nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2010‒01‒30
eleven papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Notre-Dame de la Paix University

  1. Genome-wide Association Studies and the Genetics of Entrepreneurship By Loos, M. van der; Koellinger, Ph.D.; Groenen, P.J.F.; Thurik, A.R.
  2. Intrapreneurship - An international study By Niels Bosma; Sander Wennekers; Erik Stam
  3. "I Want to, But I also Need to": Start-Ups Resulting from Opportunity and Necessity By Marco Caliendo; Alexander S. Kritikos
  4. Entrepreneurship and Cultural Creativity By Michael Fritsch; Alina Rusakova
  5. Investigating the Perceptions of Credit Constraints in the European Union By Canton, E.J.F.; Grilo, I.; Monteagudo, J.; Zwan, P. van der
  6. Liquidity Constraints, Household Wealth, and Self-Employment: The Case of Older Workers By Julie Zissimopoulos; Lynn A. Karoly; Qian Gu
  7. Indian Entrepreneurial Success in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom By Robert W. Fairlie; Harry Krashinsky; Julie Zissimopoulos; Krishna B. Kumar
  8. Does family control of small business lead to under exploitation of their financial growth potential? Evidence of the existence of conservative growth behavior in family controlled French SMEs. By Anaïs Hamelin
  9. Not invented here: Technology licensing, knowledge transfer and innovation based on public research By Guido Buenstorf; Matthias Geissler
  10. Alternative Approaches to the Development of Early Childhood Education in Singapore By Yong Yik Wei; Aekapol Chongvilaivan; Chew Jing Yang
  11. Export Status and Performance in a Panel of Italian Manufacturing Firms By Vito Amendolagine; Rosa Capolupo; Nadia Petragallo

