nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2016‒08‒14
five papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. Start-up Nation? Slave Wealth and Entrepreneurship in Civil War Maryland By Felipe González; Guillermo Marshall; Suresh Naidu
  2. Taking the Leap: The Determinants of Entrepreneurs Hiring their First Employee By Robert W. Fairlie; Javier Miranda
  3. Experimenting with Entrepreneurship: The Effect of Job-Protected Leave By Joshua D. Gottlieb; Richard R. Townsend; Ting Xu
  5. Revisión de la literatura sobre redes sociales y entrepreneurship By Hernan Herrera-Echeverri

  1. By: Felipe González; Guillermo Marshall; Suresh Naidu
    Abstract: Slave property rights yielded a source of collateral as well as a coerced labor force. Using data from Dun and Bradstreet linked to the 1860 census and slave schedules in Maryland, we find that slaveowners were more likely to start businesses prior to the uncompensated 1864 emancipation, even conditional on total wealth and human capital, and this advantage disappears after emancipation. We assess a number of potential explanations, and find suggestive evidence that this is due to the superiority of slave wealth as a source of collateral for credit rather than any advantage in production. The collateral dimension of slave property magnifies its importance to historical American economic development.
    JEL: N31
    Date: 2016–08
  2. By: Robert W. Fairlie; Javier Miranda
    Abstract: Job creation is one of the most important aspects of entrepreneurship, but we know relatively little about the hiring patterns and decisions of startups. Longitudinal data from the Integrated Longitudinal Business Database (iLBD), Kauffman Firm Survey (KFS), and the Growing America through Entrepreneurship (GATE) experiment are used to provide some of the first evidence in the literature on the determinants of taking the leap from a non-employer to employer firm among startups. Several interesting patterns emerge regarding the dynamics of non-employer startups hiring their first employee. Hiring rates among the universe of non-employer startups are very low, but increase when the population of non-employers is focused on more growth-oriented businesses such as incorporated and EIN businesses. If non-employer startups hire, the bulk of hiring occurs in the first few years of existence. After this point in time relatively few non-employer startups hire an employee. Focusing on more growth- and employment-oriented startups in the KFS, we find that Asian-owned and Hispanic-owned startups have higher rates of hiring their first employee than white-owned startups. Female-owned startups are roughly 10 percentage points less likely to hire their first employee by the first, second and seventh years after startup. The education level of the owner, however, is not found to be associated with the probability of hiring an employee. Among business characteristics, we find evidence that business assets and intellectual property are associated with hiring the first employee. Using data from the largest random experiment providing entrepreneurship training in the United States ever conducted, we do not find evidence that entrepreneurship training increases the likelihood that non-employers hire their first employee.
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2016–07
  3. By: Joshua D. Gottlieb; Richard R. Townsend; Ting Xu
    Abstract: Do potential entrepreneurs remain in wage employment because of the danger that they will face worse job opportunities should their entrepreneurial ventures fail? Using a Canadian reform that extended job-protected leave to one year for women giving birth after a cutoff date, we study whether the option to return to a previous job increases entrepreneurship. A regression discontinuity design reveals that longer job-protected leave increases entrepreneurship by 1.8 percentage points. The results are driven by more educated entrepreneurs, starting firms that survive at least five years and hire paid employees, in industries where experimentation is more valuable.
    JEL: H50 J13 J16 J65 J88 L26
    Date: 2016–07
  4. By: Craig Wesley Carpenter
    Abstract: This paper employs the Michigan Census Research Data Center to merge three limited-access Census Bureau data sets by individual firm and establishment level to investigate the factors associated with the Latino-owned Business (LOB) location and dynamics over time. The three main LOB outcomes under analysis are as follows: (1) the probability of a business being Latino-owned as opposed to a business being Asian-owned, Black-owned, or White-owned; (2) the probability of new business entry and exit; and (3) LOB employment growth. This paper then compares these factors associated with LOB with past findings on businesses that are Asian-owned, Black-owned, and White-owned. Some notable findings include: (1) only Black business owners are less associated with using personal savings as start-up capital than Latinos; (2) the only significant coefficient on start-up capital source is personal savings and it increases the odds of survival of a Latino business by 4%; (3) on average, having Puerto Rican ancestry decreases the odds of business survival; and (4) LOB are relatively likely to start a business with a small amount of capital, which, in turn, limits their future growth.
    Date: 2016–07
  5. By: Hernan Herrera-Echeverri
    Abstract: En este trabajo se realiza una revisión de la literatura reciente sobre las redes de emprendimiento. Desde una perspectiva instrumental, se pretende integrar las descripciones teóricas acerca de cómo el contenido y la estructura de las redes sociales contribuyen al éxito de la actividad del entrepreneur. Para tal efecto, esta revisión procede primero exponiendo los diferentes enfoques para el estudio de la relación entre las redes sociales y el proceso de emprendimiento. Posteriormente aborda las distintas definiciones y topologías existentes del concepto de red social de emprendimiento. En tercer lugar se exponen 5 modelos que explican la relación que existe entre las dinámicas de las redes y las etapas de evolución del proceso de emprendimiento; seguidamente este trabajo aborda el papel instrumental de las redes para los emprendedores en desarrollo de su actividad, concentrándose en explicar cómo los entrepreneurs usan las redes para obtener legitimidad social y cognitiva. El trabajo finaliza proponiendo algunas conclusiones y elementos a considerarse en investigaciones futuras.
    Date: 2016–05–02

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