nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2014‒10‒03
three papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Université de Namur

  1. Entrepreneurship and innovation: the role played by graduates By Andrea Cammelli; Francesco Ferrante
  2. The Personal Computer and Entrepreneurship By Fairlie, Robert
  3. Regional issues on firm entry and exit in argentina: core and peripheral regions By Calá, Carla Daniela

  1. By: Andrea Cammelli (AlmaLaurea); Francesco Ferrante (University of Cassino, AlmaLaurea)
    Abstract: As is well-known, the ongoing crisis (ISTAT, 2013; CENSIS, 2013) "has eroded the capacity for resistance of families and businesses, created widespread social unease, caused expectations to fall sharply, and triggered a radical change of consumer behaviour” (CNEL, 2013). Against this backdrop, assessing the employment conditions of young people, especially those with higher educational attainment, is of paramount importance. Such an assessment is hindered by the many reforms of curricula undertaken in succession, which make it difficult to identify the effects of temporary and structural factors, thus impairing interpretation of results. These paper will anyway try to provide an overview of the situation, despite some difficulties and limitations: a thorough analysis of the various aspects and degree types under study, as well as for the definitions and method employed. An analysis of the main employment-related factors showed that graduates’ employment conditions further deteriorated over the last year. This was observed not only among recent graduates, whose employment outcomes tend to be poorer because of their small work experience, but also among their peers who graduated in less recent years. This paper present the main results of the 16th ALMALAUREA Report on graduates’ employment conditions, which has involved nearly 450,000 graduates from all the 64 Universities that are members of ALMALAUREA. The Survey refers to 220,000 post reform first and second level graduates interviewed at one year from graduation; all the 2010 second level graduates (more than 72,000) interviewed at 3 years from the achievement of the degree and all the 2008 second level graduates (more than 54,000) investigated at five years from the completion of their studies. Finally, two specific investigations, usually run by ALMALAUREA, have focused on the first-level graduates of 2010 and 2008 that did not continue their university studies (nearly 53,000 and more than 44,000), interviewed respectively at three and five years after graduation. In addition to the detailed analysis of the recent trends in the labor market, the survey deepened the following issues: the entrepreneurship of the Italian graduates in times of economic crisis, highlighting characteristics and propensities of those who decide to undertake entrepreneurial activities; the second level Italian graduates working abroad.
    Keywords: employment condition, graduates, university system, entrepreneurship, brain drain.
    Date: 2014–09
  2. By: Fairlie, Robert
    Abstract: In contrast to the large and rapidly growing literature on IT investments and firm productivity, we know very little about the role of personal computers in business creation.  Using matched data from the 1997-2001 Computer and Internet Usage Supplements to subsequent Outgoing Rotation Group files from the Current Population Survey, I explore the relationship between computer ownership and entrepreneurship.  Trends over the past two decades provide some evidence of a positive relationship between home computers and entrepreneurship rates, but the evidence is not clear.  In contrast, an analysis of the relationship between computer ownership and entrepreneurship at the individual level provides evidence that individuals who had access to a home computer are substantially more likely to become an entrepreneur over the following 12-15 months.  Probit and bivariate probit regressions also provide evidence of a strong positive relationship between computer ownership and entrepreneurship among women, but only limited evidence for men.  Further, estimates from the CPS indicate that entrepreneurs who had prior access to home computers create a large variety of types of businesses and not only those in the IT industry.
    Keywords: Business, Social and Behavioral Sciences, entrepreneurship, ICT, computers, technology, business creation, self-employment
    Date: 2014–09–12
  3. By: Calá, Carla Daniela
    Abstract: This work focuses on two fundamental and relevant questions: a) are there any differences in the regional determinants of entry and exit between developed and developing economies?; b) are there any differences in the regional determinants of entry and exit between core and peripheral regions within a single country? To address these issues, we take as a starting point a set of determinants that are generally found to be statistically significant in regional entry and exit studies using data from developed countries (e.g., demand, education, density and industrial structure). Then, we add some factors that, while potentially important in developing countries, are never considered by studies on developed countries. This is the case, for example, of the size of the informal economy, the extent of poverty or the usage of idle capacity after an economic crisis. Finally, we explore the existing of a core-periphery pattern, that is, we test whether the same factors affect entry and exit in a similar way in central and peripheral provinces.
    Keywords: Dinámica Empresarial; Creación de Empresas; Cese de Actividad; Relación Centro-Periferia; Economía Regional; Argentina;
    Date: 2014–05

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