nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2016‒07‒30
eleven papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. European Start-up Hotspots: An Analysis based on VC-backed Companies By Daniel Nepelski; Giuseppe Piroli; Giuditta De Prato
  2. Entrepreneurs and Freelancers: Are They Time and Income Multidimensional Poor? - The German Case By Joachim Merz; Tim Rathjen
  3. Strategic Entrepreneurship and Knowledge Spillovers: Spatial and Aspatial Perspectives By Tavassoli, Sam; Bengtsson, Lars; Karlsson, Charlie
  4. What Role Did Management Practices Play in SME Growth Post-recession? By Alex Bryson; John Forth
  5. Optimal Syndication Decision of Corporate Venture Capital and Venture Capital Firms By Frick, Andreas; Maxin, Hannes
  6. Firm financing and growth in the Arab region By Cortina Lorente,Juan Jose; Ismail,Soha Ismail Ahmed Aly; Schmukler,Sergio L.
  7. Boosting productivity through greater small business dynamism in Canada By David Carey; John Lester; Isabelle Luong
  8. Skills Training by Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Innovative Cases and the Consortium Approach in the Republic of Korea By Lee, Kye Woo
  9. Collateral regimes and missing job creation in the MENA region By Betz, Frank; Ravasan, Farshad R.
  10. Towards a theory of regional diversification By Ron Boschma, Lars Coenen, Koen Frenken, Bernhard Truffer; Lars Coenen; Koen Frenken; Bernhard Truffer
  11. Innovation and productivity in a S&T intensive sector: the case of Information industries in Spain By Nestor Duch-Brown; Andrea de Panizza; Ibrahim Kholilul Rohman

  1. By: Daniel Nepelski (European Commission – JRC); Giuseppe Piroli (European Commission – DG Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion); Giuditta De Prato (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: Through the perspective of VC-backed companies, this report describes the main locations of start-up activity in Europe, i.e. start-up hotspots. It aims at providing evidence on start-up activity in Europe and at describing the European VC activity over the last two decades. The study reports the following: • Europe receives 15% of global VC investments. After the hype, VC activity in Europe decreased and has never come close to the levels from 2000. VC funds have also moved away from seed to later stage of funding. • 28% of all European VC-backed companies are based in one of the 20 cities. Paris, London and Berlin lead the ranking of cities with the highest number of VC-backed companies in Europe. • The location of a start-up is likely to be one of the major factors influencing the amount of money it receives from VC funds and the number of funding rounds it goes through. • Majority of European VC-backed companies are up to 8 years old and have up to 100 employees. • The majority of VC-backed firms in Europe belong to the Business, Consumer and Retail industries.
    Keywords: venture capital, start-ups, entrepreneurship
    JEL: O3 L26 G24 R51
    Date: 2016–07
  2. By: Joachim Merz; Tim Rathjen
    Abstract: Entrepreneurs and freelancers, the self-employed, commonly are characterized as not only to be relatively rich in income but also as to be rich in time because of their time-sovereignty in principle. Our introducing study scrutinises these results and notions about the well-being situation of self-employed persons not only by asking about traditional single income poverty but also by considering time poverty within the framework of a new interdependent multidimensional (IMD) poverty concept. The German Socio-economic panel with satisfaction data serves as the data base for the population wide evaluation of the substitution/compensation between genuine, personal leisure time and income. The available detailed Time Use Surveys of 1991/92 and 2001/2 of the Federal Statistics Office provide the data to quantify the multidimensional poverty in all the IMD poverty regimes. Important result: self-employed with regard to single income poverty, single time poverty and interdependent multidimensional time and income poverty in both years are much more affected by time and income poverty than all other active persons defining the working poor. A significant proportion of non-income-poor but time poor of the active population are not able to compensate their time deficit even by an above poverty income. These people are neglected so far within the poverty and well-being discussion, the discussion about the “working poor” and in the discussion about time squeeze and time pressure in general and in particular for the self-employed as entrepreneurs and freelancers.
    Keywords: Liberal professions (Freie Berufe), entrepreneurs, self-employed, interdependent multidimensionaltime and income poverty, time and income substitution, extended economic well-being, satisfaction/happiness,CES welfare function estimation, working poor, German Socio-Economic Panel, German Time Use Surveys1991/02 and 2001/02
    JEL: D31 D13 J22
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Tavassoli, Sam (CIRCLE, Lund University); Bengtsson, Lars (LTH, Lund University); Karlsson, Charlie (CESIS, KTH)
    Abstract: The literature in the Strategic Entrepreneurship (SE) is increasingly embracing the concept and implications of knowledge spillovers. In this paper, we add to the theoretical repertoire on SE and knowledge spillovers by investigating the types of knowledge spillovers and what they imply for various dimensions of SE. On the one hand, we distinguish between spatial and aspatial knowledge spillovers. On the other hand, we distinguish between three dimensions of SE, i.e. inputs, resource orchestration, and output. Finally, we conceptually link the various types of knowledge spillovers and dimensions of SE and discuss the implications. Doing so, we argue that spatial knowledge spillovers (inter-firm) has received the major attention in previous research in increasing the amount of ‘inputs’ dimension of SE, while the aspatial knowledge (either inter-regional or intra-firm) has been relatively neglected not only for ‘inputs’, but also for ‘resource orchestration’ dimension. At the end, the paper provides suggestions for future research.
