nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2011‒07‒27
thirteen papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Notre-Dame de la Paix University

  1. Entrepreneurial motives and performance: Why might better educated entrepreneurs be less successful? By Arnab Bhattacharjee; Jean Bonnet; Nicolas Le Pape; Régis Renault
  2. New Start-ups and Firm In-migration - Evidence from the Swedish Wholesale Trade Industry By Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov; Elert, Niklas; Rudholm, Niklas
  3. Companies' growth in the ES: What is research and innovation policy's role? By Pietro Moncada-Paterno-Castello
  4. Intergenerational transmission of self-employed status in the informal sector: a constrained choice or better income prospects? Evidence from seven West-African countries By Pasquier-Doumer, Laure
  5. Socio-Economic Impact of Women Entrepreneurship in Sylhet City, Bangladesh By Chowdhury Abdullah Al-Hossienie
  6. Does Gibrat’s Law Hold for Retailing? Evidence from Sweden By Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov; Elert, Niklas; Lang, Åsa
  7. When is Gibrat's Law a Law? By Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov; Elert, Niklas
  8. Firm Growth in the Retail and Wholesale Trade Sectors – Evidence from Sweden By Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov; Lang, Åsa; Macuchova, Zuzana; Rudholm, Niklas
  9. Financial Development and Economic Growth in Latin America: Is Schumpeter Right? By Bittencourt, Manoel
  10. Firm migration in the Swedish wholesale trade sector By Håkansson, Johan; Macuchova, Zuzana; Rudholm, Niklas
  11. A New Method for Measuring Tail Exponents of Firm Size Distributions By Fujimoto, S.; Ishikawa, A.; Mizuno, T.; Watanabe, T.
  12. La création d’entreprise au féminin en Europe 2011- Eléments comparatifs By De Beaufort, Viviane
  13. Sélection naturelle ou volonté de puissance : comment interpréter le processus de destruction créatrice ? By André Lapied; Sophie Swaton

  1. By: Arnab Bhattacharjee; Jean Bonnet; Nicolas Le Pape; Régis Renault
    JEL: C15 D12 I11
  2. By: Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov (HUI Research); Elert, Niklas (The Ratio Institute); Rudholm, Niklas (HUI Research)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to distinguish between the determinants of new start-ups and in-migration of firms using a data-set that covers 13,471 limited liability firms in the Swedish wholesale trade industries during the period 2000-2004. Our results indicate that the presence of a university more than doubles the expected number of entrants and increases the expected number of in-migrating firms with 30%. A large share of educated workers and a high local unemployment rate is also associated with more start-ups and firm in-migration.
    Keywords: Firm growth; firm size; job creation; small firms
    JEL: L11 L25 L26
    Date: 2011–07–01
  3. By: Pietro Moncada-Paterno-Castello (JRC-IPTS)
    Abstract: One of the main objectives of the new European research and innovation policy agenda is to favour the positive demographics (creation and growth) of EU companies operating in new/knowledge-intensive industries, especially Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). These companies play an important role in shaping the dynamism of the economy’s sectoral composition, favouring the transition towards more knowledge-intensive activities (smart growth) and in contributing to the overall economic growth objectives and more and better jobs. But which kind of companies should be helped by policy? And how? This paper presents a literature review on the economics of research, innovation and competitiveness, focusing on the evidence available regarding the determinants for new and existing company creation and growth and the role played by Research, Development (R&D) and innovation. Furthermore, based on this, it draws a number of policy implications to design future research and innovation support instruments targeting innovative company growth in Europe. The result of this work indicates that: a) EU needs support policies to foster R&D investment in some specific typology of innovative companies and only where there are market failures and clear high social returns; b) the establishment of any targeted support instruments should take into account an integrated set of criteria including: firms' age and size, the sectors where firms operate, the involved risks in and potential for their innovative and commercial activities, the country/techno-economic environment, and the degree of internationalisation; c) to be successful, no matter the new targeted policies and supporting instruments, they should be designed using policy experimentation and its results should be regularly measured and evaluated using appropriate indicators and analyses.
    Keywords: Firm demographics and growth, Small and Medium Enterprises, economic dynamics, corporate research and innovation, EU competitiveness, EU policy.
