nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2017‒04‒23
25 papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. The Productivity Advantage of Serial Entrepreneurs By Kathryn L. Shaw; Anders Sørensen
  2. Dynamic Entrepreneurship: On the Performance of U.S. Research Joint Ventures By Bray, Jeremy; Link, Albert
  3. From start-up to scale-up: examining public policies for the financing of high-growth ventures By Gilles Duruflé; Thomas Hellmann; Karen E. Wilson
  4. Entrepreneurial Motivation and Business Performance: Evidence from a French Microfinance Institution By Renaud Bourlès; Anastasia Cozarenco
  5. Taxation of Swedish Firm Owners: The Great Reversal from the 1970s to the 2010s By Henrekson, Magnus
  6. The Succession and Business Transformation of Taiwanese SMEs to Reactivate the Entrepreneurial Spirit By Wei, Tsung-Che
  7. Growing Markets through Business Training for Female Entrepreneurs: A Market-Level Randomized Experiment in Kenya By McKenzie, David; Puerto, Olga Susana
  8. Discrimination, social capital, and financial constraints: The case of Viet Nam By Tho Pham; Oleksandr Talavera
  9. Coordination Frictions in Venture Capital Syndicates By Ramana Nanda; Matthew Rhodes-Kropf
  10. Differences between self-employed and employed mothers in balancing family and work responsibilities: Evidence from Latin American countries By Juan Carlos, Campaña; J. Ignacio, Giménez-Nadal; Jose Alberto, Molina
  11. Leisure and effort at work: incorporating self-employment into urban markets By J. Ignacio, Giménez-Nadal; Jose Alberto, Molina; Jorge, Velilla
  12. Business is Tough, but Family is Worse: Household Bargaining and Investment in Microenterprises in Uganda By Nathan Fiala
  13. Development of sustainable product innovations By Stig Ottosson
  14. Self-employment and parenthood By Wallin, Tina
  15. Lessons from the US: innovation policy By Geoffrey Owen
  16. Addressing Un/Under-Employment at the Local Level: Participatory Action Research in Greece of Crisis By Eugenia Vathakou; Maria Tsampra; Pantelis Sklias
  17. How Antitrust Enforcement Can Spur Innovation By Watzinger, Martin; Fackler, Thomas A.; Nagler, Markus
  18. An empirical study of firms’ absorptive capacity and export diversification By Wallin, Tina
  19. Drivers of productivity in Vietnamese SMEs: The role of management standards and innovation By Elisa Calza; Micheline Goedhuys; Neda Trifkovic
  20. Coworkers, Makers and Hackers in the city : Reinventing policies, corporate strategies and citizenship ? By Amélie Bohas; Annie Camus; Ignasi Capdevilla; Aurore Dandoy; Julie Fabbri; Anna Glaser; Stephan Haefliger; Pierre Laniray; Anouk Mukherjee; Fabrice Periac; Caroline Scotto; Viviane Sergi; François-Xavier De Vaujany; Valérie Andrade; Stephen Andre; Nina Barbier; Alexandra Bernhardt; Thomas Bargone-Fisette; Maud Berthier; Emmanuel Bertin; Alexandre Blein; Serge Bolidum; Camille Bosqué; Svenia Busson; Hélène Bussy-Socrate; Sabine Carton; Jonathan Chaloux; Caroline Alexandra Chapain; Nicolas Dacher; François Delorme; Aurélien Denaes; Aurélie Dudezert; Philippe Eynaud; Stéphanie Fargeot; Ingrid Fasshauer; Marie-Hélène Féron; Emma France; Olivier Germain; Albane Grandazzi; Wifak Guedanna; Imad Haraoubia; Martine Huyon; Julien Jourdan; Marie Hasbi; Magda David Hercheui; Andrea Jimenez Cisneros; Pierre-Marie Langlois; Alexandre Largier; Pierre Lemonnier; Maude Leonard; Annelise Lepage; Frédérique-Rose Maléfant; Eliel Markman; Hazel Marroquin; Janet Merkel; Sophie Mistral; Nathalie Mitev; Sarah Mokaddem; Nuno Oliveira; Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway; Roser Pujadas; Jules Scordel; Lydia Tetyczka; Julie Tixier; Tukka Toivonen; David Vallat; Philippine Vidal; Igor Vujic; Yingqin Zheng
  21. Die Rolle von KMU für Forschung und Innovation in Deutschland: Studie im Auftrag der Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation By Rammer, Christian; Gottschalk, Sandra; Peters, Bettina; Bersch, Johannes; Erdsiek, Daniel
  22. Stellenbesetzung und personalpolitische Probleme in KMU: Analysen des IAB-Betriebspanels By Cordes, Alexander
  23. How Do Financial Institutions and Other Management Supporters Contribute to the Improvement of Business Conditions of Small and Medium Enterprises? Based on the Survey on the Aftermath of the SME Financing Facilitation Act (Japanese) By YAMORI Nobuyoshi
  24. Stratégies de financement des PME et des entrepreneurs du tourisme By OCDE
  25. Nouvelles pratiques de travail : La fin du clivage salariat-entrepreneuriat ? By François-Xavier De Vaujany; Amélie Bohas; Julie Fabbri; Pierre Laniray

  1. By: Kathryn L. Shaw; Anders Sørensen
    Abstract: Serial entrepreneurs, who open more than one business, are found to have higher sales and higher productivity than novice entrepreneurs, who open one business. Using panel data on entrepreneurs and their firms from Denmark for 2001-2013, the serial entrepreneur has 67% higher sales than the novice, but also opens firms that are larger in terms of the initial capital and labor, and thus is 39% more productive. There are subsets of firms that perform especially well – serial entrepreneurs that hold a portfolio of overlapping ongoing firms perform the best, as do those that open as limited liability firm rather than proprietorships. Female serial entrepreneurs do as well as male serial entrepreneurs relative to the performance of novices of their own genders. The second firms of the serial entrepreneurs also stay in business longer than the first (and only) firms of the novices.
