nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2017‒06‒04
seventeen papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. Determinants of Novice, Portfolio and Serial Entrepreneurship: An Occupational Choice Approach By Tran, Hien Thu; Carbonara, Emanuela; Santarelli, Enrico
  2. Homophily in Entrepreneurial Team Formation By Paul A. Gompers; Kevin Huang; Sophie Q. Wang
  3. Venture Capital Networks: An analysis using the exponential random graph model By KOUJAKU Sadamori; MIYAKAWA Daisuke
  4. Forgiveness Versus Financing: The determinants and impact of SME debt forbearance in Japan By ONO Arito; YASUDA Yukihiro
  5. The Capital Gaps between Female and Male Entrepreneurs By Bracha Efroni
  6. Entrepreneurial Motives as a Differentiating Factor in Innovativeness By Ludmila Kozubikova; Gabriela Sopkova; Vladimir Krajcik; Ladislav Tyll
  7. SMEs Innovativeness and Institutional Support System: The Local Experiences in Qualitative Perspective By Anna Lewandowska; Mateusz Stopa
  8. Young Minority Entrepreneurs: Personal Traits and Environmental Constraints By Qaadny Amir
  9. Considering What drivers affect entrepreneurial activity in the transition economies? The case of the Visegrad countries By Justyna Zygmunt
  10. Factors determining the effect of financial risk in the entrepreneurial environment of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic By Jaroslav Belas; Jan Dvorsky; Jan Kubalek; Lubos Smrcka
  11. Evaluation of the credit risk importance during the crisis: The case study of SMEs according to a time of operating on the market By Jan Dvorsky; Jaroslav Schonfeld; Eva Cipovova; Zora Petrakova
  12. Promoting a private investment renaissance in Italy By Mauro Pisu
  13. The Role of SMEs in International Trade: Selected Aspects By Joanna Malecka
  14. Influence of the Cultural Background at Small and Medium Sized-Enterprises Innovations in Regional Dimension By Maria Bernat; Anna Bruska; Anna Jasinska- Biliczak
  15. Enhancing Polish firms’ innovation activities in comparison to the other Moderate Innovators countries By Aleksandra Zygmunt
  16. Entrepreneurship and Industrial Clusters: Evidence from China Industrial Census By Zhu, Xiwei; Liu, Ye; He, Ming; Luo, Deming; Wu, Yiyun
  17. Innovative entrepreneurship evaluation in opinion of service company managers in Podlaskie Province By Elzbieta Skapska

  1. By: Tran, Hien Thu; Carbonara, Emanuela; Santarelli, Enrico
    Abstract: In this paper we present an occupational choice model for entrepreneurs, in which, based on their individual skills and on the quality of their business, entrepreneurs can keep their original business, open a new business in the same or another sector along the current business (portfolio entrepreneur), shut it down to either start a new one (serial entrepreneur) or to turn to dependent employment. We test our theory using a 10-year panel dataset (2001 to 2010) of more than 4,000 Vietnamese manufacturing firms. We estimate an occupational choice model and a survival model and find that: (i) a greater endowment of human capital is associated with a higher likelihood to become a serial or a portfolio entrepreneur; (ii) A higher quality of the new business is associated to a higher likelihood of being habitual entrepreneurs. Particularly, high entrepreneurial skills together with a high-quality business positively influence the likelihood to be serial or portfolio; (iii) novice entrepreneurs with high entrepreneurial skill and a high-quality business are more likely to keep their business.
    Keywords: Portfolio entrepreneurship,serial entrepreneurship,occupational choice,industrial policy
    JEL: F02 L26 L53
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Paul A. Gompers (Harvard Business School, Finance Unit); Kevin Huang (Harvard Business School); Sophie Q. Wang (Harvard University)
    Abstract: We study the role of homophily in group formation. Using a unique dataset of MBA students, we observe homophily in ethnicity and gender increases the probability of forming teams by 25%. Homophily in education and past working experience increases the probability of forming teams by 17% and 11 % respectively. Homophily in education and working experience is stronger among males than females. Further, we examine the causal impact of homophily on team performance. Homophily in ethnicity increases team performance by lifting teams in bottom quantiles to median performance quantiles, but it does not increase the chance of being top performers. Our findings have implications for understanding the lack of diversity in entrepreneurship and venture capital industry.
