nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2015‒10‒10
eleven papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. Owner-Level Taxes and Business Activity By Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino
  2. The Promise and Potential of Linked Employer-Employee Data for Entrepreneurship Research By Christopher Goetz; Henry Hyatt; Erika McEntarfer; Kristin Sandusky
  3. Lifting the Iron Curtain: School-Age Education and Entrepreneurial Intentions By Falck, Oliver; Gold, Robert; Heblich, Stephan
  4. Entering and Leaving Self-Employment: A Panel Data Analysis for 12 Developing Countries By Cho, Yoon Y.; Robalino, David A.; Romero, Jose
  5. Support for Public Research Spin-offs by the Parent Organizations and the Speed of Commercialization By Viktor Slavtchev; D. Göktepe-Hultén
  6. An Analysis of SME's Attitudes to the Business Environment in the Czech Republic By Kamil Dobeš; Zuzana Virglerová
  7. Network Business Environment for Open Innovation in SMEs By Ţoniş BuceaManea, Rocsana; Catană, Mădălin Gabriel; Tonoiu, Sergiu
  8. From demand-pull and technology-push innovations, towards knowledge-based innovation systems. Evidence from Albanian small and medium enterprises. By Erind Hoti; Gentian Hoxhalli
  9. Designinig collaborative processes among SMEs. An overview of inhibiting and motivational factors By Erind Hoti; Gentian Hoxhalli
  10. Jean-Baptiste Say et la révolution industrielle… ou les certitudes d'un entrepreneur du secteur textile By Michel Vigezzi
  11. L’intention de création de spin-offs académiques : le cas des établissements supérieurs bas-normands By Jean Bonnet

  1. By: Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Sanandaji, Tino (Institute for Economic and Business History Research (EHFF))
    Abstract: In some classes of models, taxes at the owner level are “neutral” and have no effect on firm activity. However, this tax neutrality is sensitive to assumptions and no longer holds in more complex models. We review recent research that incorporates greater complexity in studying the link between taxes and business activity – particularly entrepreneurship. Dividend taxes on owners of large firms affect firm activity in models that include agency conflicts between owners and managers. Similarly, after incorporating entrepreneurs’ occupational choice into the model, taxes are no longer neutral. By forsaking lucrative alternative careers, skilled entrepreneurs tend to have high opportunity costs, which make the choice of attempting to start a business of first order importance. Moreover, in models where it is assumed that capital flows across borders without cost, taxes on domestic business owners do not alter business activity because foreign capital seamlessly compensates for tax-induced declines in investments. This theoretical notion is contradicted by the strong “home bias” observed in business ownership, in particular for small firms and startups without easy access to international capital markets. Recent empirical work has emphasized that taxes have heterogeneous effects on mature firms, entrepreneurial startups, and owner-managed small firms. Lowering dividend taxes on firms with dispersed ownership has been shown to shift capital from mature firms into rapidly growing firms. Moreover, capital gains taxation tends to reduce the number of innovative startups and diminish venture capital activity, while high owner-level taxes encourage small business activity and non-entrepreneurial self-employment because such firms have more opportunities to avoid or evade taxes. To obtain efficient incentives in entrepreneurial startups, contractual terms are required that ex ante guarantee that all providers of critical inputs, especially equity constrained entrepreneurs, are entitled to a share of the resulting capital value firm. Unless properly designed, owner-level taxes prevent such ex ante contracting and thus lower the likelihood of eventual success.
    Keywords: Business taxation; Capital income taxation; Corporate governance; Entrepreneurship; Institutions; Tax policy
    JEL: H25 H26 H32 L26
    Date: 2015–10–05
  2. By: Christopher Goetz; Henry Hyatt; Erika McEntarfer; Kristin Sandusky
    Abstract: In this paper, we highlight the potential for linked employer-employee data to be used in entrepreneurship research, describing new data on business start-ups, their founders and early employees, and providing examples of how they can be used in entrepreneurship research. Linked employer-employee data provides a unique perspective on new business creation by combining information on the business, workforce, and individual. By combining data on both workers and firms, linked data can investigate many questions that owner-level or firm-level data cannot easily answer alone - such as composition of the workforce at start-ups and their role in explaining business dynamics, the flow of workers across new and established firms, and the employment paths of the business owners themselves.
