nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2015‒03‒22
fifteen papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. Is Self-employment a Way to Escape from Skill Mismatches? By Albiol, Judit; Díaz Serrano, Lluís; Teruel, Mercedes
  2. The determinants of entrepreneurship in developing countries By Calá, Carla Daniela; Arauzo-Carod, Josep-Maria; Manjón-Antolín, Miguel
  3. Determinants of Female Entrepreneurship in India By Arnaud Daymard
  4. Court-ship, Kinship and Business: A Study on the Interaction between the Formal and the Informal Institutions and Its Effect on Entrepreneurship By Chakraborty, Tanika; Mukherjee, Anirban; Saha, Sarani
  5. Innovation Strategies and Firm Performance By Karlsson, Charlie; Tavassoli, Sam
  6. Firms’ Innovation Strategies Analyzed and Explained By Tavassoli , Sam; Karlsson , Charlie
  7. High income inequality as a structural factor in entrepreneurial activity By Antonio Lecuna
  8. Informality, Saving and Wealth Inequality By Catalina Granda; Franz Hamann
  9. Money Management and Entrepreneurial Training in Microfinance: Impact on Beneficiaries and Institutions By Emanuele Rusinà; Lucia dalla Pellegrina; Giorgio di Maio; Paolo Landoni
  10. Technological Competencies and Firm Performance: Analyzing the Importance of Internal and External Competencies By Grillitsch, Markus; Nilsson, Magnus
  11. Factors Influencing the Performance of German Food SME Formal Networks By Deiters, Jivka; Heuss, Esther; Schiefer, Gerhard
  12. Exchange Rate, Marginal q and Investment Behavior of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Japan: Time Series Evidences of Manufacturing Industries By Masafumi Kozuka
  13. Entry, Exit and the Shape of Aggregate Fluctuations in a General Equilibrium Model with Capital Heterogeneity By Julia Thomas; Berardino Palazzo; Aubhik Khan; Gian Luca Clementi
  14. Exploring the Patterns of Venture Capital Syndication: Evidence from investment-round data (Japanese) By TAKIZAWA Miho; MIYAKAWA Daisuke
  15. Mobilité interne et entrepreneuriat des jeunes en République démocratique du Congo By Alain Kikandi Kiuma; Christian Kamala Kaghoma; Joelle Mukenyi Kalala; Allegra Kabamba Mbuyi

  1. By: Albiol, Judit; Díaz Serrano, Lluís; Teruel, Mercedes
    Abstract: During the last two decades, skill mismatches have become one of the most important issues of policy concern in the EU (European Commission, 2008). Hence, the literature has stressed the necessity to reduce skill mismatches. We contribute to this literature by analyzing the impact of the transition from salaried employment to self-employment on self-reported skill mismatches. To do so, we resort to the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) covering the period 1994–2001. Using panel data, we track individuals over time and measure their self-reported skill mismatch before and after the transition. Our empirical findings indicate not only that the average self-employee is less likely to declare being skill-mismatched but also that those individuals who transit from salaried employment to self-employment reduce their probability of skill mismatches after the transition. Keywords: Self-employment, skill mismatches, salaried employment. JEL Classification: L26, J24, B23 __________________________
    Keywords: Emprenedoria, Col·locabilitat, Econometria, Treballadors, Treballadors autònoms, 331 - Treball. Relacions laborals. Ocupació. Organització del treball,
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Calá, Carla Daniela; Arauzo-Carod, Josep-Maria; Manjón-Antolín, Miguel
    Abstract: We address the question of what determines entrepreneurship in developing countries. In particular, because of the influence that this may have on the design of entrepreneurship policies, our main concern is whether the determinants of entrepreneurship are the same and/or have the same impact in developed and developing countries. To this end, we discuss the arguments put forward in the literature in support of the existence of differences in the determinants of entrepreneurship between developed and developing countries. We also analyse the results found in empirical studies on the determinants of formal firm entry (following the World Bank, our proxy of entrepreneurship) in developing countries and compare these results with those typically found in developed countries. Our main conclusion is that policy makers in developing economies should be careful when using evidence from developed countries to design entrepreneurship-promoting policies.