    JEL: G24 J24 L26 M13
    Date: 2017–04
  2. By: Bray, Jeremy (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Link, Albert (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper we present descriptive findings on the research success of U.S. research joint ventures (RJVs). Using survey-based data of a sample of U.S. RJVs, we build on the theory of dynamic entrepreneurship to develop an empirical model of cross-RJV differences in performance. We find that ventures that include a university as a research member are relatively more successful, measured in terms of research goals completed, than ventures that do not. We also find that those RJVs that have a longer research duration and that are led by a firm with prior RJV experience are similarly more successful. Our empirical analysis also shows that membership size is not a significant covariate with research success. We conclude the paper with a call for additional research and with a policy statement that is based on our finding of a positive and significant relationship between university membership and RJV success.
    Keywords: research joint venture (RJV); National Cooperative Research Act (NCRA); R&D; universities; innovation; networks
    JEL: O31 O32 O38
    Date: 2017–04–21
  3. By: Gilles Duruflé; Thomas Hellmann; Karen E. Wilson
    Abstract: We examine the challenge entrepreneurial companies face in going beyond the start-up phase and growing into large successful companies. We examine the long-term financing of these so-called scale-up companies, focusing on the United States, Europe and Canada. We first provide a conceptual framework for understanding the challenges of financing scale-ups. We then show some data about the various aspects of financing scale-ups in the US, Europe and Canada. Finally we raise the question of long-term public policies to support the creation of a better scale-up environment.
    Date: 2017–04
  4. By: Renaud Bourlès (Aix-Marseille Univ. (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS and Centrale Marseille); Anastasia Cozarenco (Montpellier Business School, Montpellier Research in Management, and Centre for European Research in Microfinance (CERMi))
    Abstract: This article examines the link between entrepreneurial motivation and business performance in the French microfinance context. Using hand-collected data on business microcredits from a Microfinance Institution (MFI), we provide an indirect measure of entrepreneurial success through loan repayment performance. Controlling for the endogeneity of entrepreneurial motivation in a bivariate probit model, we find that "necessity entrepreneurs" are more likely to have difficulty repaying their microcredits than "opportunity entrepreneurs". However, type of motivation does not appear to make a difference to business survival. We build a stylized model to develop formal arguments supporting this outcome. We test for the robustness of our results using parametric duration models, and show that necessity entrepreneurs experience difficulties in loan repayment earlier than their opportunity counterparts, corroborating our initial findings.
    Keywords: opportunity and necessity entrepreneurs, business microcredit, loan repayment, business survival
    JEL: C30 C41 G21 L26 M13
    Date: 2017–01
  5. By: Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: By the late 1960s, real effective taxation of income from individual firm owner­ship in Sweden approached 100 percent. A series of tax reforms initiated in the late 1970s reversed this situation. This paper has a threefold purpose: (1) to elucidate the thinking behind the vision of creating a largely market-based system without wealthy capitalists and how that vision guided the design of the tax system; (2) to outline and evaluate the numerous changes in the tax code made since the late 1970s, the empirical and intellectual basis of these changes, and the implications of these changes for the taxation of individual firm ownership; and (3) to compare the size of the largest individual wealth holdings in the mid-1960s to their equivalents in the 2010s and discuss in what sense and to what extent the general public’s views have changed regarding sizeable individual income streams and wealth derived from business activity. Today, the tax code favors already wealthy individuals. By contrast, high labor income taxation combined with a high valuation of existing assets renders wealth accumulation difficult for persons with no initial wealth.
