nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2015‒06‒13
eleven papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. R&D policies for young SMEs: Input and output effects By Czarnitzki, Dirk; Delanote, Julie
  2. University entrepreneurship education experiences: enhancing the entrepreneurial ecosystems in a UK By Fumi Kitagawa; Don J. Webber; Anthony Plumridge; Susan Robertson
  3. Examining Entrepreneurial Potential By Pavlin Bonev; Henrik Egbert; Thomas Neumann
  4. Informal sector and economic development: The credit supply channel By Massenot, Baptiste; Straub, Stéphane
  5. Models of social entrepreneurship: empirical evidence from Mexico By Marine Wulleman; Marek Hudon
  6. Why does financial sector growth crowd out real economic growth? By Cecchetti, Stephen G; Kharroubi, Enisse
  7. The entrepreneurial value of arts incubators: Why fine artists should make use of professional arts incubators By Thom, Marco
  8. Green Entrepreneurship an Hochschulen: Benchmarking und Best-Practices By Jordt, Stefanie; Ludewig, Dirk
  9. Women Entrepreneurs in Chile: Three decades of Challenges and Lessons on Innovation and Business Sustainability By Mandakovic Vesna; María Teresa Lepelev; Olga Pizarro
  10. Comment se crée l’identité d’entreprise ? Processus de construction dans la start-up et impact des références identitaires By Canet, Emilie; Hooge, Sophie; Kokshagina, Olga
  11. Financiamiento de proyectos de inversión PyME en el mercado de capitales: un estudio de caso local By González Ramos, Alejandro

  1. By: Czarnitzki, Dirk; Delanote, Julie
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the current focus of EU policy makers on small and medium-sized, young independent firms in high-tech sectors. Therefore, the effect of subsidies on both R&D input and R&D output is compared between independent high-tech young firms (NTBFs), independent low-tech young firms (LTBFs) and their non-independent counterparts. A treatment effects analysis reveals that full crowding-out with regard to public funding is rejected for all firm types. However, the treatment effect is highest for independent high-tech firms. The indirect effect of subsidies on R&D output is evaluated within a patent production framework. These results show that independent high-tech firms have no lower output effects than other firms and thus suggest that the current policy focus on certain firm types is not ineffective.
    Keywords: R&D,subsidies,NTBFs,policy evaluation,treatment effects,patents
    JEL: H25 M13 O31 O38
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Fumi Kitagawa (University of Edinburgh); Don J. Webber (University of the West of England, Bristol); Anthony Plumridge (University of the West of England, Bristol); Susan Robertson (University of Bristol)
    Abstract: The recognition of a strong association between education and economic prosperity has enthused higher education institutions (HEIs) to amplify their initiatives to stimulate entrepreneurship within their local economies and beyond. However, the actual processes and impacts made through entrepreneurship education, and the extent to which and the conditions with which different types of programmes are effective, are not understood well. This article fills part of this gap by adopting the concept of university-based entrepreneurship ecosystems and contributes to the understanding of different impacts of entrepreneurship education and their implications for city-region development. Student-level data are gathered across two HEIs within one city-region in England, which include demographic backgrounds, university experiences and motivations and propensities to start-up businesses. Our analysis reveals that students who believe their university education has helped them develop competencies to address challenges of becoming an entrepreneur were 78 percent more likely to have experienced an increase in their stated preference to start-up a business. This suggests that HEIs should be more actively engaged in stimulating student entrepreneurial behaviour and developing university-based entrepreneurial ecosystems that may lead to greater city-region economic development.
    Keywords: Business start-up; Entrepreneurial propensity; Student motivations
    JEL: L26 R58
    Date: 2015–01–05
  3. By: Pavlin Bonev; Henrik Egbert; Thomas Neumann (Fachhochschule-Anhalt)
    Abstract: Employing public resources for promoting entrepreneurships demands careful selection of candidates who are most promising to set up a successful entrepreneurial career. This study addresses the relation between an individuals’ entrepreneurial potential, identified through personality traits, and aspects of human and social capital, based on prior individual experiences in the domain of self?employment. A psychometric test, called F?DUPN, measures the strengths of personality traits considered relevant for successful entrepreneurial activity. To test our hypotheses we collected data of 166 individuals. All of them are university students or graduates and have indicated a specific interest in entrepreneurial activity. A major result is that participants experienced in self-employment, with self-employed parents and with self-employed friends show a higher entrepreneurial potential than participants who do not have these experiences or relations. Furthermore, we find in line with other studies that differences in entrepreneurial potential become less pronounced with increasing age. An interpretation is that personality traits significant for entrepreneurial activity are not stable over time and can also be acquired at a later stage in life.