    Date: 2017–05
  3. By: KOUJAKU Sadamori; MIYAKAWA Daisuke
    Abstract: Applying the exponential random graph model (Robins et al. 2007) to the investment data of Japanese venture capital (VC) firms, we document the relationship between VC performance and the dynamics of their co-investment networks. First, we find that VCs' co-investment network formation is not independent from VC characteristics. Second, VCs' past experiences of co-investments contribute to a higher likelihood of future co-investments among them, not only when VCs gain higher returns from their past co-investments but also when the jointly invested venture business companies (VBs) experience higher growth after an initial public offering (IPO). Third, such positive assortativity in terms of the returns obtained from their co-investment has become significantly weaker after the great financial crisis in 2007-2009. These results suggest that the poor financial market conditions make network structures less stiff. Fourth, somewhat puzzlingly, the positive assortativity in terms of jointly invested VBs' growth has become stronger after the great financial crisis.
    Date: 2017–05
  4. By: ONO Arito; YASUDA Yukihiro
    Abstract: This paper empirically examines the impact of Japan's debt forbearance policies with regard to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) stipulated in the "Act concerning Temporary Measures to Facilitate Financing for SMEs." Using unique Japanese firm survey data that identify firms that received "financing" (such as through the deferral of debt repayments) and firms that received "debt forgiveness" (such as through a reduction in principal and/or interest), we examine the determinants and the effects of debt forbearance to test the theoretical predictions of Krugman's (1988) "financing vs. forgiving a debt overhang" analysis. We find, first, that banks choose debt forgiveness for firms that are more creditworthy and more profitable, which is consistent with the theory of debt overhang. Second, among firms that received debt forbearance, those that had received debt forgiveness had better access to new loans and showed superior ex-post performance than those that received financing, which is also consistent with the theory of debt overhang. Third, compared to firms that had not received any debt forbearance, firms that had received financing were more leveraged and exhibited worse performance, especially those whose forborne loans were covered by public credit guarantees, while firms that had received debt forgiveness exhibited better performance, especially those without public credit guarantees. This suggests that the effectiveness of the SME forbearance policy is adversely affected by the moral hazard generated by public credit guarantee programs.
    Date: 2017–05
  5. By: Bracha Efroni (Poznan University of Economics and Business)
    Abstract: Research background: Today countries have realized the importance ofsmall and medium enterprises (SMEs) to economic and social development. Entrepreneurship currently provides the most critical source of economic growth for countries. In most countries women own about 30% of small businesses. Since small businesses are the pillar of the economy, entrepreneurship is its growth engine, and women constitute about 50% of the population, it is important to research businesses and entrepreneurship among women so as to strengthen the economy. Women who decide to engage in entrepreneurship encounter many challenges, during both the establishment and management of the venture. Some of these challenges are shared by both male and female entrepreneurs, while some are relevant only to women. Purpose of the article: Since female entrepreneurship is extremely vital to a country’s economy, entrepreneurship among women must be encouraged. To do this, it is first necessary to understand the gaps between male and female entrepreneurs. Such gaps can only be reduced bycontinuing to research their origin and how they can be decreased. Methodology/methods: This article is based on literary research focusing on the differences between male and female entrepreneurship. Nearly one hundred articles, reports, and books were reviewed. The study results were synthesized on the basis of 40 works. Findings & Value added: Three main types of entrepreneurial gaps were found between women and men: social capital, financing capital, and human capital. The gender gap in entrepreneurship is explained in women’s structural disadvantages regarding the achievement of the resources relevant to the success of the business.
    Keywords: female entrepreneurship; gender gap; human capital; financing capital; social capital
    JEL: L26 J16
    Date: 2017–05
  6. By: Ludmila Kozubikova (Tomas Bata University in Zlin); Gabriela Sopkova (University of Economics in Bratislava); Vladimir Krajcik (Pan-European University); Ladislav Tyll (University of Economics)
    Abstract: Research background: SME character determines that entrepreneur´s personality plays a significant role in their management. For this reason it is necessary to consider the personality as a whole including his/her motives for entrepreneurship. Purpose of the article: The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between entrepreneurial motives and innovativeness in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) sector in the Czech Republic. Methodology/methods: We have analyzed the data collected in 2015 from 1141 SMEs from 14 regions of the Czech Republic. For the purpose of this article we focused on the motives for doing business, which were analyzed on the part of the whole sample including two selected groups of respondents. The first group (330 respondents) consisted of entrepreneurs who featured money as the most important motive for starting up a business and the second group (251 respondents) consisted of entrepreneurs who featured mission as the main reason for starting up a business. Findings & Value added: We have revealed statistically significant differences in innovativeness between the entrepreneurs motivated by money and the entrepreneurs motivated by mission. Regardless of the entrepreneurial motives vast majority of entrepreneurs consider the innovativeness to be important for their company.