    Keywords: Owner-level taxation; Entrepreneurship; Institutions; Sweden; Tax policy
    JEL: H20 H32 L26 N44
    Date: 2017–04–07
  6. By: Wei, Tsung-Che
    Abstract: Taiwanese SMEs (small and medium enterprises) have been the source of creativity and the key driving force of economic growth early on in the 1960s, key partners in supply chain and industry clusters later, and recently focal point of local economy, social value, and dreams for young generation. However, based on the “White Paper on Small and Medium Enterprises in Taiwan,†in recent five years, share of SMEs in existence over 20 years was in the range of 21% to 23%, far below the average 35% of large enterprises. This shows the business succession / transition remains a major challenge to SMEs as going concerns. Further, compared to large enterprises, SMEs in existence over 20 years suffered significant sales decline and “the crisis of the elderly age†as their firstgeneration entrepreneurs got into old age and lost their vitality and creativity. It has become an important issue for sustainable development of SMEs to reactivate the entrepreneurial spirit, combined with sound “second-generation succession†and business transformation strategy. In this paper, we use the two key factors of succession and business transformation to analyze how the Taiwanese SMEs to reactivate the entrepreneurial Spirit. The research results provide some policy implications for Succession and transformation of Taiwanese SMEs. These points are suggested as: (1) promote market-oriented business management courses in colleges and universities to cultivate curiosity and creative thinking of potential new generation of successors;(2) form professional succession team in response to new business opportunities; (3) integrate existing knowledge exchange platforms for succession to provide customized mechanisms of knowledge sharing and exchange services required for different types of succession; (4) provide succession planning adviser or match professional managers to succession needs for SMEs' sustainable development as going concerns; (5) encourage new generation successors of SMEs to obtain innovation awards that could reactivate the entrepreneurial spirit; (6) grasp the opportunity of succession and transformation to guide SMEs towards institutionalized management; (7) establish SME succession and transformation follow-up service mechanism linking research institutions, universities and private sector professional consulting companies to meet long term counseling needs for SME succession and transformation; (8) strengthen cross-industry cooperation mechanism for SMEs’ sustainable development in order to guide the SME succession and transformation toward the direction of “professionalism,†“branding,†and “internationalization.â€
    Keywords: Crisis of the Elderly Age with Taiwanese SMEs, succession, business transformation, second Entrepreneurial Spirit, Crisis of the Elderly Age with Taiwanese SMEs, succession, business transformation, second Entrepreneurial Spirit
    Date: 2017–02
  7. By: McKenzie, David (World Bank); Puerto, Olga Susana (Youth Employment Network (UN, ILO, World Bank))
    Abstract: A common concern with efforts to directly help some small businesses to grow is that their growth comes at the expense of their unassisted competitors. We test this possibility using a two-stage randomized experiment in Kenya which randomizes business training at the market level, and then within markets to selected businesses. Three years after training, the treated businesses are selling more, earn higher profits, and their owners have higher well-being. There is no evidence of negative spillovers on the competing businesses, and the markets as a whole appear to have grown in terms of number of customers and sales volumes. This market growth appears to come from enhanced customer service and new product introduction, generating more customers and more sales from existing customers. As a result, business growth in underdeveloped markets is possible without taking sales away from non-treated businesses.
    Keywords: business training, spillovers, microenterprise, market development
    JEL: O12 O17 J16 L26
    Date: 2017–03
  8. By: Tho Pham; Oleksandr Talavera
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between gender, social capital, and access to finance of micro, small, and medium enterprises in the manufacturing sector in Viet Nam. Our dataset is from the 2011, 2013, and 2015 waves of the Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprise Survey in Viet Nam. Using the Heckman technique to control for sample selection bias, the data do not provide evidence for discrimination against female-owned enterprises in the formal lending market. Specifically, female entrepreneurs have a higher probability of getting a loan and they pay lower interest rates in comparison with male entrepreneurs. No discrimination in formal credit markets may arise from the preference for informal loans over formal loans—that is, entrepreneurs tend to borrow informal loans before applying for formal ones. Further analysis shows that social capital could facilitate loan applications: firms that have a closer relationship with government officials and other business people can get loans of longer duration.
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Ramana Nanda (Harvard Business School, Entrepreneurial Management Unit); Matthew Rhodes-Kropf (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: An extensive literature on venture capital has studied asymmetric information and agency problems between investors and entrepreneurs, examining how separating entrepreneurs from the investor can create frictions that might inhibit the funding of good projects. It has largely abstracted away from the fact that a startup typically does not have just one investor, but several VCs that come together in a syndicate to finance a venture. In this chapter, we therefore argue for an expansion of the standard perspective to also include frictions within VC syndicates. Put differently, what are the frictions that arise from the fact that there is not just one investor for each venture, but several investors with different incentives, objectives and cash flow rights, who nevertheless need to collaborate to help make the venture a success? We outline the ways in which these coordination frictions manifest themselves, describe the underlying drivers and document several contractual solutions used by VCs to mitigate their effects. We believe that this broader perspective provides several promising avenues for future research.
