nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2014‒10‒22
eleven papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. Agglomeration and innovation By Carlino, Gerald A.; Kerr, William R.
  2. Breaking with the past in smart specialisation: A new model of selection of business stakeholders within the entrepreneurial process of discovery. By Diego Martínez-López; Manuel Palazuelos-Martínez
  3. SMEs are more important than you think! Challenges and opportunities for EU exporting SMEs By Lucian, Cernat; Ana, Norman-López; Ana, Duch T-Figueras
  4. Is job creation dependent on the local context? An analysis of French industrial establishments over the period 2004-2010 By Aziza Garsaa; Nadine Levratto
  5. The capital structure of Polish small and medium-sized enterprises and its impact on their competitiveness By Robert Wolañski
  6. E-Skills, Brains and Performance of the Firms: ICT and Ability of Firms to Conduct Successful Projects in Luxembourg By Anissa Chaibi; Adel Ben Youssef; Leila Peltier- Ben Aoun
  7. Transnational ties and performance of immigrant entrepreneurs: the case of IT industry in Italy By Jan Brzozowski; Marco Cucculelli; Aleksander Surdej
  8. Farmland Ownership and Leasing: Implications for Young and Beginning Farmers By Katchova, Ani L.; Ahearn, Mary Clare
  9. Demografía de Empresas en Chile By Gonzalo Suazo; Josué Pérez
  10. Entrepreneur, entrepreneuriat (et entreprise) : de quoi s'agit-il ? By Yvon Pesqueux
  11. Innovations dans l’agroalimentaire le parcours de quatre entrepreneurs héroïques initiative individuelle et trajectoire techno-économique sectorielle At the origins of the food industry trajectory of four historical entrepreurs - An analysis based on the potential of resources By Sophie BOUTILLIER; Dimitri UZUNIDIS

  1. By: Carlino, Gerald A. (Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia); Kerr, William R. (Harvard University, Bank of Finland, and NBER)
    Abstract: Draft chapter for the forthcoming Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, Vols. 5A and 5B This paper reviews academic research on the connections between agglomeration and innovation. The authors first describe the conceptual distinctions between invention and innovation. They then discuss how these factors are frequently measured in the data and note some resulting empirical regularities. Innovative activity tends to be more concentrated than industrial activity, and the authors discuss important findings from the literature about why this is so. The authors highlight the traits of cities (e.g., size, industrial diversity) that theoretical and empirical work link to innovation, and they discuss factors that help sustain these features (e.g., the localization of entrepreneurial finance).
    Keywords: Agglomeration; Clusters; Innovation; Invention; Entrepreneurship
    JEL: J2 J6 L1 L2 L6 O3 R1 R3
    Date: 2014–08–01
  2. By: Diego Martínez-López; Manuel Palazuelos-Martínez
    Abstract: The real core of the smart specialisation approach is embedded in what is known as the entrepreneurial process of discovery (EPD), which is a main novelty of this innovative policy framework. A successful EPD requires a relevant involvement of stakeholders, but this demands a careful actors´ selection. This paper proposes an analytical method for the selection of private business stake-holders, based on a transparent and measurable criterion: the choice of the entrepreneurs who can best an adequate resource allocation over time in a context of uncertainty. On the basis of a dynamic general equilibrium model with monopolistic competition, the paper proposes a simple test comparing the optimal decisions on factors.demand taken in di¤erent periods. The closer the factors. demands are, the better the entrepreneur.s ability will be to predict the most adequate level of resources. The main contributions are three-fold. Firstly, it proposes an analytically-sound method to discriminate between entrepreneurs, which could minimise rent-seekers.behaviours. Secondly, the model incorporates new features in relation to previous references, such as monopolistic competition and consumer behaviour. Thirdly, the entrepreneurship discussion is broadened to consider not only labour but also private capital.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, monopolistic competition, total factor productivity.