    Date: 2015–09
  3. By: Falck, Oliver (Ifo Institute for Economic Research); Gold, Robert (Kiel Institute for the World Economy); Heblich, Stephan (University of Bristol)
    Abstract: We exploit Germany's reunification to identify how school-age education affects entrepreneurial intentions. We look at university students in reunified Germany who were born before the Iron Curtain fell. During school age, all students in the West German control group received formal and informal education in a free-market economy, while East German students did or did not receive free-market education. Difference-in-differences estimations show that school-age education in a free-market economy increases entrepreneurial intentions. An event study supports the common-trends assumption. Results remain robust in matched samples and when we exploit within-student variation in occupational intentions to control for unobserved individual characteristics.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, socialism, formal education, informal education
    JEL: L26 I21 J24 P30
    Date: 2015–09
  4. By: Cho, Yoon Y. (World Bank); Robalino, David A. (World Bank); Romero, Jose (World Bank)
    Abstract: This paper examines the determinants of labor market transitions into and out of self-employment (own-account work and employer), using panel data from 12 developing countries in multiple regions. Despite cross-country heterogeneity, a few consistent patterns emerge. Entering the labor market through, or moving from wage employment into, own-account work is generally infrequent even during economic downturns, suggesting that own-account work is not an automatic choice for subsistence. Some better educated and older workers become employers by starting their business with paid employees or by growing their business from own-account work, although the overall chances of becoming employers are quite low and employer downsizing to own-account work is common. Reflecting the frequent transitions between own-account work and employer statuses, in many cases, particularly in middle-income countries, a substantial proportion of own-account workers share common characteristics with employers (and vice versa). The results suggest that there is a role for programs to support employers sustain its activities and facilitate own-account workers to become employers.
    Keywords: labor market transitions, self-employment, entrepreneurship
    JEL: O12 J24
    Date: 2015–09
  5. By: Viktor Slavtchev; D. Göktepe-Hultén
    Abstract: We empirically analyze whether support by the parent organization in the early (nascent and seed) stage speeds up the process of commercialization and helps spin-offs from public research organizations generate first revenues sooner. To identify the impact of support by the parent organization, we apply multivariate regression techniques as well as an instrumental variable approach. Our results show that support in the early stage by the parent organization can speed up commercialization. Moreover, we identify two distinct channels - the help in developing a business plan and in acquiring external capital - through which support by the parent organization can enable spin-offs to generate first revenues sooner.
    Keywords: academic entrepreneurship; support; TTO; commercialization; time to market
    JEL: L26 M13 O32 O31 O33
    Date: 2015–10
  6. By: Kamil Dobeš (Tomas Bata University in Zlín); Zuzana Virglerová (Tomas Bata University in Zlín)
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to analyse the business environment for SMEs in the Czech Republic and the impact of selected factors on the attitude of the business environment of surveyed entrepreneurs. The results from the research conducted at Tomas Bata University in Zlín in 2015 were used. The research involved a survey of the business environment in the Czech Republic. This article uses the questions regarding the attitude to the business environment in terms of company size and sector in which the firms are located. It was found that the business environment is relatively consistent in most of the aspects in terms of company size. In terms of each sector of the economy already showed significant differences. Especially in evaluating the state's role in creating a favourable business environment can be found significantly different attitudes across different sectors.
    Keywords: business environment, small and medium-sized enterprises, research
    JEL: G21 L26 M21
  7. By: Ţoniş BuceaManea, Rocsana; Catană, Mădălin Gabriel; Tonoiu, Sergiu
    Abstract: The SMEs represent an important factor of growth in both developed and developing countries, into which, however, they face different obstacles in the process of innovation. This paper analyses how open communication and collaboration can help SMEs in their struggle for sustainable innovation and profitable market competition. Based on a literature review, a number of obstacles that SMEs have to overcome in their current activity and possible support to be competitive are revealed. The main benefits and particularities of implementing open innovation in SMEs are presented. The necessity of a supportive business environment for SMEs is demonstrated. An outline of an improved model for SMEs is presented. Introduction
    Keywords: open innovation, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), network business environment, technological infrastructure, legal framework, model of innovation for SMEs.