    Keywords: venture capital, syndication, networks, entrepreneurship
    JEL: G24 K22 L14 M52
    Date: 2017–04
  10. By: Juan Carlos, Campaña; J. Ignacio, Giménez-Nadal; Jose Alberto, Molina
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze how self-employed and employed mothers in several Latin American countries allocate their time throughout the day in order to balance their family and work responsibilities. Using data from time-use surveys for Mexico (2009), Peru (2010), Panama (2011), Ecuador (2012) and Colombia (2012), we find that self-employed mothers devote less time to paid work and more time to unpaid work and child care, compared to employed mothers, in the five countries. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that working mothers may want to decrease the number of hours they devote to paid work, and devote more time to their household responsibilities, and that self-employment may be used as a tool for this purpose. Thus, self-employment in Latin American countries may be seen as an instrument to improve the work-life balance of mothers.
    Keywords: self-employment; paid work, unpaid work, child care, Latin America
    JEL: D13 J13 J22
    Date: 2017–03–28
  11. By: J. Ignacio, Giménez-Nadal; Jose Alberto, Molina; Jorge, Velilla
    Abstract: In this paper, we study self-employment in a theoretical setting derived from urban efficiency wages spatial models, where leisure and effort at work are complementary. Our model shows that unemployment tends to concentrate far from business districts, in contrast to employment and self-employment. The self-employed tend to live closer to workplaces than do the employed, as commuting has relatively negative effects, given that it affects productivity and thus earnings. We use data from the American Time Use Survey 2003-2014 to analyze the spatial distribution of self-employment, employment, and unemployment across metropolitan areas in the US, focusing on the relationship between commuting time and the probability of employment and self-employment. Our results show that employment and self-employment are negatively related to commuting, in comparison to unemployment, while self-employment is associated with shorter commutes, in contrast to those of employees, giving support to the theoretical background.
    Keywords: Employment, self-employment, commuting, leisure, shirking, American Time Use Survey.
    JEL: J21 J22 R12 R41
    Date: 2017–03–28
  12. By: Nathan Fiala (University of Connecticut)
    Abstract: I present evidence that intra-household decision making affects business investment decisions and household welfare. I interact the results from a behavioral experiment that allows spouses to hide money from each other with an experiment that delivered capital to business owners in Uganda. Businesses were randomly selected to receive capital through a loan or grant, or capital paired with training. I find evidence that the grant with training treatment had medium-term economic impacts when given to men, but there are no effects from the other treatments for men or women. I also find that the loan with training treatment had impacts on the income of spouses of women, though women do not know about these effects. The results from the incentivized behavioral game correlate significantly with household economic outcomes: men who do not hide money from their wives show higher economic outcomes from the treatments, while those who hide money show a negative change relative to a control group. The opposite is the case for women: women who hide money from their husbands show increased economic outcomes, while those who do not hide money see a decrease in outcomes. The results are consistent with strong female household constraints where women have little control over resources in the family and so hiding money is the only way to keep control of it. Men have less fear of losing control of money in the household, and so those that hide money likely have serious household issues that lead to significant negative investment behavior. The results help to explain why women with existing enterprises have performed so poorly in previous capital experiments and why researchers have failed to find impacts from microfinance.
    Keywords: Economic development; microenterprises; microfinance; cash grants; entrepreneurship training; credit constraints
    JEL: O12 O16 C93 J16 L26 M53
    Date: 2017–04
  13. By: Stig Ottosson (Norwegian University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: Today the terms sustainable development and sustainable innovation are often used. But what is meant by these terms, other than that they in some ways are connected to the terms ?green? and ?ecological?? Studying the literature on the topic leads to the conclusion that there is no precise or established definition of sustainable innovation, sustainability and sustainable development.A conclusion in the paper is that we now need to focus on how to develop new sustainable product innovations, and for these, product development is the most important element as the solutions will affect the environment during the whole Product Life Cycle of the products. Another conclusion is that Dynamic Product Development (DPD?) is a model that seems to satisfy the different definitions on sustainability that have been proposed.The result of a product development project is based on the product developer?s knowledge, experience, and ability. The leadership of an entrepreneur (or intrapreneur) is also important for the level of sustainability of an innovation that is achieved. Therefore, the product developers and entrepreneurs need to be educated in a broader perspective than is common in the technical field today. The product developers must also be monitored in the actual work situation to ensure that new products that are not sustainable are not being marketed. This, in turn, calls for a similar, broader perspective in management education.
    Keywords: Innovation; innovation process; innovation project; sustainability; sustainable innovation.
    JEL: A00 C51 C63
  14. By: Wallin, Tina (Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE), Jönköping International Business School, Sweden)
    Abstract: Studies from a multitude of countries suggest that women become self-employed after having children to facilitate the work-family balance. In Sweden, generous parental leave and heavily subsided childcare is available, facilitating for parents to hold salaried jobs. The purpose of this paper is to examine whether having children increases the likelihood of individuals being self-employed. One major contribution is that this study covers the whole population, including men, with a quantitative analysis, instead of a sample through interviews and/or surveys. The results suggest that most individuals are less likely to be self-employed after having children, thus contrasting most other studies.