    JEL: L26 L22
    Date: 2014–09
  3. By: Lucian, Cernat (DG Trade); Ana, Norman-López (DG Trade); Ana, Duch T-Figueras (DG Trade)
    Abstract: This paper highlights the heterogeneity among SMEs exporting outside the EU across EU Member States and reviews how barriers facing SMEs can be tackled trade policy discussions. With over 600,000 goods exporting SMEs (over 80% of the total number of EU goods exporting firms) accounting for one third of total EU exports and employing over 6 million people in Europe, EU exporting SMEs play a non-negligible role in EU trade performance. However, SMEs have an untapped export potential, given the intrinsic and trade-specific hurdles that SMEs still face.
    Keywords: SMEs; international trade; export performance
    JEL: F13 L11
    Date: 2014–09–19
  4. By: Aziza Garsaa; Nadine Levratto
    Abstract: This paper seeks to shed some light on the relationship between individual performance and local context. We empirically address this question focusing on the employment growth rate of French manufacturing establishments geo-referenced at the employment area level, an economically consistent territorial division. Using an unbalanced panel of 149,929 plants over the period 2004-2010, we estimate different growth models including local specific variables controlled with company specific ones. The results confirm that the firm growth rate is influenced by the local context and that some features such as unemployment, agglomeration effects or skills matter significantly. The robustness checks performed on subsamples, however, show that the profile of the areas or the market (local or larger) may significantly affect the intensity of the link between a firm and its environment.
    Keywords: firm growth, geographical location, manufacturing industry, panel data.
    JEL: L25 R11 C23
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Robert Wolañski (Faculty of Management, University of Warsaw)
    Abstract: The article discusses the problem of the relationship between the capital structure and the level of competitiveness of SMEs in Poland. The objective of the article is to determine the impact capital structure has on the level of competitiveness of SMEs in Poland. The capital structure of SMEs is dominated by internal funds. Among external sources of financing, bank loans and leasing are predominant. This structure is consistent with the relevant theoretical models. The study shows no significant differences in the financing of current operations, innovation, and competitiveness improvement. The lack of relationship indicates that the capital structure of SMEs has little impact on their competitiveness. The results of the study demonstrate that all external sources of financing improve the competitiveness of SMEs, but the strength of their impact is different. The strongest impact is shown for venture capital, guarantees, and leasing; the weakest – for bank loans and the issuance of shares and bonds. A significant factor is the degree of alignment of a particular financing source with the special needs of SMEs. This significant relationship is demonstrated for all the sources most commonly used by SMEs.
    Keywords: : SMEs, competitiveness, capital structure
    JEL: L25 L26
    Date: 2013–05
  6. By: Anissa Chaibi; Adel Ben Youssef; Leila Peltier- Ben Aoun
    Abstract: This paper provides original empirical evidence on the causal links between e-skills, usage of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and firm’s performance using a sample of Luxembourgian manufacturing and services firms. Firm performance is measured in terms of innovation (success of new projects settled). Our main findings are: (i) there’s no relationship between the absorptive technology capacity of the firm (measured by ICT staff and Training) and the probability of the implementation of successful ICT projects, (ii) there is a positive effect of e-applications usage (ICT usage) on the probability of the implementation of successful new projects, and (iii) there is an asymmetric effect of usage of e-commerce and eadministration confirming findings of the recent literature.
    Keywords: Innovation; Usage of ICT; Depth of ICT adoption; Ordered models; Innovative projects.
    JEL: L21 O31 O33
    Date: 2014–09–25
  7. By: Jan Brzozowski (Cracow University of Economics, Department of European Studies); Marco Cucculelli (Universit… Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Scienze economiche e sociali); Aleksander Surdej (Cracow University of Economics, Department of European Studies)
    Abstract: This study contributes to the recent empirical literature on the performance of transnational immigrants' firms by investigating the effect of transnational ties on the firm's growth. In addition to the effect of the ties, the paper shows that home-country's institutional and socio-economic characteristics and country-specific entrepreneurial factors have a crucial role in shaping the ties-performance relationship. The evidence from a sample of immigrantowned firms in the Italian ICT sector in the period 2000-2010 confirmed the relevance of the proposed model and helped in understanding a potential channel of improvements in immigrant firms' performance through transnational ties. Our results show the limited relevance of a direct, or linear, impact of ties on the growth of sales in immigrant-run firms in the ICT sector, whereas supports the crucial moderating role of home country characteristics on the ties-performance relationship.
