nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2013‒06‒04
nine papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Notre-Dame de la Paix University

  1. Entrepreneurship, innovation and the triple helix model: evidence from Oxfordshire and Cambridgeshire By Helen Lawton Smith
  2. Constrained gazelles : high potentials in West Africa's informal economy By Grimm, Michael; Knorringa, Peter; Lay, Jann
  3. Critical learning episodes in the evolution of Brazilian business start-ups: a theoretical and analytical tool By Corradi, A.A.
  4. Has Europe been catching up? An industry level analysis of venture capital success over 1985 - 2009 By Kräussl, Roman; Krause, Stefan
  5. How Low-Carbon Green Growth Can Reduce Inequalities By Anbumozhi, Venkatachalam; Bauer, Armin
  6. Organizational Well-being Factors. Determinants of Entrepreneurship in Small and Medium Companies of the Defense Sector By Almeida, Helena; Peñalver, Briones
  7. Analysis of external factors affecting the development of SMEs in Kosovo By Govori, Arbiana
  8. Diasporas and international entrepreneurship – evidence from the Indian IT industry By Varma, Sumati; Bagoria, Mukesh
  9. L'éco-entrepreneuriat, un objet de gestion non identifié ? By Bernard Simon; Amale Kharrouby; Thierry Levy-Tadjine