    Keywords: entrepreneurial motives, innovativeness, proactiveness, mission, money
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2017–05
  7. By: Anna Lewandowska (University of Information Technology and Management, 35–225 Rzeszow, ul. Sucharskiego 2, Poland); Mateusz Stopa (University of Information Technology and Management, 35–225 Rzeszow, ul. Sucharskiego 2, Poland)
    Abstract: Innovations are considered to be one of the most progressive determinants of socio-economic growth, also in the regional and local perspective (compare Petrariu, et al., 2013; Priede & Pereira 2013; Sternberg & Arndt, 2001). The high level of innovation has a positive impact on productivity at the firm level (business performance, see, e.g. Bhaskaran, 2006) and consequently also on the economic results at regional or national level (economic performance, see, e.g. DiPietro & Anoruo, 2006). The aim of this paper is to contribute to a greater understanding of the research on institutional support system for SMEs innovativeness in the Podkarpackie region. In analyzing this case, we raise the following two questions: (1) what are the types of innovation strategies of SMEs in Podkarpackie?; (2) what are the factors affecting innovation and potential barriers to further use of institutional support system aimed at the implementation of innovation in enterprises. The study was qualitative interviews (in-depth interviews - IDI) with key individuals in SME’s, R&D units, business environment institutions, regional and local authorities. Based on the opinion of entrepreneurs and others, evaluated programs and projects dedicated to innovation and identified barriers encountered by entrepreneurs limiting the implementation of innovation. Made in this way to assess the effectiveness of institutional support system. The results of our research show that institutional support system mitigate negative consequences of peripheral localization of the enterprises, where specific innovation strategy has no influence on SMEs assessment of innovation effectiveness. The innovation is too costly and SMEs are too weak in peripheral region, therefore there is great need for reasonable and flexible institutional support system. However, peripheral situation influences this institutional system itself, strengthening the mechanisms of self-cenzorship.
    Keywords: innovation; innovation strategies; SMEs; institutional support system
    JEL: L25 O12 O33
    Date: 2017–05
  8. By: Qaadny Amir (Poznan University of Economics and Business, Poland)
    Abstract: In recent years, the number of new entrepreneurs has been growing particularly among young people and minorities. The young minority entrepreneur is a distinct sub-set within the category of young entrepreneurs because he faces additional social and cultural barriers, limited economic and resource access and availability, discrimination and even outright racism not experienced by mainstream entrepreneurs. In this review, we have found it necessary to distinguish between two groups of minorities: the ‘immigrant minority’ and the ‘local ethnic minority’ who might or might not be a numerical minority but who live under the constraints of a ruling hegemony, a distinction which has profound consequences on entrepreneurial activity. To provide an overview of the updated understanding of the young minority entrepreneur as well as to refine some critiques. This article is based on a review of nearly one hundred academic papers, reports, and books in the field. Entrepreneurship can be the result either of a free positive choice or a necessary escape strategy of survival for those who have no option of salaried work opportunities. It brings into play personal traits, education and environmental support or constraints.