    JEL: O31 L25 R38
    Date: 2011–07
  4. By: Pasquier-Doumer, Laure
    Abstract: Abstract Social reproduction is the highest for self-employed as shown by an extensive literature from developed and developing countries. Very few studies however document the reason for this high intergenerational correlation of the self-employed status. The rare studies that have been done concern the US and show that children of self-employed benefit from an advantage when they are themselves self-employed. The purpose of this paper is to test in the African context if the second-generation of self-employed has an advantage related to the first-generation. It aims at highlighting the debate between two visions: the first of informal sector as the less-advantaged sector of a dualistic labour market, and the second as a sector of personal choice and dynamic entrepreneurship. Using 1-2-3 surveys collected in the commercial capitals of seven West African countries in 2001-2002, this paper shows that the second-generation of informal self-employed does not have better outcomes than the first one, except when they choose a familial tradition in the same sector of activity. Thus, in the African context, having a self-employed father does not provide any advantage in terms of profit or sales and is not sufficient for the transmission of a valuable informal human capital. On the other hand, informal entrepreneurs who have chosen a specific enterprise based on familial tradition have a comparative advantage. Their comparative advantage is partly explained by the transmission of enterprise-specific human capital, acquired thanks to experiences in the same type of activity and by the transmission of social capital that guarantees a better clientele and a reputation. --
    Keywords: informal sector,entrepreneurship,intergenerational link
    JEL: L26 J24 J62
    Date: 2011
  5. By: Chowdhury Abdullah Al-Hossienie (Shahjalal University of Science and Technology)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on exploring the socio-economic impact of women entrepreneurship. Based on primary and secondary sources, it is found that nearly three quarters of the women entrepreneurs in Sylhet city are married and that they are mainly involved in tailoring and beauty parlor businesses. About half of the women entrepreneurs use their income for family purposes and most of them do not need permission of their husbands in using their income. Women entrepreneurship typically brings a positive change in attitude and behavior of family members and society towards them. Women?s involvement in economic activities is greatly needed, not only for their own development but also for the overall economic growth of the country. Though the Bangladeshi government has taken significant initiatives through different ministries to enhance women entrepreneurship, these initiatives are not always effective. This paper provides also some recommendations for policy makers to undertake suitable and effective policies towards women development.
    Keywords: Women Entrepreneurship, Development, Sylhet City, Bangladesh
    Date: 2011–07
  6. By: Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov (The Ratio Institute (RATIO)); Elert, Niklas (The Ratio Institute (RATIO)); Lang, Åsa (School of Technology and Business Studies)
    Abstract: Gibrat’s Law predicts that firm growth is a purely random effect and therefore should be independent of firm size. The purpose of this paper is to test Gibrat’s law within the retail industry, using a novel data-set comprising all Swedish limited liability companies active at some point between 1998 and 2004. Very few studies have previously investigated whether Gibrat’s Law seems to hold for retailing, and they are based on highly aggregated data. Our results indicate that Gibrat´s Law can be rejected for a large majority of five-digit retail industries in Sweden, since small retail firms tend to grow faster than large ones.
    Keywords: firm dynamics; firm size; firm growth; retail industry
    JEL: L11 L25 L81
    Date: 2011–01–01
  7. By: Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov (The Ratio Institute (RATIO)); Elert, Niklas (The Ratio Institute (RATIO))
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate if the industry context matters for whether Gibrat's law is rejected or not using a dataset that consists of all limited firms in 5-digit NACE-industries in Sweden during 1998-2004. The results reject Gibrat's law on an aggregate level, since small firms grow faster than large firms. However, Gibrat's law is confirmed about as often as it is rejected when industry-specific regressions are estimated. It is also found that the industry context - e.g., minimum e¢ cient scale, market concentration rate, and number of young firms in the industry - matters for whether Gibrat's law is rejected or not.
    Keywords: Firm growth; firm size; job creation; small firms
    JEL: L11 L25 L26
    Date: 2010–11–26
  8. By: Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov (The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI)); Lang, Åsa (Dalarna University); Macuchova, Zuzana (Dalarna University); Rudholm, Niklas (The Swedish Retail Institute (HUI))
    Abstract: To identify the determinants of firm growth within the Swedish retail – and wholesale trade industries during the period 1998- 2004, we analyze a sample of 400 limited companies using quantile regression techniques. Our results indicate that firm growth mainly can be explained by time-invariant firm-specific effects, supporting Penrose’s (1959) suggestion that internal resources such as firm culture, brand loyalty, entrepreneurial skills, and so on, are important determinants of firm growth rates.
