nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2012‒04‒17
three papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Notre-Dame de la Paix University

  1. University Entrepreneurship and Professor Privilege By Erika Farnstrand Damsgaard; Marie C. Thursby
  2. Productivity Growth and Job Creation in the Development Process of Industrial Clusters By Tetsushi Sonobe; Yuki Higuchi; Keijiro Otsuka
  3. Management Practices, Self-Selection into Management Training Participation, and Training Effects in the Garment Industry in Ethiopia By Girum Abebe; Tetsushi Sonobe

  1. By: Erika Farnstrand Damsgaard; Marie C. Thursby
    Abstract: This paper analyzes how institutional differences affect university entrepreneurship. We focus on ownership of faculty inventions, and compare two institutional regimes; the US and Sweden. In the US, the Bayh Dole Act gives universities the right to own inventions from publicly funded research, whereas in Sweden, the professor privilege gives the university faculty this right. We develop a theoretical model and examine the effects of institutional differences on modes of commercialization; entrepreneurship or licenses to established firms, as well as on probabilities of successful commercialization. We find that the US system is less conducive to entrepreneurship than the Swedish system if established firms have some advantage over faculty startups, and that on average the probability of successful commercialization is somewhat higher in the US. We also use the model to perform four policy experiments as suggested by recent policy debates in both countries.
    JEL: O3 O33 O34
    Date: 2012–04
  2. By: Tetsushi Sonobe (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies); Yuki Higuchi (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies); Keijiro Otsuka (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies)
    Abstract: Poor management has long been suspected as a major constraint on job creation in the manufacturing sector in low-income countries. In this sector, numerous micro and small enterprises in industrial clusters account for a large share of employment. This paper examines the roles of industrial clusters and entrepreneurship in improving productivity and creating jobs, by reviewing the literature and case studies, including recent experiments. We find that the managerial capacity of entrepreneurs largely determine firms’ employment sizes, that their innovative capacity is a major determinant of productivity growth, and that entrepreneurship consisting of these capacities boosts cluster-based industrial development.
    Keywords: job creation, labor productivity, industrial cluster, management, entrepreneurship
    Date: 2012–03
  3. By: Girum Abebe (Ethiopian Development Research Institute, Ethiopia); Tetsushi Sonobe (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies)
    Abstract: Many observational studies of micro and small enterprises have found that enterprise performance and education levels of entrepreneurs are positively associated. Does it follow that entrepreneurs’ management capacities depend on their academic achievements? This paper examines what types of entrepreneurs participated in a managerial training program held in Ethiopia, who benefited more from the program, and who had better management knowledge before the program. We find that highly educated entrepreneurs were more willing to learn about management, more knowledgeable about management, and gaining more from the training program, but that such simple relationships are missing among entrepreneurs operating larger enterprises.
    Keywords: Africa, Ethiopia, education, management practices, management training
    Date: 2012–03

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