nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2014‒03‒30
six papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
University of Namur and Universite' Catholique de Louvain

  1. SMEs and Barriers to Eco-Innovation in EU: A Diverse Palette of Greens By Marin,Giovanni; Marzucchi,Alberto; Zoboli,Roberto
  2. Access to research inputs: Open science versus the entrepreneurial university By Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel
  3. Inputs, Gender Roles or Sharing Norms? Assessing the Gender Performance Gap Among Informal Entrepreneurs in Madagascar By Nordman, Christophe Jalil; Vaillant, Julia
  4. Entrepreneurial intention and career choices: The role of volition By S. Nyock Ilouga; A.C. Mouloungui; J.-M. Sahut
  5. Government Policy Ecosystem for Entrepreneurship Development in MSEs Sector By Bhat, Shabir A; Khan, Riyaz A
  6. La difficile promotion de pme innovantes en Algérie THE DIFFICULT PROMOTION OF INNOVATIVE SMEs IN ALGERIA By Amina AISSAT LEGHIMA

  1. By: Marin,Giovanni; Marzucchi,Alberto; Zoboli,Roberto
    Abstract: Eco-innovation is an explicit aim of major EU policy strategies. Many environmental policy de facto require firms to eco-innovate to comply with policy requirements, while the overlap between policy-driven and market-driven eco-innovation strategies is increasingly important for many firms. Barriers to eco-innovation can then emerge as a critical factor in either preventing or stimulating EU strategies, policy implementation, and 'green strategies' by firms. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy of EU SMEs in terms of barriers to eco-innovation. The aim is to discriminate among SMEs on how they differ in terms of perception of barriers and engagement in environmental innovation, thus highlighting the need to look at eco-innovation barriers in relation to firms' attitudes, technological and organizational capabilities, and strategies. We identify six clusters of SMEs. These clusters include firms facing 'Revealed barriers', 'Deterring barriers', 'Cost deterred' firms, 'Market deterred' firms, 'Non eco-innovators' and 'Green champions'. The clusters show substantial differences in terms of eco-innovation adoption. We show that our proposed taxonomy has little overlap with sector classifications. This diversity should be taken into account for successful environmental innovation policies.
    Keywords: eco-innovation, Barriers to innovation, firm behaviour
    JEL: O33 Q55
    Date: 2014–03–24
  2. By: Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel
    Abstract: The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding of any kind are, however, 50% more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry. --
    Keywords: open science,research funding,industry sponsorship,research inputs
    JEL: O31 O32 L33
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Nordman, Christophe Jalil (IRD, DIAL, Paris); Vaillant, Julia (World Bank)
    Abstract: We use a representative sample of informal entrepreneurs in Madagascar to add new evidence on the magnitude of the gender performance gap. After controlling for business and entrepreneur characteristics, female-owned businesses exhibit a value added 28 percent lower than their male counterparts. Correcting for endogenous selection into informal self-employment raises the gap by 5 percentage points. We then investigate the role of sharing norms and gender-differentiated allocation of time within the household in the gender performance gap, by estimating their effect on the technical inefficiency of female and male entrepreneurs. Only male entrepreneurs seem subject to pressure to redistribute from the distant network. Our findings are consistent with situations where women working at home would essentially feel negatively the burden of their own community due to intense social norms and obligations in their workplace but also of domestic chores and responsibilities. We find evidence of females self-selecting themselves into industries in which they can combine market-oriented and domestic activities.
    Keywords: gender, entrepreneurship, informal sector, sharing norms, household composition, Madagascar
    JEL: D13 D61 O12 J16
    Date: 2014–03
  4. By: S. Nyock Ilouga; A.C. Mouloungui; J.-M. Sahut