  1. By: Loos, M. van der; Koellinger, Ph.D.; Groenen, P.J.F.; Thurik, A.R. (Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), RSM Erasmus University)
    Abstract: We are currently investigating genetic influences on self-employment in an international research consortium using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). By meta-analysing results from numerous independent samples we address identification issues arising from multiple testing. To our knowledge, this is the earliest attempt to apply GWAS to an economic outcome of a relatively general nature. Our study will reveal potentials and limitations of this approach for economic research.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship;genetics
    Date: 2010–01–15
  2. By: Niels Bosma; Sander Wennekers; Erik Stam
    Abstract: This paper presents the results of a novel international study of intrapreneurship ( i.e., employees developing new business activities for their employer), carried out in eleven countries in the framework of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. At the individual level, it is found that intrapreneurs are much more likely to have intentions to start a new independent business than other employees. However, at the macro level the study finds a negative correlation between intrapreneurship and independent entrepreneurship. One explanation for these contrasting outcomes is a diverging effect of per capita income on intrapreneurship (positive effect) and early-stage entrepreneurial activity (negative effect).  
    Date: 2010–01–12
  3. By: Marco Caliendo; Alexander S. Kritikos
    Abstract: When unemployed persons go into business, they often are characterized as necessity entrepreneurs, because push factors, namely their unemployment, likely prompted their decision. In contrast to this, business founders who have been previously employed represent opportunity entrepreneurs because pull factors provide the rationale for their decision. However, a data set of nearly 1,900 business start-ups by unemployed persons reveals that both kind of motivation can be observed among these start-ups. Moreover, a new type of entrepreneur emerges, motivated by both push and pull variables simultaneously. An analysis of the development of the businesses reflecting three different motivational types indicates a strong relationship between motives, survival rates and entrepreneurial development. We find in particular that start-ups out of opportunity and necessity have higher survival rates than do start-ups out of necessity, even if both types face the same duration of previous unemployment.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Push and pull motives, survival and failure, job creation
    JEL: D81 J23 M13
    Date: 2009
  4. By: Michael Fritsch (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, School of Economics and Business Administration, Chair of Business Dynamics, Innovation, and Economic Change); Alina Rusakova (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, School of Economics and Business Administration, Chair of Business Dynamics, Innovation, and Economic Change)
    Abstract: We investigate the relationship between cultural creativity and entrepreneurship in two respects: first, cultural and personal creativity as a characteristic of self-employed individuals; second, self-employment in professions that can be classified as belonging to the 'Creative Class' as compared to the non-creative class. The analysis is based on micro-data for individuals of the German Socio Economic Panel (SOEP). We find, indeed, some significant links between entrepreneurship and cultural creativity that deserve further investigation.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, new business formation, cultural creativity, creative class
    JEL: L26 Z1
    Date: 2010–01–12
  5. By: Canton, E.J.F.; Grilo, I.; Monteagudo, J.; Zwan, P. van der (Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), RSM Erasmus University)
    Abstract: The promotion and support of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) forms an essential ingredient in policies to help improve Europe’s economic performance. A key issue in this context is whether SMEs face undue difficulty when trying to access credit. Using survey data from 2005 and 2006 covering almost 5,000 SMEs in the European Union, we investigate the determinants of firms’ perceived financing constraints, focusing on bank loans. It turns out that a firm’s age plays an important role in that older firms perceive external financing as being less difficult. Also, relationship banking helps to perceive an increased availability to credit. On the other hand, the ownership structure of a firm is not systematically related to perceived credit constraints, while turnover relaxes firms’ perceptions in the “new†EU 10 countries, but not in the “old†Member States. There exist significant country differences and this cross-country variation can be partly explained by the degree of competition in the banking sector. It has to be stressed that these survey data have been collected well before the present economic crisis; the results here do not describe the present situation but rather the more structural elements of the relationship between perceived access to credit and the determinants studied in a normal economic situation.
    Keywords: financing constraints;credit rationing;SMEs;Europe
    Date: 2010–01–04
  6. By: Julie Zissimopoulos; Lynn A. Karoly; Qian Gu
    Abstract: Evidence of liquidity constraints affecting entrepreneurship includes increasing rates of business formation with increases in household wealth and no relationship between the likelihood of business formation and wealth at high wealth levels. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study on workers over age 50 and employing probit regressions with a non-linear specification of household wealth and liquid wealth, the authors find the relationship between wealth and business formation is consistent with this pattern. The paper also finds that wealth matters more for the formation of businesses requiring high starting capital. Employing the availability of a lump-sum distribution option (LSO) of an employer-provided pension plan as a new proxy for liquidity, the results show that workers with an LSO are more likely than workers with a pension and without an LSO to transition into self-employment. This provides further evidence of the existence and importance of liquidity constraints.
    JEL: D31 L26
    Date: 2009–12
  7. By: Robert W. Fairlie; Harry Krashinsky; Julie Zissimopoulos; Krishna B. Kumar
    Abstract: Indian immigrants in the United States and other wealthy countries are successful in entrepreneurship. Using census data from the three largest developed countries in the world receiving Indian immigrantsÑthe United States, United Kingdom and Canada-the authors examine the performance of Indian entrepreneurs and the causes of their success. In the United States, Indian entrepreneurs have average business income that is substantially higher than the national average and is higher than any other immigrant group. High levels of education among Indian immigrants in the United States are responsible for nearly half of the higher level of entrepreneurial earnings while industry differences explain an additional 10 percent. In Canada, Indian entrepreneurs have average earnings slightly below the national average but they are more likely to hire employees, as are their counterparts in the United States and United Kingdom. The Indian educational advantage is smaller in Canada and the United Kingdom contributing less to their entrepreneurial success.
    JEL: L26 J15
    Date: 2009–12
  8. By: Anaïs Hamelin (Laboratoire de Recherche en Gestion et Economie, Université de Strasbourg)
    Abstract: This paper uses a very large sample of French SMEs to study growth of small businesses. Firms are distinguished according to the intensity of family control. The estimated relationship accounts for firm characteristics of size, age, sector, and ease to access credit. The results show that firms with greater family control are prone to exhibit lower rates of sales growth than feasible, given firm internal financing resources (ie they adopt a conservative growth behavior). Because firm growth is limited not by financing constraints but by family-related incentives to restrict firm size, increasing firm growth requires policies that shape incentives orientated toward growth in small family businesses.
    Keywords: Small Business, Family control, Growth, Sustainable growth, Tax evasion.
    JEL: G31 G32 M13 M21
    Date: 2010
  9. By: Guido Buenstorf; Matthias Geissler
    Abstract: Using a new dataset encompassing more than 2,200 inventions made by Max Planck Society researchers from 1980 to 2004, we explore how licensee and technology characteristics affect the licensing and commercialization of technologies from public research. We find no evidence that spin-offs and external licensees systematically differ in their likelihood of successful commercialization. Technologies licensed to foreign firms are less often commercialized, which may reflect selection effects. Patented technologies and inventions by senior scientists are more likely to be licensed, but patent protection is related to lower commercialization odds and lower royalty payments.
    Keywords: Licensing, public research, cognitive distance, entrepreneurship, Max Planck Society Length 24 pages
    JEL: L26 O32 O34
    Date: 2009–12
  10. By: Yong Yik Wei; Aekapol Chongvilaivan; Chew Jing Yang (Singapore Centre for Applied and Policy Economics)
    Abstract: A knowledge-intensive, innovation-driven economy needs innovative and creative individuals in business, government, and the various professions. Singapore’s education system has an important role to play in equipping the young with the right qualities. This could be better achieved by moving away from an overly rigid education system that places undue emphasis on rote learning and examination scores, to an education system that develops students’ creativity and critical thinking abilities, and encourages their innate curiosity and willingness to experiment. We examine, as a backdrop, various economic theories of entrepreneurship and, believing that it is important to begin with a good educational foundation, the features of some alternative approaches to pre-school education. We also examine Singapore’s attempts to promote independent thinking and creativity among Singaporean students, and other countries’ experiences, in particular those of Finland and the Netherlands. Among other issues, emphasis is placed on play and the fostering of students’ love of learning, in less structured settings, as the media of learning during early childhood education.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Pre-school Education; Play-based Learning; Reggio Emilia approach; Montessori Method; Teach Less, Learn More (TLLM) initiative
    JEL: I21 I28 I29
    Date: 2010–01
  11. By: Vito Amendolagine (Department of Economics & Mathematics, University of Bari); Rosa Capolupo (Department of Economics & Mathematics, University of Bari); Nadia Petragallo (Department of Economics & Mathematics, University of Bari)
    Abstract: Following a growing literature we test, in this paper, the two alternative hypotheses of self selection and learning by exporting across different Italian manufacturing firms. Using matched sampling techniques, we estimate whether new export-oriented firms are more efficient than domestically-oriented firms on the basis of three Italian representative Surveys of manufacturing firms covering consecutive triennial periods (1995-2003). Our findings indicate that export entrants improve their productivity in the first period after entry. This occurs for both total factor productivity (TFP) and labour productivity growth rates. These results are consistent with those found in the existing literature for many countries. The only lasting significant effect that we find among the different measures of performances is that new exporters earn higher profits than their domestic counterparts.
    Keywords: international trade, Export-led growth, productivity, matched techniques
    JEL: F11 F14 O12 C22
    Date: 2010–01

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