nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2009‒04‒13
six papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Notre-Dame de la Paix University

  1. The Internationalization of Science and its Influence on Academic Entrepreneurship By Stefan Krabel; Donald S. Siegel; Viktor Slavtchev
  2. Financial System and Innovations-Determinants of Early Stage Venture Capital in Europe By Christian Schröder
  3. The Dynamics of Entrepreneurship: Hysteresis, Business Cycles and Government Policy By Congregado, Emilio; Golpe, Antonio A.; Parker, Simon C.
  4. Migrant Entrepreneurship and New Urban Economic Opportunities By Peter Nijkamp; Mediha Sahin; Tüzin Baycan-Levent
  5. The Urban Growth Potential of Second-Generation Migrant Entrepreneurs - A Sectoral Study on Amsterdam By Tüzin Baycan-Levent; Peter Nijkamp; Mediha Sahin
  6. Assessing excess profits from different entry regulations By Joan-Ramon Borrell; Laura Fernández-Villadangos

  1. By: Stefan Krabel (Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena); Donald S. Siegel (University at Albany, SUNY); Viktor Slavtchev (Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena)
    Abstract: We conjecture that the mobility of academic scientists increases the propensity of such agents to engage in academic entrepreneurship. Our empirical analysis is based on a survey of researchers at the Max Planck Society in Germany. We find that mobile scientists are more likely to become nascent entrepreneurs. Thus, it appears that citizenship and foreign-education are important determinants of the early stages of academic entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Academic Entrepreneurship, Human Capital, Scientific Mobility, Knowledge Transfer, Immigrant Entrepreneurship
    JEL: L26 O31
    Date: 2009–04–02
  2. By: Christian Schröder (European Institute for International Economic Relations at the University of Wuppertal / Schumpeter School of Business and Economics)
    Abstract: This paper highlights the role of financial development in producing innovative products and services. After a general overview of the function of the financial structure as well as financial development in realizing product and service innovations, this work examines a financial intermediary which is particularly specialized to finance high-tech innovations – the venture capitalist (VC). We employ a panel analysis to illustrate whether technical opportunities, taxes, stock market development, relative size of the banking sector, GDP growth and laterstage venture capital influence early stage venture capital investments. The empirical analysis was conducted in 15 European countries and looked at the period from 1995 to 2005. The results show that technical opportunities, size of the stock market and banking sector, interest rate growth and the amount of later-stage venture capital have a significant positive and corporate tax rate a negative impact on the amount of early stage risk capital. The structure of the national financial system seems not to have a significant influence.
    Keywords: Early Stage Venture Capital, Risk Capital, Financial System, Financing Innovations
    JEL: G23
    Date: 2009–03
  3. By: Congregado, Emilio (University of Huelva); Golpe, Antonio A. (University of Huelva); Parker, Simon C. (University of Western Ontario)
    Abstract: This paper estimates an unobserved components model to explore the macro dynamics of entrepreneurship in Spain and the US. We ask whether entrepreneurship exhibits hysteresis, defined as a macro dynamic structure in which cyclical fluctuations have persistent effects on the natural rate of entrepreneurship. We find evidence of hysteresis in Spain, but not the US, while in both countries business cycle output variations significantly affect future rates of entrepreneurship. The article discusses implications of the findings for the design of entrepreneurship policies.
    Keywords: hysteresis, unobserved components model, time series models, business cycles, self-employment, entrepreneurship
    JEL: C32 E32 J24
    Date: 2009–03
  4. By: Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam); Mediha Sahin (VU University Amsterdam); Tüzin Baycan-Levent (Istanbul Technical University)
    Abstract: Nowadays, migrants form a significant share of the urban population, and their business is critical for urban economic growth. This paper addresses the key factors determining the position of migrant entrepreneurs in the urban economy in the Netherlands. In order to develop a solid assessment of CSFs for migrant entrepreneurs, and to understand business performance in a competitive urban environment, this study will investigate the entrepreneurial behaviour of migrants in Dutch cities from a micro-economic perspective by paying attention to the entrepreneurial behaviour of migrants, the role of their social networks, and the innovative potential of new growth markets in a city. Our research employs a comparative statistical analysis of empirical findings in order to map out opportunities, success conditions and bottlenecks for migrant entrepreneurs. Given our largely categorical database, we will employ a qualitative causal pattern recognition technique, viz. rough set analysis, to systematically assess the conditions for successful entrepreneurship of migrants.
    Keywords: Migrant entrepreneurship; rough set analysis; critical success factors; categorical pattern recognition analysis
    JEL: J61 L26
    Date: 2009–03–18
  5. By: Tüzin Baycan-Levent (Istanbul Technical University); Peter Nijkamp (VU University Amsterdam); Mediha Sahin (VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: This study focuses on the external orientations of the second-generation migrant entrepreneurs by addressing in particular the way – and the extent to which – the choice for entrepreneurship is made by higher-educated young ethnic generations. The empirical data of our study is based on in-depth personal interviews. We employed a recently developed multivariate qualitative classification method, called rough set analysis, in order to investigate the motivation, goals, and strategies of second-generation Turkish entrepreneurs in the ICT and the FIRE (i.e. Finance, Insurance and Real Estate) sectors in the Netherlands. The results of our study show that the second generation Turkish entrepreneurs in the Netherlands have started to be involved in new and non-traditional sectors like the ICT and FIRE sectors. The motivation and driving forces of the second-generation Turkish entrepreneurs stem from both their personal characteristics, shaped by their higher educational level, and their previous working experience as employees or entrepreneurs in the same sector.
    Keywords: second-generation migrant entrepreneurs; sectoral change in migrant entrepreneurship; Turkish migrant entrepreneurs; ICT and FIRE sectors; Amsterdam
    JEL: J61 L26
    Date: 2009–03–18
  6. By: Joan-Ramon Borrell (PPRE-IREA, Universitat de Barcelona); Laura Fernández-Villadangos (PPRE-IREA, Universitat de Barcelona)
    Abstract: Entry regulations affecting professional services such as pharmacies are common practice in many European countries. We assess the impact of entry regulations on profits estimating a structural model of entry using the information provided by a policy experiment. We use the case of different regional policies governing the opening of new pharmacies in Spain to show that structural models of entry ought to be estimated with data from policy experiments to pin down how entry regulations change payoffs functions of the incumbents. Contrary to the public interest rationales, regulations are not boosting only small town pharmacies payoffs nor increasing all pharmacies payoffs alike. The gains from regulations are very unevenly distributed,suggesting that private interests are shaping the current mix of entry and markup regulations.
    Keywords: Entry, regulation, professional services
    JEL: L51 H51 L84 I18
    Date: 2009–04

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