    Keywords: self-employment; parenthood; children
    JEL: D19 J13 J24
    Date: 2017–04–06
  15. By: Geoffrey Owen
    Abstract: A commentary by Sir Geoffrey Owen, Head of Industrial Policy at Policy Exchange and former Editor of the Financial Times. Sir Geoffrey examines the reasons for US leadership in two key sectors, information technology and biotechnology, highlighting the important role played by new entrepreneurial firms.
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2017–03
  16. By: Eugenia Vathakou (University of Peloponnes, School of Social and Political Sciences); Maria Tsampra (University of Patras, School of Business Administration); Pantelis Sklias (University of Peloponnes, School of Social and Political Sciences)
    Abstract: The underutilization of human capital, reflected on shrinking job opportunities and employment deterioration, is the major crisis outcome and cause of socio-economic exclusion in Greece. Our research (EEA-GR07/3694 project), addressing un/under-employment at the local level during the country's downturn, identified wide discrepancies between labour supply and demand. Data analysis revealed that the type of employment required by locally prevailing business does not contribute to local employability, nor sustains labour market resilience and employment recovery. On this ground, the capability of local entrepreneurship to capitalize the existing qualified personnel was questioned; and Participatory Action Research (PAR) was carried out in order to set new accounts of entrepreneurship for inclusive growth and social innovation. The paper presents the collaborative process and tentative results of PAR undertaken at the target-locality of Sparta in Greece. The process of action planning and implementation engaged local key-stakeholders and empowered local actors (municipality, vocational institutions, business chambers, trade unions, cooperatives) to address the potential of the un/underemployed and particularly, the most vulnerable of the labour market (young and women). The action implemented as part of the PAR process, "Spartathlon - Routes of Taste, Trade and Art", sought to attract more tourists to the town and strengthen local business. Its presentation makes a contribution to the discussion for social innovation, cohesion and sustainable economic recovery.
    Keywords: local entrepreneurship, skills mismatch, labour surplus, participatory action research
    JEL: J24 P48 J64
    Date: 2017–03
  17. By: Watzinger, Martin (University of Munich); Fackler, Thomas A. (University of Munich); Nagler, Markus (University of Munich)
    Abstract: We study the 1956 consent decree against the Bell System to investigate whether patents held by a dominant firm are harmful for innovation and if so, whether compulsory licensing can provide an effective remedy. The consent decree settled an antitrust lawsuit that charged Bell with having foreclosed the market for telecommunications equipment. The terms of the decree allowed Bell to remain a vertically integrated monopolist in the telecommunications industry, but as a remedy, Bell had to license all its existing patents royalty-free. Thus, the path-breaking technologies developed by the Bell Laboratories became freely available to all US companies. We show that in the first five years compulsory licensing increased follow-on innovation building on Bell patents by 17%. This effect is driven mainly by young and small companies. Yet, innovation increased only outside the telecommunications equipment industry. The lack of a positive innovation effect in the telecommunications industry suggests that market foreclosure impedes innovation and that compulsory licensing without structural remedies is ineffective in ending it. The increase of follow-on innovation by small and young companies is in line with the hypothesis that patents held by a dominant firm act as a barrier to entry for start-ups. We show that the removal of this barrier increased long-run U.S. innovation, corroborating historical accounts.
    Keywords: ;
    JEL: O30 O33 O34 K21 L40
    Date: 2017–03–25
  18. By: Wallin, Tina (Centre for Entrepreneurship and Spatial Economics (CEnSE), Jönköping International Business School, Sweden)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study the firms’ internal knowledge in combination with the external knowledge diversity in their region to examine their joint relation to export diversification. Using a data set of the full population of Swedish manufacturing exporters for the period 2003-2013, allows for identifying when firms introduce new products on the export market. The results indicate that firms in the medium-high tech and the medium-low tech manufacturing sectors only benefit from a larger external knowledge diversity if they themselves have some internal knowledge increasing their absorptive capacity. Changing spatial scale or increasing the time lag yields mostly the same results, but extending the external knowledge diversity to include all types of education subjects does not. This further supports the suggested importance of an absorptive capacity to facilitate the acquisition, assimilation and usage of related external knowledge in producing new products.
    Keywords: new product; export diversification; absorptive capacity; related knowledge
    JEL: C33 D22 D83 F14 J24 O31
    Date: 2017–04–06
  19. By: Elisa Calza; Micheline Goedhuys; Neda Trifkovic
    Abstract: Using a rich panel dataset of SMEs active in the manufacturing sector in Viet Nam, this paper investigates the drivers of firm productivity, focusing on the role played by international management standards certification. We develop and test the hypothesis that, controlling for technological innovation (product and process) and other variables related to technological capabilities, international standards are still conducive to higher productivity, through improved management practices associated with their adoption. In line with the requirement of continuous improvement implied by most international standards, the main findings show that the possession of an internationally recognized standard certificate leads to significant productivity premium. We further investigate the relationship between technological innovation and standard adoption. We find that the likelihood of certificate adoption is higher when firms implement technological innovations and that the effect of certification on productivity is particularly strong for firms with technological innovation.