    Keywords: Strategic entrepreneurship; knowledge spillovers; spatial; aspatial
    JEL: D21 D80 L10 L26
    Date: 2016–07–06
  4. By: Alex Bryson (University College London, National Institute of Social and Economic Research and Institute for the Study of Labor); John Forth (National Institute of Social and Economic Research)
    Abstract: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are known to contribute significantly to aggregate economic growth. However, little is known about the role played by management practices in SME growth since recession. We contribute to the literature on SME growth by analysing longitudinal administrative data on firms' employment and turnover, taken from the UK's Business Structure Database (BSD), with data on management practices collected in face-to-face interviews from the HR Managers and employees who were surveyed as part of the 2011 British Workplace Employment Relations Survey (WERS). We find off-the-job training is the only management practice that is robustly and significantly associated with higher employment growth, increased turnover, and a decline in closure probabilities, over the period 2011-2014. The findings suggest SME investment in off-the-job training is sub-optimal in Britain such that firms could benefit economically from increasing the amount of off-the-job training they offer to their non-managerial employees.
    Keywords: SMEs; small and medium-sized enterprises; employment growth; sales; workplace closure; HRM; training; recession
    JEL: L25 M12 M50 M53
    Date: 2016–07–11
  5. By: Frick, Andreas; Maxin, Hannes
    Abstract: Venture capital and corporate venture capital firms are driven by high financial returns through the sale of ownership stakes. Additionally, corporate venture capital firms maximize the profits of their parent companies by generating innovation advantage. Despite this, both intermediaries can join syndicates to obtain more information about their potential investments. We examine a model to show the differences between the syndication decisions of these two investor types. We find that corporate venture capital firms finance more projects without a syndicate in comparison with venture capital firms. To reinforce our theoretical results, we conduct a survey about the German private equity market. The empirical evidence support our main theoretical findings.
    Keywords: Corporate venture capital; Venture capital; Syndication; Screening
    JEL: G24 M13
    Date: 2016–07
  6. By: Cortina Lorente,Juan Jose; Ismail,Soha Ismail Ahmed Aly; Schmukler,Sergio L.
    Abstract: This paper documents how firms in Arab countries issue equity, corporate bonds, and syndicated loans in domestic and international markets to obtain financing and grow. Using a new data set on issuance activity and firm performance, the paper finds that capital raising through these markets has grown rapidly since the early 1990s and involved an increasing number of issuing firms. Whereas the amounts raised (relative to gross domestic product) in equity and loan markets stand well with respect to international standards, bond issuance activity lags behind. Yet, bond financing has gained importance over time. Equity issuances primarily take place domestically, while bonds and loans are mostly issued internationally, display long maturities, and entail low levels of credit risk. Issuing firms are larger, grow faster, and are more leveraged than non-issuers. While issuers tend to be larger ex ante than non-issuers, the size gap between them seems to widen over time.
    Date: 2016–07–20
  7. By: David Carey; John Lester; Isabelle Luong
    Abstract: Small business dynamism is a feature of an SME sector that contributes to overall productivity growth, not an end in itself. Such dynamism increases productivity growth by reallocating resources towards more productive firms and strengthening the diffusion of new technologies. Small business dynamism in Canada has declined in recent decades, as in other OECD countries, but overall it remains in the middle of the range, with some indicators above average and others below. Framework economic policies are generally supportive of small business dynamism, especially labour regulation, but there is scope to reduce regulatory barriers to product market competition. Canada has many programmes to support small businesses. Some of the largest programmes are not well focused on reducing market failures. Focusing support more on reducing clear market failures would increase the contribution of these programmes to productivity growth and living standards. This would likely entail redirecting support from small businesses in general to start-ups and young firms with innovative projects, which would boost small business dynamism. This Working Paper relates to the 2016 OECD Economic Survey of Canada ( Augmenter la productivité en favorisant le dynamisme des petites entreprises au Canada Le dynamisme des petites entreprises n’est pas une fin en soi, mais un élément du secteur des PME qui concourt à la progression globale de la productivité. Il favorise les gains de productivité en redistribuant les ressources vers les entreprises les plus efficientes et en renforçant la diffusion des nouvelles technologies. Au Canada comme dans les autres pays de l’OCDE, le dynamisme des petites entreprises a été moindre ces dernières décennies, mais il reste dans une position médiane, certains indicateurs étant supérieurs à la moyenne de l’OCDE et d’autres inférieurs. Si le cadre de politique économique lui est en général propice, en particulier la réglementation du travail, il existe une marge de réduction des obstacles réglementaires à la concurrence sur les marchés de produits. Alors que de nombreux programmes ont vocation à aider les petites entreprises, certains des plus importants ne ciblent pas bien les défaillances du marché. En les axant davantage sur l’atténuation des dysfonctionnements manifestes, on ferait davantage contribuer ces programmes à la progression de la productivité et du niveau de vie. Il faudrait probablement pour cela réorienter l’aide des petites entreprises en général vers les start-ups et les entreprises de création récente dotées de projets innovants, ce qui donnerait une impulsion à ce segment de l'économie. Ce Document de travail se rapporte à l’Étude économique de l’OCDE du Canada 2016 ( ique-canada.htm)
    Keywords: venture capital, exit, start-ups, SMEs, entry, capital risque, start-ups, PME, entrée, sortie
    JEL: D52 H25 L26 O51
    Date: 2016–07–27
  8. By: Lee, Kye Woo (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: This paper presents targeted government policies for promoting training in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to increase their contributions to economic development. It first discusses the role of SMEs in country development and the special challenges facing SMEs in developing human resources. It then surveys some innovative, targeted policies for promoting training by SMEs in Asia and Latin America. The paper elaborates on the objectives and achievements of a successful targeted SME training policy, the SME Training Consortiums Program in the Republic of Korea, as a best practice. This paper concludes with some cautionary remarks for developing countries seeking to adopt targeted SME training policies.
