nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2012‒03‒08
eight papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Notre-Dame de la Paix University

  1. Public Gains from Entrepreneurial Research: Inferences about the Economic Value of Public Support of the Small Business Innovation Research Program By Allen, Stuart D.; Layson, Stephen K.; L, Albert N.
  2. Regional Appropriation of University-Based Knowledge and Technology for Economic Development By Audretsch, David B.; Leyden, Dennis P.; Link, Albert N.
  3. Openness and innovation performance: are small firms different? By Priit Vahter; James Love; Stephen Roper
  4. Obstacles and Facilitators of Core Competence Developments in Entrepreneur-driven Firms By Ljungquist, Urban; Ghannad, Navid
  5. Does Banking Competition Alleviate or Worsen Credit Constraints Faced by Small and Medium Enterprises? Evidence from China (Replaces CentER DP 2011-006) By Chong, T.T.L.; Lu, L.; Ongena, S.
  6. The Global Financial Crisis and Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises in Japan: How did they cope with the crisis? By OGAWA Kazuo; TANAKA Takanori
  7. Testing for spatial location patterns of Bogotá’s small and medium size manufacturing firms (2006-2008) By Hernán Enríquez; Juan Tomás Sayago
  8. Accompagnement des entrepreneurs de PME à l'international By François Goxe