    Keywords: young entrepreneurs; minority; personal and traits characteristics; socio-cultural aspects; environmental constraints
    JEL: L26 J15
    Date: 2017–05
  9. By: Justyna Zygmunt (Opole University of Technology, Poland)
    Abstract: While a large literature exists linking entrepreneurship with its drivers in developed economies, entrepreneurship issues in the transition economies are still no entirely recognised. The Visegrad countries represent a unique scope for examining drivers affecting entrepreneurial activity in the transition economies, since they faced similarities at the beginning of the transformation. The findings may be supportive in identifying threats and opportunities of the economic development of Central and Eastern Europe regions.This paper contributes to the literature on entrepreneurship by focusing on drivers of entrepreneurial activity in the transition economies. The aim of the paper is to analyse how entrepreneurial activity in respective Visegrad countries is influenced by various drivers.Entrepreneurship activity and its drivers in the Visegrad countries were considered for the 2004-2014 period. Hypotheses were tested with the usage of an Ordinary Least Squared regression. F-test was employed to test estimated regressions. Goodness-of-fit of the regressions was controlled with the coefficient of determination. To check for the collinearity, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used.In this paper the approach for improving the understanding of issues related to entrepreneurship in the transition economies is made. This paper contributes to the understanding of how entrepreneurship activity in the Visegrad countries is influenced by various drivers. The main finding is that although entrepreneurial activity in the Visegrad countries seems to be influenced by similar drivers that have been identified for developed economies, the way in which respective drivers matters for entrepreneurship is, in certain cases, distinct. The findings may attract attention of policymakers and may be useful in the processes of policy pursuing.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, transition economies, the Visegrad countries
    JEL: L26 P25 R11
    Date: 2017–05
  10. By: Jaroslav Belas (Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Czech Republic); Jan Dvorsky (Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Czech Republic); Jan Kubalek (University of Economics); Lubos Smrcka (University of Economics)
    Abstract: Research background: Entrepreneurs enter into business with the aim of gaining the maximum possible profit. They are increasingly willing to tolerate the effect of a greater intensity of financial risk. Factors which influence the intensity of financial risk in a business are related not only to the securing of financial resources, but also to crucial decisions on the parts of entrepreneurs or the ability to manage financial risk during a crisis in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Aim of the article: The aim of the article is to define and quantify the significance of factors which influence, by their character and effect, the intensity of financial risk in the SME entrepreneurial environment. Methodology/methods: The selection set represented 1,141 SMEs. It was carried out in the Czech Republic in 2015. We used the “inquiring in the form of an online questionnaire” method of ascertaining data. To fulfil the main aim, we used the methods of regression and correlation analyses with the aim of determining the relationship between the intensity of financial risk and the determinants thereof. In the first step, we carried out descriptive statistics (pivot table, scatter plot, skewness, kurtosis, normal distribution plot, and histogram). In the second step, we verified assumptions by carrying out regression modelling and by testing the normal distribution of data in determinants, the assumption of linearity, multicollinearity and homoscedasticity of variables (t-test, z-test, VIF test, Bartlett’s test, F-ratio), and interpreted the results (estimate coefficient of parameters, coefficient correlation, coefficient determination). All the realised tests were carried out on a 0.05 level of significance using IBM SPSS Statistics, Version 23 software. Findings & Value added: On the basis of the results of the questionnaire investigation and using regression and correlative data analysis, we quantified the statistical significance of determinants which influence the intensity of financial risk in the SME segment. The result of key factors serves as a basis for proposing measures in the context of preventing a business from the intensity of financial risk.
    Keywords: financial risk, doing business, entrepreneur, management
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2017–05
  11. By: Jan Dvorsky (Tomas Bata University in Zlin); Jaroslav Schonfeld (University of Economics); Eva Cipovova (Czech Technical University in Prague); Zora Petrakova (Slovak University of Technology)
    Abstract: Research background: One of the possibilities for entrepreneur who is trying to start-up a successful business or grow a business, is to ensure the business from an economic perspective. Entrepreneurs can use a various alternative forms of financing. Despite the wide range of programs, grants and subsidies, the most commonly used form of financing is still a loan which is provided by the bank institutions. The relationship between entrepreneurs and banking institutions is mainly connected in the area of lending and guarantees for funding. Therefore the perception and the evaluation of the credit risk by entrepreneurs contributes to a better understanding of needs of both sides. Purpose of the article: A comparison of the evaluation of factors which affect the perception and management of the credit risk by entrepreneurs. Not only socio-demographic factors (gender, level of education or age of entrepreneurs) but also the nature of corporate activities in the business environment for small and medium-sized enterprises in the Czech Republic. Methodology/methods: During data collection, method of random firm’s selection using specialized database of companies “Albertina” was used. Afterwards, the method of interview with responsible managers of the company and method of online questionnaire survey were used. Data from 1141 enterprises in 2015 from all 14 regions of the Czech Republic were collected. In the first step of our research, the descriptive statistics (pivot tables, pie charts) were conducted. Afterwards, the two-sample t-test to compare a mean values of the perceptions of credit risk factors and verify the conditions for its completion (Histogram, Q-Q plot, Goodness of Fit Test, Pearson coefficient of contingency, t- test). Findings & Value added: With an increase of the time of operating in the business environment, the amount of women as a responsible people for business management is decreasing. Entrepreneurs are united in the opinion that the importance of credit risk during the crisis increases. There are statistically significant differences between entrepreneurs by a gender and age in enterprises with a time of operating on the market between 5-10 years that the importance of credit risk during the crisis increases.