  1. By: Helen Lawton Smith (Department of Management, Birkbeck College University of London)
    Date: 2013–05
  2. By: Grimm, Michael; Knorringa, Peter; Lay, Jann
    Abstract: The informal sector is typically characterized as being very heterogeneous and possibly composed of two clearly distinct segments, sometimes called the lower and upper tier. However, empirical evidence shows that even among lower tier entrepreneur's profitability can be quite high. The authors combine these findings and develop an innovative approach to identify what is called constrained gazelles, next to the well-known survivalists in the lower tier and growth-oriented top-performers in the upper tier. The sample of informal entrepreneurs in seven West-African countries allows linking the relative size of these three groups to the structural and macroeconomic environment in these countries.
    Keywords: Access to Finance,Economic Theory&Research,Microfinance,Financial Literacy,Environmental Economics&Policies
    Date: 2012–03–01
  3. By: Corradi, A.A.
    Abstract: This study investigates critical learning episodes as landmarks in the evolution of business start-ups. A framework that combines individual learning processes with the Penrosian resource-based theory of the firm, and the concepts of search and routines from evolutionary economics provides the theoretical ground on which this study is developed. Multilevel factors, ranging from entrepreneurial agency to the institutional setting of business development services, represent different levels of analysis. These levels are connected through critical learning episodes, which are triggered by endogenous or exogenous factors and culminate in the creation of new or in the change of current organizational routines. These episodes were narrated by 43 entrepreneurs-founders through semi-structured interviews. Their business start-ups were operating for an average of 4 years (s.d.=1,9) and were linked to business incubation programmes in the two most resource-rich regions in Brazil. These start-ups were in three sectors: a) manufacturing, b) information and communication, and c) professional, scientific and technical activities. The analysis of these narratives combined qualitative (i.e., grounded theory principles) and quantitative (i.e., social networks analysis) techniques. This paper focusses on the most common type of critical learning episode: entry and survival in the market (n=36 start-ups). Results show how micro-processes of learning influence access and creation of resources at the firm level. A temporal analysis of networks configurations shows how processes of embeddedness in market relations influence intra- and inter-organizational dynamics. It is argued that critical learning episodes, for combining multiple factors and levels of analysis, are a useful theoretical and analytical tool to better understand the evolution of these businesses. In addition to this, issues of path-breaking and innovation are discussed in light of institutionalized practices of business development services.
    Keywords: social networks;organizational learning;evolution of business start-ups;critical learning episodes;organizational routines;mixed methods
    Date: 2013–05–17
  4. By: Kräussl, Roman; Krause, Stefan
    Abstract: After nearly two decades of US leadership during the 1980s and 1990s, are Europe's venture capital (VC) markets in the 2000s finally catching up regarding the provision of financing and successful exits, or is the performance gap as wide as ever? Are we amid an overall VC performance slump with no encouraging news? We attempt to answer these questions by tracking over 40,000 VC-backed firms stemming from six industries in 13 European countries and the US between 1985 and 2009; determining the type of exit - if any - each particular firm's investors choose for the venture. --
    Keywords: Venture Capital,Private Equity,Entrepreneurial Activity,Performance Gap
    JEL: G24 G3
    Date: 2012
  5. By: Anbumozhi, Venkatachalam (Asian Development Bank Institute); Bauer, Armin (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Half of the world’s population—3 billion people—lives below the poverty line, and Asia has the largest share. In pursuit of sustainable economic development and poverty alleviation, there is great potential among low-income households for green consumption, production, innovation, and entrepreneurial activity. This paper shows how an inclusive green growth model can uplift the poor through entrepreneurship and fiscal policy reforms.
    Keywords: low-carbon growth; green growth. inequalities; sustainable economic development; poverty alleviation; green consumption; entrepreneurship; fiscal policy reforms
    JEL: E62 H61 Q20 Q30 Q40
    Date: 2013–05–15
  6. By: Almeida, Helena (CIEO - Research Centre on Spatial and Organizational Dynamics); Peñalver, Briones (Polytechnic University of Cartagena)
    Abstract: All over the world, the small and medium enterprises are more and more organized in consortia, cooperation networks, joint-ventures and strategical alliances allowing not only the reduction of uncertainty and turbulence of the markets but also the gathering of advantages which may make them more competitive. It is worth considering that the results of these relationships are affected by determinant factors which may inhibit or facilitate the entrepreneurship. Our aim is to evaluate the relationship between some of those determinants, association, inter-company cooperation, innovation in the methods of work and creativity—about the entrepreneurship in 236 small and medium enterprises of the national defence. One of the questions initially posed is if there is a significant relation between corporation, innovative methods of work, creativity and entrepreneurship. Secondly, if being creative is an attribute of the entrepreneur, can it have a mediator effect between innovative methods of work and entrepreneurship? A factorial exploratory analysis was made in main components (varimax rotation) and multiple linear regression. The results show the direct relationship of the evaluated determinants and entrepreneurship and the partial mediator effect of the creativity between the innovation in the methods of work and entrepreneurship. These enterprises may expect to develop new methods of work as a high differential component concerning the competition and the more efficient use of knowledge and of the skills of the people who make part of the work team in order to increase their competitiveness.
    Keywords: Cooperation; Creativity; Motivation; Entrepreneurship
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2013–05–22
  7. By: Govori, Arbiana
    Abstract: Small and medium enterprises are becoming increasingly important for the creation and development of a modern, dynamic and knowledge-based economy. This is because of their capacity to promote entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial skills, and because of their ability to be flexible and adapt quickly to a changing market, and to generate new jobs. SME sector is the backbone of the economy in countries with higher income, while it is less developed in the countries with the low incomes. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) reports that more than 95% of enterprises in the OECD area are SMEs. These enterprises employ about 60% of private sector workers, make a major contribution in the field of innovation and support regional development and social cohesion. Also, SMEs in most low income countries give significant contribution to GDP growth and the creation of new jobs. In Kosovo SMEs represent more than 99% of the total number of enterprises and their share in GDP amounts to more than 50% (CBK, 2011). For this reason, the identification of external factors affecting the development of SMEs in Kosovo is very important, in order to take all the necessary steps to reduce or remove barriers and create new opportunities for these enterprises. This research focuses primarily on the impact of external factors, with special emphasis on access to finance for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Kosovo. External factors such as access to finance, competition, corruption, and government policies have very important impact in the development of SMEs in Kosovo. Facilitating access to finance is essential to set up a favorable environment to develop SMEs. However, in general, SMEs in developing countries face numerous barriers to funding, although this problem is not unknown even in developed countries. Barriers that face SMEs usually relate to high administrative costs, high collateral requirements and the lack of willingness of banks to lend to SMEs. Raising the level of awareness of their role and availability of access to finance for SMEs can improve economic conditions in developing countries by promoting innovation, growth of GDP and reduce unemployment.
    Keywords: Small and medium enterprises, the SME sector, SME financing, development factors, bank loans, GDP
    JEL: E2 E22 E6 E64 G2 G21 G23 G3 G32
    Date: 2013–04–03
  8. By: Varma, Sumati; Bagoria, Mukesh
    Abstract: ABSTRACT This paper examines the role of the diaspora as a driver of international entrepreneurship in the context of the Indian IT industry. As an initial exploratory analysis of an emerging phenomenon, it is based on case studies to identify the entrepreneur’s diaspora links as a source of knowledge, learning and reputation driving the born global firm towards international acquisition. It contributes as a pioneering effort attempting to combine diverse streams of literature from the diasporas and international entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: international entrepreneurship, diaspora, born global, information technology, India
    JEL: F22 F23 L26 L86 M13
    Date: 2012–12
  9. By: Bernard Simon (ICI - Laboratoire Information, Coordination, Incitations - Institut Mines-Télécom - Télécom Bretagne - Université de Bretagne Occidentale [UBO] : EA2652 - PRES Université Européenne de Bretagne [UEB] - Institut des Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société - ISHS); Amale Kharrouby (CIRAME - Centre International de Recherches et d'Applications en Management et Economie - USEK); Thierry Levy-Tadjine (Laboratoire ICI-Equipe Entrepreneuriat - Université de Bretagne Occidentale [UBO])
    Abstract: Le chapitre discute de la représentation du phénomène éco-entrepreneurial en proposant de mobiliser la théorie des conventions pour rendre compte de la diversité de ses manifestations. Le modèle conceptuel proposé est ensuite confronté aux représentations et aux discours d'experts du monde agricole breton.
    Keywords: Entrepreneuriat; Développement Durable; Agriculteurs; Bretagne; Conventions; Eco-entrepreneurs.
    Date: 2012–08–20

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