    Keywords: Emprendedorismo; Creación de Empresas; Países en Desarrollo;
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Arnaud Daymard
    Abstract: This paper examines the nature and determinants of female entrepreneurship in India based on survey data. The first part assesses basic characteristics of female entrepreneurship in India, while the subsequent sections analyse key determinants of female entrepreneurship based on the literature, and test their importance at the state level in India with the support of regressions on panel-data. It also reviews existing policies bearing on female entrepreneurship and makes recommendations for further policies in this area. Entrepreneurship can create new economic opportunities for women and contribute to overall growth and exit from poverty. The potential flexibility in time use from entrepreneurship can also facilitate balancing work and family obligations for women. However, entrepreneurs, both male and female, are relatively scarce in India compared to peer countries, and tend to work in small units often outside the formal sector. While many of the barriers to entrepreneurship are common to both genders (access to capital and business networks, adequate training and facilities) female entrepreneurs face gender biases stemming from socio-economic factors or specific biases in laws such as inheritance laws.<P>Les déterminants de l'entreprenariat féminin en Inde<BR>Ce document examine la nature et les déterminants de l'entrepreneuriat féminin en Inde à partir des données de l'enquête. La première partie évalue les caractéristiques de base de l'entrepreneuriat féminin en Inde, tandis que les sections suivantes analysent les principaux déterminants de l'entrepreneuriat féminin basé sur la littérature, et de tester leur importance au niveau de l'État en Inde avec le soutien de régressions sur données de panel. Il examine également les politiques existantes portant sur l'entrepreneuriat féminin et fait des recommandations pour de nouvelles politiques dans ce domaine. L’entreprenariat peut offrir de nouveaux débouchés économiques aux femmes et contribuer à la croissance globale et à la sortie de la pauvreté. La marge de souplesse dans l’utilisation du temps qu’offre l’entreprenariat peut également permettre de mieux concilier les obligations professionnelles et familiales des femmes. Toutefois, qu’ils soient hommes ou femmes, les entrepreneurs sont relativement rares en Inde par rapport à d’autres pays comparables, et ont tendance à travailler dans de petites entreprises souvent situées en dehors de l’économie formelle. Qu’il s’agisse du nombre d’entreprises en phase de démarrage ou du nombre d’entreprises nouvellement créées, l’Inde affiche des chiffres relativement faibles et en stagnation par rapport aux autres BRICS. Si bon nombre des obstacles à la création d’entreprise sont communs aux deux sexes (accès aux financements et aux réseaux économiques, formation adéquate, locaux), les femmes entrepreneurs se heurtent à des préjugés sexistes qui trouvent leur origine dans des facteurs socioéconomiques ou dans certains partis consacrés par le droit, notamment par le droit de l’héritage.
    Keywords: gender, India, gender equality, female entrepreneurship, female economic participation, participation économique des femmes, Inde, égalité des sexes, entreprenariat féminin
    JEL: J16 J18 J21 J22 J71 J82 J83
    Date: 2015–03–12
  4. By: Chakraborty, Tanika (Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur); Mukherjee, Anirban (University of Calcutta); Saha, Sarani (Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur)
    Abstract: In this paper we theoretically and empirically examine how the interaction between the formal court system and the informal loan network affects a household's decision to start a business. We find that when the formal court system is weak, expansion of informal credit network leads to the proliferation of business. However, with a sufficiently strong court system, expansion of credit network has a negative effect on business prospects. This result is explained by the contradictions between formal laws and norms used by informal networks. Our result remains robust after controlling for a variety of household and district level characteristics.
