nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2012‒05‒22
five papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Notre-Dame de la Paix University

  1. The impact of regional industries and universities on (high) technology entrepreneurship By Hülsbeck, Marcel; Kitzinger, Elena N.
  2. Young innovative companies: The new high-growth firms? By Czarnitzki, Dirk; Delanote, Julie
  3. What explains the gender earnings gap in self-employment? A decomposition analysis with German data By Lechmann, Daniel S. J.; Schnabel, Claus
  4. Economists versus the Street: Comparative Viewpoints on Barriers to Self-employment in Khayelitsha, South Africa By Paul Cichello; Liberty Mncube; Morne Oosthuizen; Laura Poswell
  5. Industry Dynamics and Indeterminacy in an OLG Economy with Endogenous Occupational Choice By Maria José Gil-Moltó; Dimitrios Varvarigos

  1. By: Hülsbeck, Marcel; Kitzinger, Elena N.
    Abstract: Similar to the creation and distribution of new knowledge through industrial R&D and university research, entrepreneurial activity tends to vary across regions. Therefore the regionalized production of new knowledge is a prerequisite of entrepreneurial innovation. Based on endogenous growth theory, in particular the so-called Griliches-Jaffe-Model of regional knowledge production, we investigate industrial and university characteristics as determinants of technologically oriented entrepreneurship. Using hand-collected data from multiple sources, our results clearly show that high technology entrepreneurship is highly dependent on regional knowledge production by industry and university, while medium technology entrepreneurship does largely not dependent on these factors. --
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Czarnitzki, Dirk; Delanote, Julie
    Abstract: Young Innovative Companies (YIC) gained increasing attention from governments and scholars due to their expected high innovative performance and growth. Consequently, this study investigates whether Young Innovative Companies, as defined by the EU, grow more than other firms, both in terms of employment and in terms of sales. Using a database of Flemish firms over the years 2001-2008 reveals that these firms do grow significantly more than other firms. In addition, this study shows that YICs can be differentiated from New Technology Based Firms and small young firms in terms of growth, pointing to the importance of combining the individual properties characterizing YICs, that is being young (<6 years), small (<250 employees) and R&D intensive (R&D intensity > 15%). In our estimations, we also take the underlying distribution of the growth variables into account by performing quantile regressions. The results of these quantile regressions reveal that YICs especially grow faster than the other, already fast-growing firms, indicating that they are high performers. In addition, we never find that these companies perform significantly worse than the other firms. --
    Keywords: Young Innovative Companies,Growth
    JEL: M13 L25 O33
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Lechmann, Daniel S. J.; Schnabel, Claus
    Abstract: Using a large data set for Germany, we show that both the raw and the unexplained gender earnings gap are higher in self-employment than in paid employment. Applying an Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, more than a quarter of the difference in monthly self-employment earnings can be traced back to women working fewer hours than men. In contrast variables like family background, working time flexibility and career aspirations do not seem to contribute much to the gender earnings gap, suggesting that self-employed women do not earn less because they are seeking work-family balance rather than profits. Differences in human capital endowments account for another 13 percent of the gap but segregation does not contribute to the gender earnings gap in a robust way. -- Mit einem großen Datensatz für Deutschland zeigen wir, dass sowohl der gesamte geschlechtsspezifische Verdienstunterschied als auch dessen unerklärter Teil bei Selbständigen größer ausfallen als bei abhängig Beschäftigten. Gemäß einer Oaxaca-Blinder-Zerlegung ist über ein Viertel des Unterschieds im Monatsverdienst von Selbständigen darauf zurückzuführen, dass Frauen kürzere Arbeitszeiten haben als Männer. Dagegen scheinen Variablen wie Familienhintergrund, Arbeitszeitflexibilität und Karriereaspiration nicht substanziell zum Geschlechter-Verdienstdifferenzial beizutragen. Dies legt nahe, dass selbständige Frauen nicht deshalb weniger verdienen, weil sie eher an der Vereinbarkeit von Arbeit und Familie und weniger an Gewinnerzielung interessiert sind. Unterschiede in der Humankapitalausstattung erklären weitere 13 Prozent des Differenzials, doch Segregation spielt keine eindeutige Rolle.
    Keywords: earnings differential,entrepreneurship,gender pay gap,Germany,self-employed,self-employment
    JEL: J31 J71
    Date: 2012
  4. By: Paul Cichello; Liberty Mncube; Morne Oosthuizen; Laura Poswell (Haverford College; )
    Abstract: What prevents the unemployed in Khayelitsha, South Africa from trying self-employment? Perceptions of a small group of academic economists are presented and compared to the perceptions of unemployed Khayelitsha residents themselves. The largest differences in view-points are that a) academics believe that the general business skills of residents hold the unemployed back substantially while residents perceive it as a minor issue; and b) compared to academics, residents of Khayelitsha give much more weight to jealousy within the community and to the continual vulnerability to business failure as barriers to trying self-employment.
    Keywords: self employment, informal economy, unemployment, perceptions, South Africa, crime, risk
    JEL: A1
    Date: 2011–11
  5. By: Maria José Gil-Moltó; Dimitrios Varvarigos
    Abstract: We model an oligopolistic industry that supplies intermediate goods in an overlapping generations economy. Agents can choose whether to provide labour or to become entrepreneurs and compete in the industry. The idea that entry is determined through occupational choice has major implications for the industry’s dynamics. We find that the industry’s convergence to the steady state equilibrium occurs through cyclical fluctuations, despite the lack of any type of exogenous shocks. Furthermore, the path of convergence is not uniquely determined, implying that differences in economic performance may not necessarily reflect differences in either structural characteristics or initial conditions.
    Keywords: Dynamic general equilibrium, Firms’ entry, Industry dynamics, Oligopoly.
    JEL: D50 L11
    Date: 2012–05

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