    Keywords: enterprise, credit risk, business environment, banks
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2017–05
  12. By: Mauro Pisu (OECD)
    Abstract: Boosting investment is key to supporting the nascent recovery and reviving stagnant productivity. Aggregate investment has declined markedly since the start of the global financial crisis, especially in services. Italy’s investment is so low that the capital stock is now declining, hurting potential output growth. Raising investment will hinge on improving insolvency procedures, enhancing business dynamism, strengthening the innovation system and targeting incentives toward start-ups and innovative SMEs, overcoming problems in the banking sector and restarting lending to firms in addition to diversifying sources of firms’ finance.
    JEL: E21 E22 G21 G23 G24 G28 H20 O16
    Date: 2017–05–30
  13. By: Joanna Malecka (Poznan University of Technology Faculty of Engineering Management Strzelecka 11, 60-965 Poznan, Poland)
    Abstract: Research background: International trade is an important stimulant for economic development that simultaneously ensures free access to raw materials, goods, services and technologies. It essentially involves trade in goods, yet what is also significant is the invisible trading sphere (tourism, transport, financing sources). Being a vital factor in macro-economic policies pursued by contemporary national economies, SMEs build the single market, which integrates the European economy, through trade development that directly fosters economic growth. Purpose of the article: The article strives to answer the question whether EU-based SMEs enjoy benefits and greater stability as well as state support when operating in foreign markets. The article presents the contribution of SMEs to international trade conducted by selected EU countries and Poland. The results of the author’s own research relate to the share of SMEs in the sectoral and geographical structure. Methodology/methods: The research findings are based on source data from annual reports and publications that have been produced and made available by financial market institutions and on the author’s own research concerning Polish entrepreneurs. The volume and structure of SME imports and exports in the various markets are outlined by means of analyses, figures and comparisons. Findings: The author’s own research shows that Polish entrepreneurs operating in international markets are primarily driven by: (1) profitability of transactions, (2) prospects for establishing long-term cooperation, and (3) high demand for products originating in their country in foreign markets. The ongoing standardisation and unification with respect to internationalisation should be supported by the state along with forms of financial security and contract insurance. What SMEs expect most is support as regards co-financing investments that are a necessary and costly element of the international activity development process.
    Keywords: export; import; SME; international trade; internationalisation
    JEL: F02 F43 F63 L11 L26
    Date: 2017–05
  14. By: Maria Bernat (Opole Univeristy of Technology); Anna Bruska (Opole University); Anna Jasinska- Biliczak (Opole University of Technology)
    Abstract: SME’s play crucial role in economy’s development. In EU they make up 99% of all enterprises and are at the forefront of technological innovations (Kotler et al., 1999, pp. 139-140; EC 2013, p. 2; Jasinska-Biliczak, 2016, p. 30). Being the flywheel for economies (Soininen et. al., 2012, p. 614) are called “hidden champions” of 20th century. Over past few years Europe-wide analyses (Griffin, 2004, p. 424) have emphasised the importance of investing in SME’s. Taking into consideration that cultural environment is the background to decisions: social, managerial, development (Hofstede et al., 2011, p. 46), so innovations, knowledge, skills and competences as well as culture reinforce each other. Research is the attempt of pointing the cultural background role in the SME’s innovations and in the regional economy at the example of Opole Region. Results will contribute to stimulate, develop and adopt the policies at regional level, which aim regional dimension of SME’s growth and their cultural base. Methods of desk research were applied with fields research using in-depth interviews to achieve research purpose. Mapping as the interdisciplinary visualization technology permitted to clarify research results. The phenomenon of cultural background for innovations in SME’s was studied in regional dimension. Research allows to state that in analysed region, strongly settled in multicultural environment, cultural background turns out to be factor influencing innovations in SME’s. So regional authorities should take that finding into account when planning regional policy, especially focused on enterprises’ development. The use of cultural factor as strong side of the enterprise should be promoted as well as experiences based at the cultural backgrounds exchanged between SME’s in region. So integrated action plans may enhance the best practise spreading in region and contribute innovative growth in SME’s sector.