  1. By: Allen, Stuart D. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Layson, Stephen K. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); L, Albert N. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper presents a systematic analysis of the net economic benefits associated with the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. We offer a derivation of producer and consumer surplus to estimate economic benefits. Fundamental to the implementation of these models is a specific value of the elasticity of demand, but in its absence we estimate what its value would be when the benefit-to-cost ratio associated with public support of the SBIR program equals unity. We infer from these calculations, and from general knowledge about the ability of SBIR-funded firms to exploit their monopoly position, that the SBIR program likely generates positive net economic benefits to society.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Technology; SBIR Program; Benefit-to-cost Ratio; Program Evaluation; Producer Surplus; Consumer Surplus
    JEL: H43 O22 O31 O38
    Date: 2012–02–27
  2. By: Audretsch, David B. (Indiana University); Leyden, Dennis P. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Link, Albert N. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Economic development practitioners and scholars recognize the link between universities and regional economic development. It is predicated on the spillover of knowledge from universities to commercialization. The literature has focused on the supply side, which involves university research and technology transfer mechanisms. We examine the role played by the demand for university-based knowledge and university-developed technology. We identify links between businesses and the university as a key conduit facilitating the spillover of knowledge using data on the Department of Energy’s Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. We provide supply-side evidence on university research relationships and how the use of knowledge and technologies that flow from a university impact economic growth. We identify the role that SBIR-funded businesses play in the spillover of knowledge from the creating organization to where that knowledge is used and commercialized. Our results suggest that knowledge is systematically transmitted through university-related research.
    Keywords: Economic development; Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Licensing; SBIR program; University research
    JEL: L26 O31 O34
    Date: 2012–02–23
  3. By: Priit Vahter (Birmingham Business School, University of Birmingham); James Love (Birmingham Business School, University of Birmingham); Stephen Roper (Small and Medium Sized Enterprise Centre, Warwick Business School, University of Warwick)
    Abstract: Traditionally, literature on open innovation has concentrated on analysis of larger firms. We explore whether and how the benefits of openness in innovation are different for small firms (less than 50 employees) compared to medium and large ones. Using panel data over a long time period (1994-2008) from Irish manufacturing plants, we find that small plants have on average significantly lower levels of openness, a pattern which has not changed significantly since the early 1990s. However, the effect of ‘breadth’ of openness (i.e. variety of innovation linkages) on innovation performance is stronger for small firms than for larger firms. For small firms (with 10-49 employees) external linkages account for around 40 per cent of innovative sales compared to around 25 per cent in larger firms. Small plants also reach the limits to benefitting from openness at lower levels of breadth of openness than larger firms. Our results suggest that small firms can gain significantly from adopting an open innovation strategy, but for such firms appropriate partner choice is a particularly important issue.
    Keywords: Open innovation; SMEs; boundary-spanning linkages; learning effects; Ireland
    Date: 2012–01
  4. By: Ljungquist, Urban (CSIR, Blekinge Inst of Technology); Ghannad, Navid (Halmstad University)
    Abstract: • Purpose: To identify facilitating and redundant components of core competence development during the growth phases in entrepreneur-driven SMEs. • Methodology: Conducts a longitudinal empirical study based on large number of interviews. • Findings: Describes how individual competences critical for a start-up firm (entrepreneurial, market and network) eventually are transformed into organisational routines and institutionalised. Highlights distinction between competence and organisational structure. The latter could emerge incrementally in a firm, yet also be a tool to manage organisational change. • Research limitations/implications: Brings in-depth knowledge by qualitative analysis. Future studies should test our findings in large-scale study with quantitative analysis. • Practical implications: A start-up built on technology competence needs to combine with market competences, preferably in parallel, or in sequence, for ideal core competence development. To expand further, the entrepreneur ultimately must step down. Important to balance the firm's ambidexterity by adding exploitation to the initial exploration. To boost expansion further, explicate visions and policies must be added, which will guide and release employees' innovative drive. • Social implications: Suggests how entrepreneurial spirits could be transformed to facilitate growth beyond small firm size. • Originality/value: Informs scholars and managers of core competence facilitators during SMEs growth phases.
    Keywords: SME; growth; core competence; entrepreneurial; case study; Sweden
    JEL: M13
    Date: 2012–01–01
  5. By: Chong, T.T.L.; Lu, L.; Ongena, S. (Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research)
    Abstract: Abstract: Banking competition may enhance or hinder the financing of small and medium enterprises. Using a survey on the financing of such enterprises in China, combined with detailed bank branch information, we investigate how concentration in local banking market affects the availability of credit. We find that lower market concentration alleviates financing constraints. The widespread presence of joint-stock banks has a larger effect on alleviating these constraints, than the presence of city commercial banks, while the presence of state-owned banks has a smaller effect. (83 words)
    Keywords: Banking Competition;SMEs Financing;Credit Constraints.
    JEL: D41 D43 G21
    Date: 2012
  6. By: OGAWA Kazuo; TANAKA Takanori
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine the nature of the shocks that hit the small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Japan during the global financial crisis that occurred in the wake of the massive number of non-performing subprime loans in the U.S. We examine how the SMEs responded to the shocks, using the unique surveys that were conducted by the Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI) in 2008 and 2009. The shocks were identified as demand, supply and financial shocks. The demand shock was the most prevalent, while the financial shock was the least frequent. The SMEs took a spectrum of measures against the demand shock by seeking help from suppliers and financial institutions. We find that the measures taken by the SMEs crucially depended on the bank-firm relationship, but not on the customer-supplier relationship. The bank-dependent SMEs asked their closely-affiliated financial institutions for help, while the SMEs that were less dependent on financial institutions sought help primarily from their suppliers.
    Date: 2012–02
  7. By: Hernán Enríquez; Juan Tomás Sayago
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to test the spatial patterns in small and medium size manufacturing firms (11 to 50 employees for small size firms and 51 to 200 for medium size firms) in Bogotá, Colombia, from 2006 to 2008. For this, the Ripley’s K(r) function distance based method is used in order to measure the firms´ spatial concentration, using level of employment and firm size as identification variables, for a sample of four ISIC digits industries located inside the urban perimeter. In this case, the K(r) function allows the reader to establish clustering agglomeration tendencies in each industry and additionally evaluate if dynamic spatial concentration, dispersion, or randomness between firms thru time exists. Evaluating location by firm size would indicate us trends of employment and predominant industry activity in the city, and its relation with other urban features.
    Date: 2011–12–22
  8. By: François Goxe (DRM - Dauphine Recherches en Management - CNRS : UMR7088 - Université Paris IX - Paris Dauphine)
    Abstract: Les structures (publiques, para-publiques et privées) destinées à accompagner l'entrepreneur au delà des frontières nationales revêtent différentes natures, promeuvent différentes actions destinées notamment à favoriser l'insertion, le passage de l'entrepreneur dans un milieu ou champ international voire global/transnational. Paradoxalement, on remarque que si les offres d'accompagnement sont à la fois nombreuses, relativement complètes et pertinentes, les structures qui les proposent sont fréquemment l'objet de critiques voire de rejet de la part d'entrepreneurs, pourtant potentiellement bénéficiaires. La présente communication propose ainsi une extension au champ international de l'analyse notamment développée par Léger-Jarniou (2005). Cette étude expose les diverses formes d'accompagnement international existantes ainsi que les structures (françaises) qui les proposent. En deuxième lieu, en nous appuyant sur une étude empirique qualitative auprès de 37 individus, entrepreneurs tentant de se développer en Chine et leurs accompagnateurs, nous exposerons et analyserons les critiques émises par certains à l'encontre de ces programmes et structures d'accompagnement. Nous proposerons enfin plusieurs pistes d'amélioration à visée managériale.
    Date: 2011–10–15

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