nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2011‒06‒04
five papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Notre-Dame de la Paix University

  1. On the Origins of Gender Roles: Women and the Plough By Alberto F. Alesina; Paola Giuliano; Nathan Nunn
  2. La création d'entreprise au féminin en Europe 2011 - Eléments comparatifs By Viviane De Beaufort
  3. Role of management control in small and medium enterprises performance assurance By Criveanu, Maria; Iacob, Constanta
  4. Japanese Banks' Decision Making Process in SME Lending: An analysis of the SME database and the utilization of investment and trust funds for SME financing (Japanese) By YOSHINO Naoyuki
  5. Sources of Future Economic Growth in Japan: An empirical analysis based on micro-data (Japanese) By FUKAO Kyoji; KWON Hyeog Ug

  1. By: Alberto F. Alesina; Paola Giuliano; Nathan Nunn
    Abstract: This paper seeks to better understand the historical origins of current differences in norms and beliefs about the appropriate role of women in society. We test the hypothesis that traditional agricultural practices influenced the historical gender division of labor and the evolution and persistence of gender norms. We find that, consistent with existing hypotheses, the descendants of societies that traditionally practiced plough agriculture, today have lower rates of female participation in the workplace, in politics, and in entrepreneurial activities, as well as a greater prevalence of attitudes favoring gender inequality. We identify the causal impact of traditional plough use by exploiting variation in the historical geo-climatic suitability of the environment for growing crops that differentially benefited from the adoption of the plough. Our IV estimates, based on this variation, support the findings from OLS. To isolate the importance of cultural transmission as a mechanism, we examine female labor force participation of second-generation immigrants living within the US.
    JEL: J16 N30
    Date: 2011–05
  2. By: Viviane De Beaufort (Public and Private Policy Department - ESSEC Business School)
    Abstract: Servir de révélateur aux différentes dimensions de la création d'entreprises au féminin, tel est l'objectif de cette étude comparative qui intégrant une dimension de genre tente d'appréhender la question à échelle de l'Europe avec davantage de développements sur le contexte français particulièrement exemplaire. L'entreprenariat féminin est partout un réservoir de croissance insuffisamment exploité. Il s'agit alors de cerner les motivations des femmes qui créent ou reprennent une entreprise et leurs spécificités éventuelles, les particularités des modèles d'entreprises " au féminin 3 (taille, service, mode de développement). Et également les obstacles à cette dynamique. Dans quelle mesure sont ils particuliers ? Quelles mesures d'accompagnement spécifiques faut-il, dés lors, continuer à développer ?
    Keywords: entreprenariat au féminin ; approche en Europe ; approche comparée
    Date: 2011–05–01
  3. By: Criveanu, Maria; Iacob, Constanta
    Abstract: The emergence and development of small and medium enterprises has been and continues to be a driving force for the remarkable economic progress, influencing and accelerating economic growth through more efficient use of resources. Characterized by flexibility, mobility, innovation and capacity to adapt, SMEs have continued to play an important role in economic and social life of any country, positioning itself in the steadily growing economy. Preserving and bracing the role of SMEs in the harmonious development of economy in general and especially to the Romanian economy can be achieved through management control. Management control should intercede in the process of taking decisions and influence the optimal operation of small and medium enterprises. It seeks to control the ability of management to create added value and influence stakeholders in applying the practice of concrete actions to reduce operating costs. During the current businesses period, the companies are operating in an unstable environment which is unpredictable in time and space and distorting the information. At the same time, it is considered that the main engine for creating jobs in Europe and to preserve and revive the economy, is represented by small and medium enterprises.
    Keywords: management control; creativity; SME
    JEL: M41 M21
    Date: 2011–05–27
  4. By: YOSHINO Naoyuki
    Abstract: This paper comprises three sections. First, it examines whether or not and how banks use non-quantitative data on borrowers, such as the management skills and personality of owners of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), when making lending decisions. Second, it explores the possibility of utilizing data collected from SMEs to assess the risk of their default. Third, it proposes a way to provide money to start-up companies and riskier businesses in the region.<br /><br />The first chapter is based on data collected through an interview survey conducted by Professor Tadanori Nemoto (Chuo University), Wako Watanabe (Keio University), and Yoshiaki Ogura (Ritsumeikan University). They found that qualitative data are used more often at the branch office level than at the headquarters level in making lending decisions. This shows that those working at headquarters prefer to use solid data when making their lending decisions whereas intuition and the borrowers' behavior play a large part in the decision process by those working at branches.<br /><br />In future research, an empirical analysis will be required to determine whether qualitative data are in fact sometimes important for SME lending and whether quantitative data are important even in the case of SMEs.<br /><br />The second chapter reviews the Credit Risk Database (CRD), a database of financial and non-financial information on Japanese SMEs. The chapter explains the mechanism of how SME data collected by prefectural and municipal credit guarantee corporations are integrated into the database. It also points to the importance of ensuring the independence of the database, which can be achieved by allowing the CRD Association (the administrator of the database) to secure revenue sources by offering consultation services to banks, such as the computation of default probabilities, for example.<br /><br />The establishment of a similar database of SME information in other parts of Asia would put Japanese SMEs and Japanese banks in a better position in launching and expanding operations in the region. Such a database would also help lower the default risks for SME lending in Asian countries. In this regard, cases related to Thailand and Indonesian are briefly discussed.<br /><br />The third chapter discusses ways of channeling more funds to start-ups and other relatively high-risk businesses. As the venture capital market in Japan is still not well developed, it is necessary to explore different channels to supply funds to SMEs and start-ups. This paper proposes the creation of regional investment and trust funds, which would be sold to the general public through regional banks and post offices. The funds are not on banks' balance sheets as they are not collected from depositors and any losses incurred by the funds are to be borne by investors. This is to say that banks and post offices are simply serving as sales agents. A few specific examples of such investment and trust funds are presented.
    Date: 2011–03
  5. By: FUKAO Kyoji; KWON Hyeog Ug
    Abstract: Using micro-data of the <i>Establishment and Enterprise Census and the Basic Survey of Japanese Business Structure and Activities</i>, we examine the characteristics of firms that were active in jobs creation, capital accumulation, and the improvement of total factor productivity (TFP). We also analyze in what industries jobs were created. Our main findings are as follows: (1) younger firms and affiliates of foreign firms have created many jobs through new entry and firm expansion, whereas most of the older and larger firms have been reducing employment; (2) most of the new jobs were created in the service sector, while job destruction mainly occurred in the manufacturing and construction sectors; (3) younger firms were also active in capital accumulation; (4) younger firms and foreign-owned firms tended to have a higher TFP level and achieve higher TFP growth; and (5) large firms, which were active in R&D, international trade, and direct investment abroad, also tended to have a higher TFP level and achieve higher TFP growth.
    Date: 2011–04

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