    Keywords: ICT industry, Italy, ethnic business ties, immigrants' firms' performance, transnational entrepreneurship
    Date: 2014–09
  8. By: Katchova, Ani L.; Ahearn, Mary Clare
    Abstract: This study considers the issue of the transition of new farmers into U.S. agriculture, by examining land ownership and leasing trends. Our approach is to characterize the entire distribution by farmer age and farmer experience rather than using young versus old and beginning versus established farmer categories. We also use a linked-farms longitudinal approach instead of a repeated cross-sectional approach to show trends over time in farmland expansion and contraction. Differences in farm size are more pronounced based on farmer experience than farmer age, as farms operated by older beginning farmers tend to be smaller and do not tend to grow over time. We find that it is mostly young farmers as opposed to all beginning farmers that rapidly expand their farm operations after entering agriculture. Our findings inform policy makers about the strategies that young and beginning farmers use to start their businesses and expand over time and suggest more effective approaches for targeting loan programs to young and beginning farmers.
    Keywords: farmland ownership, farmland leasing, beginning farmers, young farmers, Agricultural Finance, Land Economics/Use, Q12, Q15, Q18,
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Gonzalo Suazo; Josué Pérez
    Abstract: This paper shows evidence on firm demographics and firm survival in Chile. A dataset of sectoral indicators of firm dynamics has been created using unnamed administrative records collected by the Tax Office. The patterns of firm entry, exit and survival are described and analyzed by sales and employment size, sectors and also over time. We find that both sectoral and size effects are important in determining firms demographics. We also find that entry and exit rates are different across countries.
    Date: 2014–09
  10. By: Yvon Pesqueux (LIRSA - Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Recherche en Sciences de l'Action - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] : EA4603)
    Abstract: après avoir questionné la notion d'entrepreneur et d'entrepreneuriat, il sera question de l'extensivité de la figure avec la référence actuelle à l'entrepreneur institutionnel et à l'entrepreneur social.
    Keywords: entrepreneur, entrepreneuriat, entrepreneurship
    Date: 2014–09–26
  11. By: Sophie BOUTILLIER (Lab.RII, ULCO/Clersé-UMR8019, Université Lille Nord de France, RRI); Dimitri UZUNIDIS (Lab.RII, ULCO/Clersé-UMR8019, Université Lille Nord de France, RRI)
    Abstract: Les produits agroalimentaires constituent la base de la reproduction physique et économique des sociétés humaines. La révolution industrielle du 19ème siècle a largement contribué à transformer les habitudes alimentaires en industrialisant des procédés de production traditionnels et contribuant ainsi à tracer de nouvelles trajectoires techno-industrielles. Ce document est centré sur le parcours de quatre entrepreneurs historiques (Nicolas Appert, Joseph Fry, Henri Nestlé et Georges Lesieur) qui ont été à l’origine d’innovations incrémentales dans le domaine de l’agroalimentaire : la conserve, la tablette de chocolat, la farine lactée et l’huile en bouteille. Comment ont-ils transformé l’industrie agroalimentaire ? Avec quelles ressources (en connaissances, financières et en relations sociales) ? Dans quel contexte historique ? Food-produces constitute the framework of physical and economic reproduction of human societies. The industrial revolution of the 19th century radically transformed food habits by the industrializing traditional processes, and defining new techno-industrial paths. This paper is focused on the biographical analysis of four historical entrepreneurs (Nicolas Appert, Joseph Fry, Henri Nestlé and Georges Lesieur) who were at the origin of incremental innovations in food-produces activity: canned food, chocolate bar, milky flour and oil in bottle. How did they transform the food industry? With which resources (knowledge, financial resources and social resources)? In which historical context?
    Keywords: entrepreneur, innovation sectorielle, agroalimentaire, trajectoire
    JEL: L26 O14 L66
    Date: 2014–04

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