    Date: 2017
  20. By: Amélie Bohas (AMU ECO - Aix-Marseille Université - Faculté d'économie et de gestion - AMU - Aix Marseille Université); Annie Camus (UQAM - Université du Québec à Montréal); Ignasi Capdevilla (Paris School of Business); Aurore Dandoy (Management & Organisation - DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Julie Fabbri (EMLYON Business school - EMLYON Business School); Anna Glaser (NBS - Novancia Business School - CCIP IDF - Chambre de commerce et d’industrie - Paris-Île de France); Stephan Haefliger (Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble 2); Pierre Laniray (IAE Poitiers - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Poitiers - Université de Poitiers); Anouk Mukherjee (Management & Organisation - DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Fabrice Periac (IPAG - IPAG Business School - Ipag); Caroline Scotto (CGS i3 - Centre de Gestion Scientifique i3 - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris - PSL - PSL Research University - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Viviane Sergi (UQAM - Université du Québec à Montréal); François-Xavier De Vaujany (Management & Organisation - DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Valérie Andrade (Chercheur Indépendant); Stephen Andre (Chercheur Indépendant); Nina Barbier (Chercheur Indépendant); Alexandra Bernhardt (Technische Universität Chemnitz); Thomas Bargone-Fisette (UQAM - Université du Québec à Montréal); Maud Berthier (Mairie de Paris); Emmanuel Bertin (Orange Labs [Paris] - Telecom Orange); Alexandre Blein (LATTS - Laboratoire Techniques, Territoires et Sociétés - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Serge Bolidum (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Camille Bosqué (UR2 - Université Rennes 2); Svenia Busson (Chercheur Indépendant); Hélène Bussy-Socrate (WBS - Warwick Business School - University of Warwick [Coventry]); Sabine Carton (Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble 2); Jonathan Chaloux (Chercheur Indépendant); Caroline Alexandra Chapain (Centre for Urban and Regional Studies - University of Birmingham [Birmingham]); Nicolas Dacher (ECE Paris); François Delorme ((Axe de recherche : Systèmes dÍnformation) - CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Grenoble 2 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Aurélien Denaes (Chercheur Indépendant); Aurélie Dudezert (IAE Poitiers - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Poitiers - Université de Poitiers); Philippe Eynaud (GREGOR - Groupe de Recherche en Gestion des Organisations - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Paris); Stéphanie Fargeot (Management & Organisation - DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Ingrid Fasshauer (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marie-Hélène Féron (Chercheur Indépendant); Emma France (Chercheur Indépendant); Olivier Germain (ESG - Ecole des Sciences de la Gestion - UQAM - Université du Québec à Montréal); Albane Grandazzi (Management & Organisation - DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Wifak Guedanna (LSE - Department of Management - London School of Economics and Political Science - LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science); Imad Haraoubia (Université Grenoble Alpes - Grenoble 2); Martine Huyon (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Etienne] - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Julien Jourdan (Management & Organisation - DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Marie Hasbi (Université Paris 2 - Panthéon-Assas); Magda David Hercheui (UCL School of Management - University College of London [London]); Andrea Jimenez Cisneros (Royal Holloway [University of London]); Pierre-Marie Langlois (Chercheur Indépendant); Alexandre Largier (Société nationale des Chemins de Fer français - SNCF); Pierre Lemonnier (CREDO - Centre de Recherche et de Documentation sur l'Océanie - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Maude Leonard (UQAM - Université du Québec à Montréal); Annelise Lepage (Chercheur Indépendant); Frédérique-Rose Maléfant (Chercheur Indépendant); Eliel Markman (Management & Organisation - DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Hazel Marroquin (Cass Business School - City University London); Janet Merkel (City University London); Sophie Mistral (Chercheur Indépendant); Nathalie Mitev (King‘s College London [London]); Sarah Mokaddem (UBO - Université de Bretagne Occidentale); Nuno Oliveira (Tilburg University [Tilburg] - Netspar); Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway (UAB - Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona [Barcelona]); Roser Pujadas (LSE - Department of Management - London School of Economics and Political Science - LSE - London School of Economics and Political Science); Jules Scordel (Ecole Centrale Paris - Ecole Centrale Paris); Lydia Tetyczka (Percolab); Julie Tixier (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12); Tukka Toivonen (University College of London [London]); David Vallat (TRIANGLE - Triangle : action, discours, pensée politique et économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Etienne] - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Philippine Vidal (PSL - PSL Research University); Igor Vujic (PSL - PSL Research University); Yingqin Zheng (Royal Holloway [University of London])