    Keywords: firm dynamics; firm level heterogeneity; high-growth firms; resource-based view; quantile regression
    JEL: L11 L25 L26 L81
    Date: 2011–06–01
  9. By: Bittencourt, Manoel
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the role of financial development, or more widespread access to all sorts of finance, in generating economic growth in four Latin American countries between 1980 and 2007. The results, based on panel time-series data and analysis, confirm the Schumpeterian prediction which suggests that finance authorises the entrepreneur to invest in productive activities, and therefore to promote economic growth. Furthermore, given the characteristics of the sample of countries chosen, we highlight not only the importance of a more open, competitive and therefore active financial sector in channelling financial resources to entrepreneurs, but also the relevance of macroeconomic stability (in terms of low inflation rates), and all the institutional framework that it encompasses (central bank independence and fiscal responsibility laws), as a necessary pre-condition for financial development, and consequently for sustained growth and prosperity in the region. --
    Keywords: Finance,growth,Latin America
    JEL: E31 N16 O11 O54
    Date: 2011
  10. By: Håkansson, Johan (HUI Research); Macuchova, Zuzana (Dalarna University); Rudholm, Niklas (HUI Research)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the determinants of firm migration in the Swedish wholesale trade sector using a unique dataset covering over 10,000 Swedish wholesale trade firms during the years 2000 – 2004. The results indicate that there are negative correlations between profits, firm age, and firm size and the probability of firm migration. Also, there is a positive correlation between firm growth in the previous year and firm migration, indicating that growth opportunities that can not be realized at the present location is an important motive for migration.
    Keywords: Firm re-location; firm entry; firm demography; hierarchical random effects; logistic regression model
    JEL: L22 L81 R11 R30
    Date: 2011–07–01
  11. By: Fujimoto, S.; Ishikawa, A.; Mizuno, T.; Watanabe, T.
    Abstract: We propose a new method for estimating the power-law exponent of a firm size variable, such as annual sales. Our focus is on how to empirically identify a range in which a firm size variable follows a power-law distribution. As is well known, a firm size variable follows a power-law distribution only beyond some threshold. On the other hand, in almost all empirical exercises, the right end part of a distribution deviates from a power-law due to finite size effect. We modify the method proposed by Malevergne et al. (2011) so that we can identify both of the lower and the upper thresholds and then estimate the power-law exponent using observations only in the range defined by the two thresholds. We apply this new method to various firm size variables, including annual sales, the number of workers, and tangible fixed assets for firms in more than thirty countries.
    Keywords: Econophysics, power-law distributions, power-law exponents, firm size variables, finite size effect
    JEL: C16 D20 E23
    Date: 2011–07
  12. By: De Beaufort, Viviane (ESSEC Business School)
    Abstract: Servir de révélateur aux différentes dimensions de la création d‘entreprises au féminin, tel est l’objectif de cette étude comparative qui intégrant une dimension de genre tente d’appréhender la question à échelle de l’Europe avec davantage de développements sur le contexte français particulièrement exemplaire. L’entreprenariat féminin est partout un réservoir de croissance insuffisamment exploité. Il s’agit alors de cerner les motivations des femmes qui créent ou reprennent une entreprise et leurs spécificités éventuelles, les particularités des modèles d’entreprises « au féminin 3 (taille, service,mode de développement). Et également les obstacles à cette dynamique. Dans quelle mesure sont ils particuliers ? Quelles mesures d’accompagnement spécifiques faut-il, dés lors, continuer à développer ?
    Keywords: entreprenariat au féminin; approche en Europe; approche comparée
    Date: 2011–07–13
  13. By: André Lapied (GREQAM - Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille - Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille II - Université Paul Cézanne - Aix-Marseille III - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - CNRS : UMR6579); Sophie Swaton (Université de Lausanne - Université de Lausanne)
    Abstract: Aussi surprenant que cela puisse paraître, c'est à Werner Sombart et non à Joseph Schumpeter que l'on doit l'apparition du terme de destruction créatrice en économie. Il faut également noter que, contrairement à Schumpeter, Sombart revendique pleinement l'influence nietzschéenne. Mais, d'un autre côté, Sombart recourt également aux théories évolutionnistes, alors que Nietzsche a construit son propre concept de destruction créatrice de manière très critique vis-à-vis de l'évolutionnisme. Dans la mesure où le fait de se référer à deux thèses opposées pour fonder une théorie peut apparaître contradictoire, ce papier s'est donné pour objet d'examiner laquelle de ces positions semble la plus légitime pour éclairer le concept de destruction créatrice.
    Keywords: destruction créatrice; concurrence; théories évolutionnistes; Schumpeter; Nietzsche; volonté de puissance; innovation; entrepreneur
    Date: 2011–07–18

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