    JEL: M15
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Erind Hoti (European University of Tirana); Gentian Hoxhalli (European University of Tirana)
    Abstract: This paper focuses at small and medium enterprises (SMEs) which are facing growing competition. Technological innovation and the increasing role of knowledge exploitation in the enterprise, provide an important source of innovation and competitive advantage. Technological innovation is being perceived to a greater extent as a continuous, collaborative, multi-actor process requiring new collaboration-supporting technologies and focusing on knowledge and social dynamics perspectives. This paper tries to determine if any relationships do exist between measures for adapting technological innovation in SMEs and whether these are caused by a technology-push or demand-pull. It also aims at verifying if activities related to knowledge management in the enterprise lead to planned or incidental innovations. In doing so we get insights on how different activities could affect technological innovation and it contributes to the small business management literature by adding to the body of knowledge on technological innovation adaption and utilization in SMEs. The empirical investigation is carried out in an emerging market nation such as Albania
    Keywords: SMEs, technology innovation, knowledge management, emerging market economy
    JEL: O30 M20 O32
  9. By: Erind Hoti (European University of Tirana); Gentian Hoxhalli (European University of Tirana)
    Abstract: This paper scrutinizes the ground rules for designing collaborative processes by focusing on inter-organizational collaboration and considering collaboration as a process for improving the competitiveness of small and medium sized firms (SMEs). In a need to be more competitive and facing an ever more knowledge-based environment, SMEs must collaborate in order to stay competitive and easily adjust to new situations. Collaboration in itself is perceived as a dynamic process taking place among various actors who come together to jointly achieve a beneficial outcome. This paper provides an overview of the evidence on common motives and inhibiting factors for collaboration among SMEs based on a review of the evidence.
    Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprises (SME), inter-organizational collaboration, collaborative processes, cooperation
    JEL: A10 L21 L29
  10. By: Michel Vigezzi (CREG - Centre de recherche en économie de Grenoble - Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France)
    Abstract: From three texts by Jean-Baptiste Say (Olbie ... 1800, Full Course…1819 and a Letter to Malthus in 1820 processing machinery) and a historical approach to technical changes of this period, we will make three observations : 1. Say-entrepreneur is at the heart of the industrial revolution but can not have an overall vision... ; 2. His multiform social status can't develop this overall vision and leads to an descriptive vision favoring the recensions... ; 3. Despite this absence, Say was one of the first economists to focus on the technical changes despite a conflict between his approach in terms of production and his conclusions focused on the creation of utilities and income distribution and expenses. In conclusion, we shall identify a second "Law of Say": the increasing difficulty of financing innovations and of their developments lead to the cancellation of their disadvantages.
    Abstract: À partir de trois textes de Jean-Baptiste Say (Olbie… de 1800, Cours complet… de 1819 et une Lettre à Malthus en 1820 traitant des machines) et d'une approche historique des changements techniques de cette période, nous formulerons trois constats : 1. Say-entrepreneur est au coeur de la révolution industrielle mais ne peut en avoir une vision d'ensemble… ; 2. Son statut social multiforme l'empêche de développer cette vision d'ensemble et le conduit à une vision descriptive privilégiant les recensions… ; 3. Malgré cette absence, Say a été l'un des premiers économistes à s'intéresser aux changements techniques même si une contradiction apparaît entre son approche en terme de production et ses conclusions centrées sur la création d'utilités et sur la répartition des revenus et des charges. En conclusion, on identifiera ainsi une seconde "Loi de Say" : les difficultés croissantes du financement des innovations et leur développement conduisent à l'annulation de leurs inconvénients.
    Keywords: changement technique , économiste , entrepreneur , industrie , industrie textile , innovation , pensée économique , révolution industrielle
    Date: 2014–08–27
  11. By: Jean Bonnet (CREM UMR-CNRS 6211, UFR SEGGAT, Université de Caen Normandie, France)
    Abstract: In France the Technology Transfer Offices, within universities and more generally in higher education institutions, have developed over the past fifteen years, both in terms of the funding and affected human resources. Academic spin-offs are however few and create few jobs (PHILIPART, 2012). In the US the results are much more convincing, SIEGEL (2013). Few French academic staff value their academic work (or even think to do so) by creating companies or more generally by economic exploitation including through patents or partnerships with existing companies (EMIN, 2003). And when they do spin-offs, business does not necessarily know an important development in the image of Anglo-Saxon "gazelles" (BONNET, LE PAPE, NELSON, 2015). Also few students are also considering the option of creating their own business even though the numbers are improving thanks to the development of entrepreneurship training (BOISSIN, CHOLLET, EMIN, 2009). This study aims to highlight the characteristics of the intention of the creation of academic spin-offs by staff and doctoral students of Lower-Normandy colleges.
    Keywords: Economic Valuation of Research, Academic Staff, Professional Values, Dissatisfactions, Incentives
    JEL: L26 M12 M13
    Date: 2015–09

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