    Keywords: informal network, court, formal institution, entrepreneurship
    JEL: K12 L26 O17
    Date: 2015–02
  5. By: Karlsson, Charlie (Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS), Jönköping International Business School, & Blekinge Institute of Technology); Tavassoli, Sam (Blekinge Institute of Technology, Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), & Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of various innovation strategies of firms on their future performance, captured by labour productivity. Using five waves of the Community Innovation Survey in Sweden, we have traced the innovative behaviour of firms over a decade, i.e. from 2002 to 2012. We distinguish between sixteen innovation strategies, which compose of Schumpeterian four types of innovations, i.e. process, product, marketing, and organizational (simple innovation strategies) plus various combinations of these four types (complex innovation strategies). The main findings indicate that those firms that choose and afford to have a complex innovation strategy are better off in terms of their future productivity in compare with both those firms that choose not to innovative (base group) and those firms that choose simple innovation strategies. Moreover, not all types of complex innovation strategies affect the future productivity significantly; rather, there are only few of them. This necessitates a purposeful choice of innovation strategy for firms.
    Keywords: Innovation Strategy; firm performance; productivity; firm level; Community Innovation Survey; Panel
    JEL: D22 L20 O31 O32
    Date: 2015–03–16
  6. By: Tavassoli , Sam (CIRCLE, Lund University and Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona); Karlsson , Charlie (Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, KTH, Stockholm and Jönköping International Business School)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes various innovation strategies of firms. Using five waves of the Community Innovation Survey in Sweden, we have traced the innovative behavior of firms over a ten-year period, i.e. between 2002 and 2012. We distinguish between sixteen innovation strategies, which compose of Schumpeterian four types of innovations (process, product, marketing, and organizational) plus various combinations of these four types. First, we find that firms are not homogenous in choosing innovation strategies, instead, they have a wide range of preferences when it comes to innovation strategy. Second, using Transition Probability Matrix, we found that firms also persist to have such a diverse innovation strategy preferences. Finally, using Multinomial Logit model, we explained the determinant of each and every innovation strategies, while we gave special attention to the commonly used innovation strategies among firms.
    Keywords: Innovation strategy; product innovations; process innovations; market innovations; organizational innovations; innovation strategies; heterogeneity; firms; persistence; Community Innovation Survey
    JEL: D22 L20 O31 O32
    Date: 2015–03–19
  7. By: Antonio Lecuna (School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo)
    Abstract: Statistical tests on a panel of data from 54 countries over the 2004–2009 period support the proposition that high income inequality and entrepreneurial activity share a positive linear relationship. In a novel approach, the dependent variable is defined from two independent and uncorrelated perspectives: (1) the World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Snapshot, which measures new business entry density based on secondary official sources; and (2) the Total Early Stage Entrepreneurial Activity of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor project, which is a survey-based measure of formal and informal entrepreneurial participation rates. The empirical strategy is based on the logic that economies with increasing concentrations of wealth tend to encourage entrepreneurial activity because entrepreneurs accumulate more income than workers. Following the disequalizing model, once this inequality appears, it is reinforced in successive generations. The intuition behind this outcome is that a certain level of initial capital is required to establish a new enterprise, which implies that the probability of becoming an entrepreneur increases if an individual has inherited wealth.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, income inequality, institutions, public policy.
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2014–12
  8. By: Catalina Granda; Franz Hamann
    Abstract: The informal sector is an extensive phenomenon in developing countries. While some of its implications have drawn considerable attention in the literature, one relatively unexplored aspect has to do with the saving patterns of workers and firms and how these might influence aggregate savings and wealth inequality. In this paper, we aim to fill that gap by examining both entrepreneurs' and workers' choices regarding whether to perform informally and regarding asset accumulation. Specifically, we build an occupational choice model wherein saving is primarily motivated by precautionary considerations. The model features labor and capital market segmentation, and is calibrated to replicate the saving rates, wealth inequality and composition of occupations across the formal and informal sectors of Colombia. Computational experiments further allow us to analyze the effects of highly debated formalization policies on wealth redistribution and promotion of saving and entrepreneurship. Alternative frameworks are finally considered.
    Keywords: Informality, wealth inequality, saving, occupational choice models.