    Keywords: psychometric test, human capital, social capital, observational learning, F?DUP, self-employment experience, personality traits
    JEL: M13 D80
    Date: 2015–02
  4. By: Massenot, Baptiste; Straub, Stéphane
    Abstract: The standard view suggests that removing barriers to entry and improving judicial enforcement reduces informality and boosts investment and growth. However, a general equilibrium approach shows that this conclusion may hold to a lesser extent in countries with a constrained supply of funds because of, for example, a more concentrated banking sector or lower financial openness. When the formal sector grows larger in those countries, more entrepreneurs become creditworthy, but the higher pressure on the credit market limits further capital accumulation. We show empirical evidence consistent with these predictions.
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Marine Wulleman; Marek Hudon
    Abstract: This paper seeks to improve the understanding of social entrepreneurship models based on empirical evidence from Mexico, where social entrepreneurship is currently booming. It aims to supplement existing typologies of social entrepreneurship models. To that end, building on Zahra et al. (2009) typology it begins by providing a new framework classifying the three types of social entrepreneurship. A comparative case study of ten Mexican social enterprises is then elaborated using that framework. Findings suggest that these distinct typologies are evolving in a dynamic manner determined by the resources and ambitions of social entrepreneurs. Starting either as social bricoleurs or as social constructionists, social entrepreneurs aspire to become social engineers. Moreover, social constructionists usually present hybrid business models.
    Date: 2015–06–01
  6. By: Cecchetti, Stephen G; Kharroubi, Enisse
    Abstract: We examine the negative relationship between the rate of growth of the financial sector and the rate of growth of total factor productivity. Using a panel of 20 countries over 30 years, we establish that there is a robust correlation: the faster the financial sector expands, the slower the real economy grows. We then proceed to build a model in which this relationship arises from the fact that investment projects that are easier to pledge as loan collateral have lower productivity. As the financiers improve their ability to recover collateral in default, entrepreneurs expect credit to grow more quickly. As a consequence, they choose to invest in more pledgeable/less productive projects, reducing total factor productivity growth. We take this theoretical prediction to the data and find that financial growth disproportionately harms industries the less tangible their assets or the more R&D intensive they are.
    Keywords: asset tangibility; credit booms; financial development; growth; R&D intensity
    JEL: D92 E22 E44 O4
    Date: 2015–06
  7. By: Thom, Marco
    Abstract: The study's aim is to show whether and to what extent services of entrepreneurial value will be provided by arts incubators to nurture fine artists to meet market requirements to make a living in the arts. In order to achieve this aim, the study is previously focused on the clarification of the question to what extent fine artists will be educated in their studies at higher educational institutions on how to become successfully self-employed. The answer to this question is needed to outline the current mismatch between vocational education of fine artists and actual market requirements. A comprehensive and comparative analysis of Fine Art degree programmes and extra-curricular training offerings at higher educational institutions and arts incubation programmes in the UK and Germany was carried out. By using various key performance indicators this study shows evidence that fine artists will not be educated to successfully meet market requirements and that professional arts incubators should be a promising alternative or useful addition for fine artists' vocational preparation.
    Keywords: arts incubators,fine art students,entrepreneurial skills,higher educational institutions,selfemployment
    JEL: A22 A23
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Jordt, Stefanie; Ludewig, Dirk
    Abstract: [Ziele der Untersuchung] Um den aktuellen Stand der SPICE-Partner im Vergleich zu Aktivitäten an anderen Hochschulen zu erfassen, wurde ein Benchmarking-Sonderteil angestrebt, der sich ganz speziell dem Themengebiet des Green Entrepreneurship widmet. Nicht nur um die bereits geleistete Arbeit besser bewerten zu können und ihr ein Gewicht zu verleihen, sondern auch um für die Zukunft gut aufgestellt zu sein. So ist ein weiteres Ziel dieser Untersuchung, Best-Practice-Maßnahmen zu identifizieren und zu analysieren. Diese herausragenden Maßnahmen können bei zukünftigen Aktionen der beteiligten Partner mit einfließen und das akademische Angebot vor Ort dementsprechend prägen und verändern. [Gang der Untersuchung] Im zweiten Kapitel wird zunächst eine generelle Übersicht über die Angebote im Bereich des Green Entrepreneurship geboten, bevor es im dritten Kapitel mit einer näheren Analyse ausgesuchter Vergleichshochschulen weiter geht. Kapitel vier befasst sich mit einer genaueren Bestandsaufnahme der ausgewählten Best- Practice-Maßnahmen der zuvor untersuchten Hochschulen. In Kapitel 5 werden die Angebote der SPICE-Partner im Bereich Green Entrepreneurship dargestellt. Den Abschluss bildet Kapitel sechs, in dem vergleichende Schlussfolgerungen gezogen werden und Handlungsempfehlungen/Ansatzpunkte für zukünftige Aktivitäten im Bereich des Green Entrepreneurship abgeleitet werden.