    Keywords: SME training policies; SME Training Consortiums Program; training levy grants; Republic of Korea
    JEL: O31 O32 O38
    Date: 2016–07–21
  9. By: Betz, Frank; Ravasan, Farshad R.
    Abstract: The economies in the Middle East and North Africa have not been able to generate a sufficient number of jobs for a fast growing population. This paper uses data from the MENA Enterprise Survey to investigate the extent to which prevailing collateral practices affect the allocation of credit and firms' ability to expand and create jobs. Using matched bank-firm data to recover banks' collateral policies and exploiting data on the location of firms and bank branches, the paper aggregates the estimated collateral policies into branch-weighted indices that represent collateral practices at the local level. We find that less stringent collateral regimes are conducive to employment growth. Young firms in particular benefit from lower collateral ratios, while a greater willingness to accept movables benefits both young and old firms.
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Ron Boschma, Lars Coenen, Koen Frenken, Bernhard Truffer; Lars Coenen; Koen Frenken; Bernhard Truffer
    Abstract: This paper aims to develop a theoretical framework on regional diversification. Combining insights from the evolutionary economic geography literature and the transition literature, we argue that a theory of regional diversification should build on the current understanding of conditions for related diversification but additionally start to tackle processes of unrelated diversification by accounting for (1) the role of agency (institutional entrepreneurship) and the dynamic interplay between agency and context; (2) enabling and constraining factors at various spatial scales. We propose a typology of four regional diversification processes by cross-tabulating related versus unrelated diversification with niche creation versus regime adoption.
    Keywords: evolutionary economic geography, transition studies, regional diversification, unrelated diversification, institutional entrepreneurship, institutional change
    JEL: B52 O18 R11
    Date: 2016–07
  11. By: Nestor Duch-Brown (European Commission – JRC); Andrea de Panizza (European Commission – JRC); Ibrahim Kholilul Rohman (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: This paper adds to the empirical literature on the relationships between R&D, innovation and productivity at the firm level. The focus is on Spanish enterprises in Information industries, which are acknowledged to be at the forefront for both innovative activity and R&D performance. The analysis is performed on ca. 1800 enterprises included in the PITEC database (the Spanish source of the EU Community Innovation Survey) for the period 2004-2013. Using a three-stage "CDM" model we consider: (i) factors affecting the decision to conduct R&D, including the role of perceived importance of innovation on firm's R&D performance, (ii) the impact of the predicted R&D effort on companies' effective undertaking of product, process, organisational and marketing innovations, as well as their simultaneous occurrence and (iii) whether and to what extent such innovations boost productivity. In the specific context of this R&D intensive array of industries, the decision of undertaking R&D appears to be strongly influenced by the importance attributed to enhancing existing products or creating new ones, as well as by the size of the company, the fact of being young and local, and the availability public funding. These elements also greatly impact on enterprises' R&D effort, thus providing some arguments in favour of R&D promotion policies, in particularly addressed to start-ups. Expected R&D performance, in turn, appears to be strongly related to the actual achievement of such innovations, including non-technical ones. By focusing on innovation patterns, it was possible to ascertain a strong complementarity between different families of innovation (as expected, given these industries' specificities), as well as to qualify existing evidence on the innovation-productivity conundrum. Indeed, we show that results depend on the way innovation types are modelled and combined. Controlling for complementarities, enterprises performing focused non-technical innovations and joint technical and non-technical ones (mixed-mode innovators) are likely to be more productive (in terms of sales per capita) than their peers, while stand-alone technical innovations give inconclusive results.
    Keywords: R&D, innovation, ICT sector, productivity, firm level data, panel
    JEL: O00 O31 O32 O47
    Date: 2016–07

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