    JEL: E21 E26 O17
    Date: 2015–03–11
  9. By: Emanuele Rusinà; Lucia dalla Pellegrina; Giorgio di Maio; Paolo Landoni
    Abstract: Most Microfinance institutions (MFIs) worldwide focus their efforts in relieving the poor from financial constraints through micro-loans. This research focuses on integrating a money management and entrepreneurial training plan to a lending program in a non-profit MFI in Kolkata, India. The paper’s main purpose is to measure the marginal impact of training on the beneficiaries through a randomized control trial. Positive and significant effects are found on both institutional outcomes (number of missing or delayed repayments, average weekly savings) and financial management skills of the clients (ability to separate personal and business money, to track revenues and expenses, to calculate profits). Initiative and self-confidence measures also increase, while business outcomes and entrepreneurial skills of the participants exhibit no significant changes. The effects appear stronger on those for whom the training was compulsory, and for those who expressed more interest in the course before the beginning of the program. A formal set-up and incentives linked with the completion of the training are therefore advised when considering similar interventions.
    Keywords: Microfinance, training programs, money management, entrepreneurship, difference-in-differences
    JEL: G21 O15 L31 I25
    Date: 2015–03
  10. By: Grillitsch, Markus; Nilsson, Magnus
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the relationship between technological competencies (TC) and firm performance. Theoretically, the importance of TC is well established and widely accepted. Therefore, it is surprising that a number of empirical studies have been unable to confirm a substantial positive relationship between TC and firm performance. We identify two major reasons for this: [i] affected by the availability and choice of indicators existing studies are often biased towards large firms; and [ii] they frequently do not consider both internal and potential access to firm-external TC. This paper discusses conceptually the interplay between firm-internal and firm-external TC as well as the mediating effect of firm size. These relationships are then analyzed empirically using Swedish micro data on 15,682 firms in 290 Swedish municipalities. Novel indicators based on occupational statistics are combined with measures of time-distance accessibility to study internal and external TC. The results provide evidence for a positive relationship between firm growth and TC. In particular, the combination of firm-internal and firm-external competencies seems to be conducive for growth. Lastly, our study suggests that firm size is an important factor to further our understanding about these relationships. Based on this we identify a number of future research questions to be addressed.
    Keywords: technological competencies, firm performance, accessibility, knowledge, innovation, geography, Agribusiness, Institutional and Behavioral Economics,
    Date: 2014–10
  11. By: Deiters, Jivka; Heuss, Esther; Schiefer, Gerhard
    Abstract: The food sector in Europe can be characterised as a complex, global and dynamically changing network of trade streams, food supply network relations and related product flows and offers a big spectrum for economic output and employment. Innovation isimportant for the competitivenessof the food industry that is to a large extent comprised by small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Furthermore innovation has grown extremely subordinate to interaction in networks. Network initiatives that could provide appropriate support involve social interaction and knowledge exchange, learning and competence development, and coordination (organization) and management of implementation. This paper was designed to assess the factors that affect the performance of German food SME formal networks. It also addressed the consequences at the network and macro level. The analysis was explored by using the laddering technique based on means-end chain theory. These findings will help to build up a “network learning toolbox” that is adapted to the particular requirements of the different segments of the target group of SMEs, network managers and policy makers. The “network learning toolbox” should improve the network learning, which drives to raised innovation, economic growth and sustainable competitive advantage for food SMEs.
    Keywords: Factors, performance, networks, food, Agribusiness,
    Date: 2014–10
  12. By: Masafumi Kozuka (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate Grangerfs causality among the exchange rate, Tobinfs marginal q, and investment-capital ratio with quarterly data on firms categorized small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Japan. We utilize the data of following industries: chemical, iron and steel, production machinery, electric machinery and equipment, automobile and accessories and all manufacturing. The empirical results we obtain show that the null hypotheses of no Grangerfs causality from the exchange rate to other variables, investment and marginal q, are accepted in all industries. The reason is the lower percentage of export by SMEs. Thus, it is considered that the effects of Abenomics on SMEs are limited, and that other kinds of reflation measures for SMEs are needed.