    Abstract: The world of work is changing. A century after moving from an agriculture-centered world to an Industrial one, from self-employed workers to salaried employees, our modern economies are slowly transitioning towards a new model: based on simultaneous collaboration and competition, the boundaries of contemporary organizations are blurring; information technologies are allowing individuals and companies to set base away from cities; shared working spaces are triggering new forms of collaborations between individuals and corporations. This White Paper aims at diagnosing key institutional tensions related to new work practices in the city, and putting forward questions and general propositions likely to overcome these tensions. The idea is to analyze how new collaborative communities and collaborative logics (of coworkers, hackers, makers, fabbers, and teleworkers) and more traditional collective activity and modes of decision making (of the city and corporations in the city) can jointly contribute to the co-production of harmonious new ways of life and new ways of working. Reinventing joint public policies, corporate strategies and citizenship appear here as a key stake where usual dichotomies between private-public, collaborative-non-collaborative economy, traditional citizens and hacktivists need to be overcome. We thus identify in this document a set of controversies around four strong political issues both for the city and the field of management, linked to the emergence of collaborative spaces: o Topic 1. Space, territories, and public policy on collaborative communities in the city; o Topic 2. Collaborative communities and their roles in education in the city; o Topic 3. Business models and their communication in the context of collaborative spaces and collaborative communities; o Topic 4. Collaborative spaces and their roles in innovation and entrepreneurial dynamics at the level of the city Beyond our controversies, we underline three paradoxes which should be at the heart of new questions for policy-makers, hacktivists, actors of collaborative movements, and citizens (distinctions which may become less and less relevant in the years to come): o Social versus economic orientations of both the city and the collaborative communities it can host; o Critical/revolutionary versus more incremental relationships between cities, organizations, societies, collaborative communities, and new work practices; o Local territory (district/proximate area) grounded versus broader city-oriented or connectivity related issues about collaborative movement and new work practices. To balance these tensions, we elaborate seven general areas of questions and propositions for all stakeholders: o The generalization of infra-organization (physical collaborative platforms); o The emergence of “ ‘inclusive lab’ labels” (elaborated and managed by collaborative communities themselves); o A renewed academic presence in the city and in the country-side (with more virtual, distributed and ‘experiential’ logics); o Ephemeral and mobile labs managed jointly by public, collaborative and private stakeholders; o “Open open” innovation in public and semi-public spaces of the city; o Rise of mega-spaces for creativity in the city; o Development of a global infrastructure for coworkers, mobile workers and teleworkers. These are directions we see as particularly promising to manage the tensions, paradoxes and stakes explicated by our controversies. We hope that these questions and propositions will inspire both academics, politicians, hacktivists and entrepreneurs for future collaborations on the study and joint transformation of public policies, corporate strategies, and citizenship.
    Keywords: city,corporate strategies,public policies,politics,new work practices,global infrastructures for coworking,“open open” innovation,infra-organization,‘inclusive lab’ label,mega-creative spaces,renewed academic presence in the city
    Date: 2016–12–16
  21. By: Rammer, Christian; Gottschalk, Sandra; Peters, Bettina; Bersch, Johannes; Erdsiek, Daniel
    Date: 2016
  22. By: Cordes, Alexander
    Date: 2016
  23. By: YAMORI Nobuyoshi
    Abstract: The important role of private financial institutions in supporting poor performing small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to undergo drastic reform is widely recognized, and since the enforcement of the SME Financing Facilitation Act in 2009, changes in loan conditions have been used frequently as a method of financial support. However, some critically argue that since financial institutions are responding frankly to requests for changes in the repayment conditions but not seriously working on supporting SMEs in their business revitalization, the changes in the loan conditions have not become a trigger for fundamental reform of the companies' business, and are used only to postpone the problem. Also, others argue that there is a moral hazard on the SME side because SMEs can avoid short-term financing difficulties and are not serious about working on reform. However, external observers have had limited access to information on the support posture of financial institutions and the reform efforts of SMEs after changes in the loan terms. Therefore, in this paper, using the Survey on the Aftermath of the SME Financing Facilitation Act (conducted by RIETI in October 2014), we analyze how the formulation of management improvement plans and the management support attitudes of financial institutions and other management supporters affect the recovery of SMEs' business conditions and examine what forms of management support will lead to the improvement of these conditions.
    Date: 2017–03
  24. By: OCDE
    Abstract: L’accès aux financements est un sujet essentiel pour encourager le développement des PME, l’entrepreneuriat et instaurer un secteur du tourisme compétitif, innovant et durable. Ce rapport examine donc les mécanismes permettant d’améliorer l’accès aux financements pour les PME et les entrepreneurs du tourisme à chaque étape du cycle de vie des entreprises, en s’attachant plus particulièrement aux micro- et petites entreprises. Il aborde aussi les questions clés et les considérations d’ordre politique qui favorisent l’amélioration des conditions d’accès, élargissent la palette des instruments financiers disponibles et encouragent le recours à d’autres dispositifs. Dans un certain nombre de pays, des études de cas en matière de financement soutiennent les discussions des politiques et fournissent des informations techniques. Ce rapport tient compte des points de vue des décideurs politiques, des organismes et institutions de financement et du secteur du tourisme, et a bénéficié d'importantes contributions de la part de 21 pays: Allemagne, Autriche, Canada, Chili, Croatie, Danemark, Égypte, Fédération de Russie, France, Grèce, Hongrie, Japon, Mexique, Norvège, Nouvelle-Zélande, Pays-Bas, Philippines, Portugal, Slovénie, Suède et Suisse.