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Mandakovic Vesna; María Teresa Lepelev; Olga Pizarro (School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo)
    Abstract: This study is framed on a global vision of women participation in entrepreneurial activity as an introductory note and proceeds with a comprehensive assessment of the experience of women entrepreneurs in Chile in the last thirty years. Chile is one of the fastest growing and most stable economies in Latin America and among developing countries with a 5.7 percent unemployment and 14.8 percent poverty level. This case study is focused on Chilean women entrepreneurs from a business sustainability dimension, providing the experience of a pioneer country that introduced entrepreneurship as a central economic development strategy since the late seventies.
    Keywords: Women Entrepreneurs,innovation, business sustainability, economies, América Latina, Chile.
    Date: 2014–04
  10. By: Canet, Emilie; Hooge, Sophie; Kokshagina, Olga
    Abstract: Cette recherche vise à approfondir la question de la construction de l’identité d’entreprise dans le contexte des start-ups. Plus particulièrement, il s’agit de comprendre les liens entre les différents facteurs d’influence (identité des entrepreneurs, écosystème) dans le cas où le cadre de référence identitaire est à constituer et où les entrepreneurs luttent pour identifier l’écosystème qui enrichira la construction de leur identité d’entreprise. Cette recherche repose sur l’analyse d’une étude de cas sur la création de la start-up SoScience, entreprise de Recherche sociale et solidaire, par deux entrepreneures. La méthodologie, reposant sur des entretiens semi-directifs approfondis et l’analyse de données secondaires, vise à mettre en évidence le parcours de la construction de l’identité d’entreprise de cette start-up. Cette étude de cas nous permet de mettre en évidence deux résultats principaux. Tout d’abord, il apparaît que l’identité d’entreprise résulte d’un processus itératif et adaptatif mobilisant l’identité de l’entrepreneur, l’écosystème de la start-up et les constructions identitaires intermédiaires. L’interaction entre ces différents éléments fait évoluer le périmètre de l’identité d’entreprise dans un processus d’apprentissage de l’entrepreneur confronté à des éléments de l’écosystème plus ou moins réceptif au projet entrepreneurial. De plus, l’identité d’entreprise s’affirme par adhésion, modification ou au contraire rejet des références identitaires de l’écosystème. Le rejet d’une référence identitaire permet de renforcer le positionnement des entrepreneurs par affirmation des fondamentaux vis-à-vis des parties prenantes externes tandis que l’adoption d’une référence identitaire conduit et spécifie le positionnement de la start-up au sein du champ de référence. Ces deux résultats nous permettent de discuter le rôle de certains objets d’interaction dans le pilotage actif de la construction de l’identité d’entreprise.
    Keywords: Identité d’entreprise; Entrepreneuriat; Ecosystème;
    JEL: L26 M14
    Date: 2015–06
  11. By: González Ramos, Alejandro
    Abstract: El objetivo de la presente investigación consiste en interpretar cuáles son los factores que permiten que el financiamiento bursátil de proyectos de inversión pueda llegar a ser una alternativa viable por parte de las medianas empresas, resultando como potencial solución a los problemas de brecha financiera. Para ello, se realiza un estudio de caso de "INGACOT S.A.", una mediana empresa agropecuaria que logró emitir obligaciones negociables por $15.000.000 (el monto máximo legislado actualmente) resultando ser un caso pionero y único a nivel local para el contexto financiero en el que se desenvuelven este tipo de empresas. La idea del trabajo consiste en mostrar qué características particulares tuvo la empresa para poder acceder este tipo de financiamiento, desarrollándose posteriormente qué camino tuvo que realizar la compañía para poder alcanzar su objetivo. De esta forma, se busca que pueda servir de guía para otras empresas, que por razones de desconocimiento o desconfianza, no tengan presente esta forma de financiarse. Las principales conclusiones a las que se arribó fueron que más allá de que la empresa contara con aceptables indicadores de liquidez, solvencia y rentabilidad, la brecha financiera se vio reducida por el alto nivel de formalidad visto en su carácter fuerte y transparente de sus estructuras administrativas; contar con propietarios con factor entrepreneur, con capacidad para formar equipos económicos profesionales, diversificar actividades e identificar fuentes de financiamiento más sofisticadas que las tradicionales; la trayectoria y dimensión de la empresa - fortalecida por su pertenencia a un grupo económico - y la presentación de garantías adecuadas. Por otro lado, en torno a los resultados de la negociación de obligaciones negociables, la creación del inciso "k" en el "Reglamento General de la Actividad Aseguradora" (2012) fue relevante dado que permitió que haya mayores fondos disponibles para ser destinados a la compra de títulos de deuda realizados por las PyMEs, aumentando así los montos a colocar y disminuyendo los costos financieros totales.
    Keywords: Pequeñas y Medianas Empresas; Financiación Externa; Mercado de Capitales; Sociedades de Garantía Recíproca;
    Date: 2015

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