nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2012‒07‒08
seven papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Notre-Dame de la Paix University

  1. J.A. Schumpeter and the Theory of Economic Evolution (One Hundred Years beyond the Theory of Economic Development) By Stan Metcalfe
  2. Sen meets Schumpeter: Introducing structural and dynamic elements into the human capability approach By Hartmann, Dominik
  3. Entrepreneurship, Social Capital, Governance and Regional Economic Development By Karlsson, Charlie
  4. The role of family background in the heterogeneity of self-employment in some transition countries By Castellano, R; Punzo, G
  5. Distal embedding as a technology innovation network formation strategy By Paredes-Frigolett, Harold; Pyka, Andreas
  6. Unternehmensnachfolgen in Deutschland: Aktuelle Trends By Moog, Petra; Kay, Rosemarie; Schlömer-Laufen, Nadine; Schlepphorst, Susanne
  7. Die Bedeutung des Kurzarbeitergeldes im Mittelstand By Münstermann, Leonard; Schneck, Stefan; Wolter, Hans-Jürgen

  1. By: Stan Metcalfe
    Abstract: The centennial of the publication of Schumpeter's Theory of Economic Development is an occasion to look back in appraisal and an opportunity to look forward in anticipation to consider anew the challenges that remain unfulfilled for Schumpeterians. Along with Marx and Marshall, Schumpeter's great achievement was to formulate an evolutionary, open system perspective on modern capitalism, to explain why it could never be at rest and to link its emergent properties to the capacity to change from within. In terms of appraisal, I shall focus on three aspects of Schumpeter's scheme: the link between knowledge, enterprise and the meaning to be attributed to a knowledge economy, the nature of the competitive process in the presence of innovation, and the transient, out of equilibrium nature of all economic arrangements. In looking forward, I shall consider what is missing from evolutionary economic dynamics, pointing to the role of factor markets in the competitive process, the significance of differences in firm's investment strategies and the fine grained nature of competition in markets where differences in the qualities of goods and services matter, and, lastly, on the evolutionary dimensions of international competition. Two lessons are particularly pertinent to advancing the Schumpeterian enterprise. First, that the familiar one-dimensional models of economic evolution are useful but incomplete. Secondly, that, while much evolutionary thinking has naturally focused on the connection between the micro and the meso, we need also to consider the connection between the meso and the macro and in so doing connect to rich literatures in the field of economic growth and development.
    Date: 2012–06–26
  2. By: Hartmann, Dominik
    Abstract: This paper argues for the necessity and potential of introducing Schumpeter's understanding of economic development as structural change into Amartya Sen's people-oriented development as freedom approach. Sen and other authors on social choice, human development and inequality have effectively promoted - through the United Nations Development Programme - that the expansion of human agency, well-being and capabilities are the means and ends of development (Sen, 1999). However, this approach has lead to a neglect of structural and technological aspects of economic systems such as social network dynamics, technological progress and the structural changes in the variety and balance of economic activities. Innovation driven socioeconomic change has decisive influences on the capabilities of the actors to be active agents in the development processes. For instance, the variety of economic sectors in a country and the access to information and finance networks determine occupational choices and learning opportunities. Economic diversification and social network dynamics follow evolutionary paths that can contribute to human development, but also intrinsically drive success-breeds-success mechanisms and inequality reproduction. Therefore, an agent oriented evolutionary theory of inequality and qualitative change has to take these structural features of economic development into account. --
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Karlsson, Charlie (Jönköping International Business School)
    Abstract: In this paper, we discuss three factors of critical importance for regional economic develop-ment, namely entrepreneurship, social capital and governance. We conclude firstly that the relationships between regional entrepreneurship, regional social capital, regional governance and regional economic development are complex and interdependent. Secondly, to influence these factors and the relationship between them policy-makers must have a long-term per-spective and be both patient and persistent in their efforts. It is our hope that this paper pro-vides both a somewhat better understanding of the relationships between regional entrepre-neurship, regional social capital, regional governance and regional economic development and some help to national and regional policy-makers in formulating and implementing the proper long-term regional policies needed.
    Keywords: Regional economic development; entrepreneurship; social capital; governance
    JEL: D70 G38 L26 R58
    Date: 2012–06–13
  4. By: Castellano, R; Punzo, G
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to shed light on how some determinants, especially in the spheres of family background, differently affect the heterogeneous category of self-employment across a set of transition economies of Eastern Europe, where more or less restrictive policies and different liberalization processes have been adopted over time. At this end, three-stage multinomial logit models as discrete choice models are estimated on 2005 EU-SILC data. Country-specific peculiarities of self-employment profiles are drawn and, although the occupational status is often devised in a dualist perspective, significant differentiations within the ranks of self-employed also exist.