    Date: 2017–04–22
  25. By: François-Xavier De Vaujany (Management & Organisation - DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Amélie Bohas (Centre de Recherche Magellan - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises (IAE) - Lyon); Julie Fabbri (EMLYON Business school - EMLYON Business School); Pierre Laniray (IAE Poitiers - Institut d'Administration des Entreprises - Poitiers - Université de Poitiers)
    Abstract: Ce rapport propose une synthèse des recherches empiriques menées pendant deux ans par le réseau RGCS (Research Group Collaborative Spaces). RGCS est à la fois un réseau indépendant de chercheurs et un think tank international qui s’intéresse aux nouvelles pratiques de travail dans le contexte de l’économie collaborative. Il explore en particulier les enjeux liés à l’essor des espaces collaboratifs et des communautés collaboratives. La synthèse présentée ici s’appuie sur l’analyse d’un peu plus de 900 pages de mémos des discussions et d’idées-clés issues des séminaires, ateliers et autres évènements conduits par le réseau RGCS entre fin 2014 et novembre 2016; sur les résultats de l’enquête en ligne menée en 2016 sur les transformations du travail et de ses espaces ; et sur les données récoltées à l’occasion des 82 visites de tiers-lieux (espaces de coworking, maker spaces, fab labs, hacker spaces, incubateurs, accélérateurs, digital labs...) réalisées dans une dizaine de pays. Cette synthèse des recherches est structurée autour de trois niveaux d’analyse du lien entre phénomènes collaboratifs et nouvelles pratiques de travail : un niveau individuel, un niveau communautaire et un niveau plus sociétal (mouvement social). Nous nous efforçons à chaque fois d’étudier les dimensions spatiales et temporelles de la relation. Parmi les points évoqués, le rapport souligne que les frontières entre salariat et entrepreneuriat sont loin d’être aussi rigides que ce que les média, les managers ou les politiques supposent souvent ; au contraire, les nouvelles pratiques de travail les rendent de plus en plus poreuses, comme en atteste l’émergence de trajectoires professionnelles reposant sur l’« entrepreneuriat-alterné ». Cette synthèse fait également état d’individus qui, au-delà du stress au travail, souffrent avant tout d’ennui. On s’amuse peu dans le monde des organisations avec leur découpage vertical et horizontal. Depuis une quinzaine d’années, les pratiques de travail se transforment en profondeur autour de l’économie collaborative et des nouvelles formes de collaboration. Nous en explorons ici les implications, tant pour les individus-travailleurs, les collectifs de travail que pour les dynamiques de la société dans son ensemble (nouveaux types de mouvements sociaux). Pour les individus, le collaboratif correspond à la fois à de nouveaux espaces de compétences, des débouchés, un projet de vie et parfois, un sens plus fort donné à leur vie. Sur le plan des communautés, les résultats empiriques montrent l’importance des collectifs communautaires dans les transformations du travail. Dans des économies qui se liquéfient autour de l’entrepreneuriat, du travail indépendant, de la mobilité qui fragmente et enchaîne les contextes de travail, la communauté devient essentielle. Elle est « pratique », « professionnelle », « identitaire », mais plus que tout, « émotionnelle ». Elle permet de gérer les crises de sens, la lutte contre l’ennui, la solitude du porteur de projet et/ou de l’entrepreneur... Enfin, les mouvements sociaux font l’objet d’un troisième volet d’analyse. Les travaux empiriques du réseau montrent l’importance du hacking en matière de management et de politiques publiques. Mais de ce point de vue, les acteurs de mouvement sociaux que nous avons eu l’occasion de rencontrer invitent à dépasser le concept de hack et celui de hackathon (très repris par les entreprises comme par les pouvoirs publics). Les hackers sont aussi un mode de gouvernance et de régulation (loin du chaos) qui peut être intéressant pour les managers comme pour les politiques publiques. Nous évoquons plus généralement les discussions (et entretiens liés aux visites) qui ont porté sur la thématique hackers/makers : « muses ou contre-culture pour le management et les politiques publiques ? »
    Keywords: transformations du travail,nouvelles pratiques de travail,entrepreneuriat alterné,entrepreneuriat,retour des communautés,clivage entrepreneuriat-salariat,management,innovation,tiers-lieux,espaces collaboratifs,coworkers,makers,hackers,fab labs,intermédiation,collaboration,formes transitoires.
    Date: 2016–11

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