    Keywords: innovations in small and medium enterprises; SME’s growth; innovation; cultural background; SME’s regional dimension
    JEL: O31 O47 R11
    Date: 2017–05
  15. By: Aleksandra Zygmunt (Opole University of Technology, Poland)
    Abstract: Faced with circumstances of rapid changes, the crucial is stimulation of actions aimed at enhancing competitiveness. In this regard, the European Union strategy Europe 2020 should be mentioned. Concerning the role of firms’ innovation activities in economic growth of regions and countries, it is important to explore how enhancing Polish firms’ innovation activities differ between the EU countries with a similar to Poland level of innovation. Thus, the particular emphasis was put on the Moderate Innovators countries.The aim of this paper is to investigate enhancing Polish firms’ innovation activities against those from the other Moderate Innovators countries.The study was based on data from the European Innovation Scoreboard 2016 related to firm activities dimensions: firm investments, linkage & entrepreneurship and intellectual assets. The time period was 2008–2015 and was limited by data availability. To study multivariate analysis and the zero unitarization methods were applied. These methods allowed to multivariate analysis of enhancing firms’ innovation activities in Poland and those from the other EU countries with similar to Poland level of innovation.This paper contributes to the existing literature by providing new insight on understanding the issues related to firms’ innovation activities. The results reveal, among others, that although Polish firms’ innovation activities have improved against those from the other Moderate Innovators counties, it requires further enhancing. The findings have practical and policy implications. It is assumed that the obtained results may be useful for firms, regions and country in enhancing competitiveness.
    Keywords: innovation activities; firm; the European Union; Moderate Innovators countries
    JEL: O30 O52 R11
    Date: 2017–05
  16. By: Zhu, Xiwei (School of Economics, Zhejiang University); Liu, Ye (School of Economics, Zhejiang University); He, Ming (Division of Economics, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University); Luo, Deming (School of Economics, Zhejiang University); Wu, Yiyun (School of Economics, Zhejiang University)
    Abstract: This article studies the synergy effect of entrepreneurship on China’s industrial clusters. We propose an extension to Duranton and Overman’s (2005) method which enables us to delimit industrial clusters in space. The empirical model is identified with historical measures of local entrepreneur potential in the spirit of Chinitz (1961). We find that measures of entrepreneurship contribute significantly to cluster formation, cluster size, and cluster strength. Access to sea ports stimulates industrial concentration but agricultural legacy has the opposite effect. Light industries have more clusters which are also larger and stronger. Clusters also benefit from historical measures of market potential, localization/urbanization economies, and urban population density. Most of the results are robust to alternative instrumental strategies. Finally, we find evidence that the synergy effect is stronger where the local conditions are favorable to clusters.
    Date: 2017–05–24
  17. By: Elzbieta Skapska (Bialystok University of Technology)
    Abstract: The analysis of contemporary economies pursuing service based economies shows the issue concerning the innovation in services. It seems to be important from the standpoint of modifying the actions of enterprises and economies on competitive, local, national and international arenas. The economic practice and public activity prove there is a need for intelligent growth. It consists in the development of economy that is based on knowledge and innovation – the development which produces high added value. Thus, it is necessary to foster creative entrepreneurship that inclines towards the introduction of changes at the level of an enterprise which results in contributing to the creation of good economic condition in general. Research background: The article regards the issue of Podlaskie enterprises that tend to introduce innovation within the services of a higher level, understood as services, that creates added value from the point of view of service company managers. Purpose of the article: The aim of the article is to examine the opinions of managers from Podlaskie on innovation in services and whether the range of provided services is accepted by service receivers. Methodology/methods: The realization process of the assumed goal shall use the monograph and survey methods as well as analysis and synthesis. The survey is directed at managers of Polish companies in Podlaskie province. It regards factors that rule the inclination for the introduction of changes in service nature and its quality in the period of 1-3 years (stimulating and inhibitive). Findings & Value added: The research shows that the analyzed sub sector of services is an interesting area in the context of innovation in the micro scale and thus has potential for further study.
    Keywords: service enterprises, innovations in services, service manager, Podlaskie Province
    JEL: D11 D33 D70
    Date: 2017–05

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