    Keywords: Self-employment; Generational mobility; Three-stage multinomial model
    JEL: P29 J62 P51
    Date: 2012
  5. By: Paredes-Frigolett, Harold; Pyka, Andreas
    Abstract: Although the area of innovation economics dates back to the early twentieth century with the seminal contributions of Schumpeter (1911), it is only recently that governments have understood the role of a comprehensive approach towards public sector economics that puts innovation systems in the eye of public policy decision makers. Although well researched in academia in recent years, the role that innovation networks play in driving successful processes of innovation and entrepreneurship has been less understood by policy makers. Indeed, so far public policy makers have been concerned with the macro level of public policy in a way that has been rather disconnected from the meso level of innovation networks. Not surprisingly, overall strategies for innovation network formation have not been on the radar screen of public policy. The academic community, on the other hand, has been devoting more attention to the study of innovation networks in an attempt to understand the role they play as a catalyst of innovation and entrepreneurship. By and large in the research community, the process of innovation network formation has been left rather unattended. Indeed, the question of how these networks are formed and what strategies can be developed to ignite processes of innovation network formation has been largely absent from the academic debate. In this article, we make a contribution in this area and present distal embedding as one of three generic innovation network formation strategies. We also show why distal embedding'' is particularly well suited for emerging regions of innovation and entrepreneurship. Our contributions lie at the macro-meso interface and can shed light on public policy at the macro level aiming to have a direct impact at the meso level of innovation network formation. --
    Keywords: entrepreneurship,innovation networks,innovation network strategy formation
    Date: 2012
  6. By: Moog, Petra; Kay, Rosemarie; Schlömer-Laufen, Nadine; Schlepphorst, Susanne
    Abstract: Da in Deutschland im Jahr 1989 letztmalig eine großzahlige, bundesweite Unternehmensbefragung zum Thema Nachfolge durchgeführt wurde, bestand Bedarf an aktuellen Daten. Deshalb hat der Stiftungslehrstuhl für allgemeine BWL, insbesondere Unternehmensnachfolge an der Universität Siegen in Kooperation mit dem IfM Bonn im Winter 2008/2009 eine Befragung von bundesweit 14.203 Unternehmen durchgeführt, an der sich letztlich 1.171 Unternehmer beteiligten. Die Unternehmer, bei denen zukünftig eine Übergabe des Unternehmens ansteht, wurden um Auskunft zu ihren Vorkehrungen für die geplante und die ungeplante Nachfolge gebeten. Die Unternehmer, die ihr Unternehmen übernommen haben, wurden zu den Modalitäten der Übernahme befragt. -- The last substantial, nationwide survey among German businesses with regard to the topic of business succession took place back in 1989. Therefore, the strong need for more recent data emerged. Thus, in winter 2008/09 the Chair for Entrepreneurship and Family Business at the University of Siegen conducted a nationwide survey in co-operation with the Institute for SME Research Bonn among 14,203 businesses. Finally, 1,171 businesses owners participated in the survey. Owners, who will be confronted with a succession decision in the near future, were asked to provide information with regard to their arrangements for a planned and an unplanned succession. New owners, who have already taken over a business, were interviewed with regard to the modalities of their completed enterprise succession.
    Keywords: Familienunternehmen,Unternehmensnachfolge,Deutschland,Übergeber,Nachfolger,family business,business succession,Germany,predecessor,successor
    JEL: L26 M13
    Date: 2012
  7. By: Münstermann, Leonard; Schneck, Stefan; Wolter, Hans-Jürgen
    Abstract: Der Beitrag befasst sich mit der Nutzung der (konjunkturellen) Kurzarbeit durch mittelständische Betriebe. Es zeigte sich, dass kleine und mittelgroße Betriebe dieses Instrument deutlich seltener als ihre großbetrieblichen Pendants nutzen: im Juni 2009 ließen nur etwa 1,6 Prozent der kleinen und 7,4 Prozent der mittelgroßen Betriebe kurzarbeiten, wohingegen das in 19,7 % der großen Betriebe mit mindestens 500 Beschäftigten der Fall war. Zur Finanzierung tragen über die Pflichtbeiträge zur gesetzlichen Arbeitslosenversicherung hingegen alle Betriebe gleichermaßen bei. Da das Kurzarbeitergeld als originäre Leistung der Arbeitslosenversicherung anzusehen ist, kommt es dennoch nicht zu einer Benachteiligung des Mittelstandes. Daher ist es aus Sicht des Mittelstandes ein sinnvolles Instrument, um unabwendbare und nicht dauerhafte Ereignisse abzufedern. -- This paper aims to describe various aspects of cyclical short-time work in Germany. At first, the empirical examination of officially available data reveals that large establishments with at least 500 employees utilize short-time work much more than smaller establishments. While only 1.6 percent of small establishments with a maximum of nine employees utilize shorttime work, 7.4 percent of medium sized establishments and 19.7 percent of large establishments, respectively, apply short-time in June 2009. Another focus of this study is on the legal frame of short-time work with a special focus on whether it can be understood as extraneous unemployment insurance benefits. The examination suggests that this is the case. For this reason, there is no systematic discrimination of establishments who do not apply short-time work.
    Keywords: Kurzarbeit,kleine und mittlere Betriebe,short-time work,small and medium-sized,establishments,SME
    JEL: J65 J68
    Date: 2012

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