entrepreneurs behaviors By Nongainéba Benjamin Zoumba
  8. The Impact of Educational Programs for Managers by Community Banks: The case of a program by Kanazawa Shinkin Bank (Japanese) By KITANO Yuji

  1. By: Proeger, Till
    Abstract: Recent extensions to the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship (KSTE) show that the successful commercialization of new knowledge by incumbents depends on their absorptive capacities. For policy-makers focusing on increasing incumbents' innovative performance, the systematic reduction of knowledge filter through improved absorptive capacities thus becomes a crucial goal. While the general working mechanisms of knowledge filter have been analyzed within the KSTE framework, few institutional solutions to increase absorptive capacities have been put forth. This study provides an initial case study explaining a specific institutional framework fostering the systematic penetration of knowledge filters by incumbent firms in the case of German SMEs. Using a set of 177 in-depth interviews with firm representatives, the system of interrelated organizations, institutional arrangements, shared values and economic incentives associated with the institutional structures for knowledge spillovers for German SMEs are described. I identify institutional characteristics connected to the dual system of vocational training, regulatory measures and economic incentives mutually enforcing and fostering broad knowledge spillovers. This exploratory approach enables deriving hypotheses for the further study of knowledge filters as well as policy implications for the design of institutions increasing incumbents' absorptive capacities.
    Keywords: absorptive capacity,entrepreneurship,knowledge filter,knowledge spillovertheory of entrepreneurship,networks,small and medium enterprises
    JEL: D21 D82 H41 K23 L14
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Tubadji, Annie; Nijkamp, Peter; Santarelli, Enrico
    Abstract: We focus on both individual and local uncertainty to explain the innovation potential of entrepreneurs in the NUTS1 UK regions in 2005 and 2009. The ‘potential surprise function’ (Shackle, 1949) clarifying why sometimes promising business choices are truncated is taken as a determinant of an entrepreneur’s innovation decision. GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) data and data on psychological types are used in the empirical analysis. The econometric estimation strategy addresses both the issue of selection bias (due to uncertainty) and that of zero-inflated data (i.e., presence of only a few highly innovative actors in comparison to the majority in our sample). Findings suggest that local uncertainty is the predominant determinant of individual entrepreneurial choice. The regional effect appears to amount to about 4% of the innovation differences across NUTS1 UK regions, while almost one third of it is determined by the local level of uncertainty bias. Thus, the novelty of the present study is that it shows how differences in local cultural tolerance to uncertainty may explain differences in the quantity of truncated innovative ideas among localities.
    Keywords: potential surprise function,entrepreneurship,innovation,knowledge,epistemic uncertainty,cultural embeddedness,Culture Based Development,quality ladder
    JEL: Z10 D81 R11
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Thomadakis, Apostolos
    Abstract: Bank lending is the most common source of external finance for SMEs, but it doesn’t suit all of them, explains Apostolos Thomadakis in this ECMI Commentary. Young, innovative and fast-growing SMEs, in particular, do not have the required cash flows and collateral for bank financing and need alternatives to unlock their growth potential. Market-based finance is one alternative to help finance the activities of these SMEs. The European Commission’s renewed activities to develop market-based financing need to be stepped up in order to develop a credible capital market to finance SMEs in the EU.
    Date: 2017–09
  4. By: Margit Molnar
    Abstract: With persisting slower growth worldwide and in China, over-capacity in some heavy industry sectors, declining profitability, and intensifying competition from other, lower-cost emerging economies, corporate behaviour in China needs to change and focus more on efficiency and sustainability. This need is further intensified by mounting environmental pressures and China’s ambition for greener and more sustainable growth. A larger proportion of firms, including state-owned enterprises, should step up innovation efforts and improve corporate governance practices. To this end, supportive policies are needed, fostering an environment that is more conducive to innovation and entrepreneurship, and facilitating resource reallocation through the exit of unviable firms. At the same time, fraudulent corporate practices must be halted and State assets need to be better managed. Reforms are under way or envisaged that will help improve corporate performance and, more broadly, deliver more resilient and environmentally sustainable growth and continuing progress in living standards. This Working Paper relates to the 2017 OECD Economic Survey of China ( y-china.htm).
    Keywords: bankruptcy, business environment, corporate debt, corporate governance, entrepreneurship, industrial policy, Innovation, intellectual property rights, overcapacity, research and development, state-owned entreprise reform, zombie firms
    JEL: G34 G38 L26 L52 O3 P31
    Date: 2017–09–11
  5. By: FUJII Daisuke; SAITO Yukiko; SENGA Tatsuro
    Abstract: Recent empirical evidence has revealed that firm age is one of the key determinants for firm growth, while other literature points out the importance of customer-supplier networks for firm growth. This paper investigates how the inter-firm transaction network evolves over the firm lifecycle and its relationship with firm growth using large-scale firm network data in Japan. Old firms are large in size and well connected compared to young firms. In particular, older firms are connected to other older firms exhibiting positive assortativity of age. Younger firms tend to add and drop links more frequently, and the stability of a transaction link increases with its duration of active relationships, implying gradual learning of link-specific productivity over time. Moreover, firm's sales growth is positively related with the expansion of transaction partners in various measures, conditional on firm age. This suggests that the observed relationship between firm age and firm growth may be due to the lifecycle pattern of building inter-firm networks.