    Keywords: marginal q; small and medium-sized enterprises; LA-VAR model; irreversibility; exchange rate
    JEL: C32 F22
    Date: 2015–03
  13. By: Julia Thomas (The Ohio State University); Berardino Palazzo (Boston University, School of management); Aubhik Khan (Ohio State University); Gian Luca Clementi (Stern School of Business)
    Abstract: We study the cyclical implications of endogenous firm-level entry and exit decisions in a dynamic, stochastic general equilibrium model wherein firms face persistent shocks to both aggregate and individual productivity. The model we explore is in the spirit of Hopenhayn (1992). Firms' decisions regarding entry into production and their subsequent continuation are affected not only by their expected productivities, but also by the presence of convex and nonconvex capital adjustment costs, and thus their existing stocks. Thus, we can explore how age, size and selection reshape macroeconomic fluctuations in an equilibrium environment with realistic firm life-cycle dynamics and investment patterns. <P> Examining standard business cycle moments and impulse responses, we find that changes in entry and exit rates and the age-size composition of firms amplify responses over a typical business cycle driven by a disturbance to aggregate productivity and, to a lesser extent, protract them. Both results stem from an endogenous drag on TFP induced by a missing generation effect, whereby an usually small number of entrants fails to replace an increased number of exitors; this effect is most injurious several years out as the reduced cohorts of young firms approach maturity. Declines in the number of firms, and most notably in the numbers of young firms, were dramatic over the U.S. 2007-9 recession. In an exercise designed to emulate that unusual episode, we consider a second shock that more directly affects entry and the exit decisions of younger firms. We find that it sharpens the missing generation effect, delivering far more anemic recovery.
    Date: 2014
  14. By: TAKIZAWA Miho; MIYAKAWA Daisuke
    Abstract: This paper explores the composition of venture capital syndicates and their impact on portfolio firms' performance. Using a unique dataset comprised of the investment history in each investment round for each portfolio firm, we measure the correlation among various characteristics of lead venture capital firms and member venture capital firms. We also study how the assortativity of such member characteristics affects the firms' IPO dynamics, market movements, and delisting from stock markets. The estimate results imply, first, that the assortativity of venture capital characteristics in the first investment round is not statistically confirmed. Second, the assortativity becomes significantly positive in later investment stages. Third, the venture capital syndicate exhibiting higher heterogeneity among member venture capitals tends to be correlated with early initial public offerings. These results show the economic benefit associated with heterogeneous members in the early rounds.
    Date: 2015–03
  15. By: Alain Kikandi Kiuma; Christian Kamala Kaghoma; Joelle Mukenyi Kalala; Allegra Kabamba Mbuyi
    Abstract: Ce papier met en évidence le lien entre la forte mobilité des jeunes en République Démocratique du Congo et leur engagement dans l’entrepreneuriat. En effet, malgré la destruction d’infrastructures de transport du fait de la longue période de guerre qu’elle a traversé, la RDC a une population dont la mobilité au sein du territoire national est des plus importantes, avec un taux de mobilité interne de plus de 20%, particulièrement parmi les jeunes de 15 à 30 ans. Attirés par la diversité d’opportunités que procure celle des ressources à travers le pays, ces migrants sont nombreux à s’orienter vers des activités entrepreneuriales dans leurs nouvelles localisations. A partir des données de l’enquête 1-2- 3 réalisée en 2005 par l’Institut National de la Statistique de la RD Congo (INS)en collaboration avec l’Observatoire Économique et Statistique d’Afrique Subsaharienne (AFRISTAT), ce papier dresse le profil du jeune migrant interne, fait ressortir les déterminants de sa décision de migrer ainsi que les zones de destination privilégiée. Il établit aussi le lien entre le profil du jeune migrant et son engagement dans l’entrepreneuriat.
    Keywords: Mobilité géographique, migration, emploi des jeunes, entrepreneuriat, RD Congo
    JEL: J61 J24 J31
    Date: 2015

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