    Abstract: Developing entrepreneurship among students and helping them to build their career plans and improving their employability is the core of public policy in a lot of countries in Europe (Branchet et al., 2011). Following some empirical researches (Boissin et al., 2009), we do know some predictive factors for the emergence of an entrepreneurial project. But another question remains largely unexplored: What are the psychological mechanisms that may interplay in entrepreneurial intention and career choices? Our research aims to demonstrate that entrepreneurship is an objective which relies entirely on willingness, and therefore, it is much more dependent on interpersonal features than on economic and environmental constraints. In particular, we wish to highlight the personal dynamics in shaping, maturing and implementing a choice of entrepreneurial career in order to extract volitional characteristics of this career choice. The hypotheses are tested using data from interviews conducted with French students in business schools, engineering schools and universities. Our dynamic approach to study the psychosocial processes involved in the definition of an entrepreneurial career helps understand the interest of young people in the entrepreneurial process. This research has demonstrated that volition has a key role in binding an individual commitment to an ambitious career objective.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, career, volition, entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurial project, theory of planned behavior
    JEL: L26 M53 J24 H52
    Date: 2014–02–25
  5. By: Bhat, Shabir A; Khan, Riyaz A
    Abstract: Government Policy Ecosystem is central to the entrepreneurship development in any economy and generally includes Policies relating to government spending, taxation and regulation etc. There are two distinct channels through which government Policy ecosystem impacts the rate of entrepreneurship; the first is through its impact on the quantity and quality of inputs going into the entrepreneurial process and the second is through the impact of Policy on the institutional structure that determines the rules of the game under which the entrepreneurial process unfolds. The present study aims to assess the ‘Government Policy Ecosystem’ existing in the Jammu & Kashmir State towards the overall entrepreneurship development in the Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) Sector. The study is based on the response of the representative respondents {existing MSEs Sector entrepreneurs from all the three regions (Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh) of the state} against the parameters: Policy focus and nature; Taxation and other regulatory Policies; and Policy implementation structure. Findings indicate that to the extent the Policy implementation structure is made proper and more coordination is brought in among the EPAs in implementing the state polIcies , there will be a remarkable entrepreneurship development in the MSEs Sector of the State. Towards the end of the study for the robust entrepreneurship development in Micro and Small Enterprises Sector of the State, on the basis of the findings, certain suggestions have been put forth for the improvement in the existing ‘Government Policy Ecosystem’ for MSEs Sector.
    Keywords: Government Policy Ecosystem, Micro and Small Enterprises Sector (MSEs), Entrepreneurship Development, and Entrepreneurship Promotional Agencies (EPAs).
    JEL: E6
    Date: 2014–03–14
  6. By: Amina AISSAT LEGHIMA (Université Mouloud MAMMERI, Tizi Ouzou, Algérie)
    Abstract: L’esprit d’entreprendre permet de redynamiser la vie économique et sociale d'un pays. Nous vivons actuellement dans une société de savoirs où l’innovation, facteur déterminant dans la compétitivité de l’entreprise, est considérée comme étant un élément clé de la survie, de la croissance et du développement des PME. Cependant, l’innovation provient avant tout de la recherche et développement menée par les entreprises, les universités et les organismes de recherche. Nous cherchons à démontrer comment la recherche et développement peuvent contribuer à promouvoir l’innovation et l’entrepreneuriat dans les PME Algériennes, ceci en présentant un état de lieux de la situation actuelle de la recherche et développement en Algérie ainsi que de l'innovation dans les PME algériennes. Puis nous proposons des recommandations. The entrepreneurial spirit mays contribute to revitalize the economic and social activity of a country. In the current knowledge society, innovation stands as a factor of competitiveness for enterprises and is considered as a key element for the survival, the growth and the development of SMEs. However, innovation mainly ensues from the research and development carried out by firms, universities and research organizations. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how research and development activities may promote innovation and entrepreneurship in Algerian SMEs; In this aim, we present an inventory of the current results of research and development in Algeria and of innovation in Algerian SMEs. We then propose some recommendations for public policies.
    Keywords: Innovation, entrepreneuriat, PME algériennes, entrepreneurship, R&D, Algerian SMEs
    JEL: O31 O32 O55 L26
    Date: 2014–02

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