    Date: 2017–08
  6. By: Karen Johson (DUSP - Department of Urban Studies and Planning - MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Akil Amiraly (i3-CRG - Centre de recherche en gestion i3 - Polytechnique - X - Université Paris-Saclay - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This research presents a qualitative study of action learning at École Polytechnique, a top engineering school in France. Though existing literature has theorized on methods and applications of action learning, notably within business and management, this work explores the use of such techniques in the context of fundamental science education. As a case study, we explore Polytechnique’s “Le Projet Scientifique Collectif” (PSC) using in-depth interviews with a variety of key actors involved in an action-based program. We conclude our study by suggesting areas of future investigation using discussion points that explore barriers and opportunities of successful collaborative student projects.
    Abstract: Cette recherche présente une étude qualitative sur une expérience de formation-action ou Action Learning à l’École polytechnique (France). La littérature existante a théorisé les méthodes et les champs d’application sur Action Learning, plus particulièrement dans le domaine des affaires et du management. Ce travail examine le recours de cette approche dans le monde de la formation aux sciences fondamentales. L’étude de cas porte sur le “Projet Scientifique Collectif” (PSC) à l’École polytechnique. Elle mobilise des entretiens approfondis réalisés auprès d’acteurs clés de ce programme basé sur l’action. Les résultats soulignent les limites et le potentiel du succès de quelques projets collaboratifs portés par les étudiants. Ces premières indications permettent d’énoncer de futures pistes de recherche sur un champ et une pratique peu appliquée aux sciences fondamentales
    Keywords: entrepreneurship,fundamental science education,engineering school,resources,pedagogy,mentorship,Action learning, entreprenariat, formation à la recherche fondamentale, école d'ingénieur, ressources, pédagogie, monitorat
    Date: 2017–07
  7. By: Nongainéba Benjamin Zoumba (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12)
    Abstract: Des motivations par nécessité et par opportunité aux comportements des entrepreneurs ZOUMBA Nongainéba Benjamin Université Paris-Est, IRG (EA 2354) Résumé : Cet article propose une analyse dynamique des motivations et comportements des entrepreneurs dits de nécessité et d'opportunité. L'objectif est de comprendre la pertinence des motivations (nécessité et opportunité) pour rendre compte des comportements. La littérature sur les motivations et les comportements des entrepreneurs de nécessité et d'opportunité est alors mobilisée sans chercher pour autant à élaborer un cadre théorique stabilisé eu égard à l'objectif du papier. Nous nous appuyons sur une étude longitudinale qualitative de deux cas d'entrepreneurs en phase de démarrage. Les données collectées mensuellement pendant une année ont été codées sur NVivo 11 puis analysées selon le contenu thématique. Les résultats montrent d'abord que l'état et la nature des motivations sont dynamiques. Ils montrent ensuite que les comportements sont aussi dynamiques. La recherche remet donc en cause les recherches prédisant les comportements des entrepreneurs de nécessité et d'opportunité en se basant sur les motivations initiales. Elle indique la nécessité d'une délimitation temporelle des recherches sur les processus entrepreneuriaux en général et celles sur les motivations et les comportements en particulier. Ainsi, nous proposons des pistes, notamment conceptuelles et empiriques, en vue de rendre pertinemment compte de l'entrepreneuriat.
    Keywords: Necessity and Opportunity motivations,Entrepreneurial process,behaviors,longitudinal analysis,motivation de nécessité/opportunité,processus entrepreneurial,comportement,analyse longitudinale
    Date: 2017–06–06
  8. By: KITANO Yuji
    Abstract: This paper examines educational programs intended for business managers by regional financial institutions. Research has shown that managers and owners of small and medium-sized enterprises neither had sufficient experience nor were trained prior to obtaining their current positions. As a result, the community banks which have to build closer relationships between the small businesses should provide them with relevant training programs. However, the effectiveness of such programs has not been validated in Japan. I evaluated a seminar conducted for entrepreneurs and managers by Kanazawa Shinkin Bank (called " Kinshin Keieijuku ") with a questionnaire. The major results of this survey are as follows. First, the program has a significant positive effect on the dimension of human resource management. Second, the businesses tend to have a medium-term management plan. Finally, the participants aim to grow their businesses either by expansion of their markets or through new projects. These results indicate that a community bank-conducted training program for managers and entrepreneurs could improve the quality of employment, and promote the sustainability and growth of small and medium-sized enterprises in the rural economies.
    Date: 2017–08

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