nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2008‒07‒05
seven papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Notre-Dame de la Paix University

  1. The Enable Program in the European Entrepreneurship Policy Context By David B. Audretsch; Heike Grimm
  2. Competencies and Institutions Fostering High-growth Firms By Henrekson, Magnus; Johansson, Dan
  3. The sustainability of start-up firms among formerly wage workers By Fernando Munoz-Bullon; Begona Cueto Iglesias
  4. Training Propensity of Start-ups in Switzerland - A Study Based on Data for the Start-up Cohort 1996-97 By Spyros Arvanitis; Tobias Stucki
  5. High Growth Firms and Job Creation in Finland By Matthias Deschryvere
  6. Schumpeterian Foundations of Real Business Cycles By Nuno Barrau, Galo
  7. Start-up Barriers in Germany: A Review of the Empirical Literature By Block, Jörn; Brockmann, Heiner; Klandt, Heinz; Kohn, Karsten

  1. By: David B. Audretsch (Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena, and Indiana University); Heike Grimm (University of Erfurt)
    Abstract: This article discusses the Lisbon Agenda from the perspective of entrepreneurship policy. After a brief overview of the events leading up to the development of the Lisbon Agenda, the authors describe the goals and content of this policy framework as well as of the Structural Funds. Using examples of initiatives toward implementation at the local level, the authors illustrate the necessity to promote entrepreneurship in order to foster economic growth in communities and regions. We assess how the new European growth policy became translated into an action plan realized through structural funds and community initiatives and demonstrate that a greater focus on entrepreneurship policy could strengthen the Lisbon Strategy and aid in the achievement of its goals.
    Keywords: Lisbon Agenda, Entrepreneurship Policy, Regional Development, Economic Development
    JEL: O52 M13 O18 R58
    Date: 2008–06–25
  2. By: Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Johansson, Dan (Ratio)
    Abstract: High-growth firms (HGFs) are critical for net job creation and economic growth. We analyze HGFs using the theory of competence blocs, linking firm growth to property rights and the interaction of complementary expertise. Specifically, we discuss how the institutional framework affects the prevalence and performance of HGFs. Firm growth is viewed as resulting from the perpetual discovery and use of productive knowledge. A key element in this process is the competence bloc, a nexus of economic actors with complementary competencies that are vital in order to generate and commercialize novel ideas. The institutional framework determines the incentives for these individuals to acquire and utilize knowledge. We identify a number of institutions that foster the emergence of competence blocs and the creation of HGFs. In particular, our analysis points to the pivotal roles played by tax structures, labor market regulation, and the contestability of currently closed service markets. Finally, we characterize institutions beneficial for sclerotic or dynamic capitalism, respectively, depending on whether they provide a favorable environment for the emergence of competence blocs and the creation of HGFs.
    Keywords: Competence Bloc; Dynamic Capitalism; Entrepreneurship; Flyers; Gazelles; High-growth Firms; Industrial Policy; Innovation; Institutions; Labor Security; Product Market Regulations; Property Rights; Sclerotic Capitalism; Self-employment; Tax Policy
    JEL: H32 L25 L50 M13 O31 P14
    Date: 2008–06–24
  3. By: Fernando Munoz-Bullon; Begona Cueto Iglesias
    Abstract: In this paper we analyse the survival of start-up firms among formerly wage workers in Spain. In particular, we address the question of how long do these workers remain self-employed before entering into unemployment or returning to a new paid-employment, using well-known duration model techniques. Results show that a higher survival rate in self-employment is associated to men, prime-age workers and individuals with higher previous labour turnover. Moreover, longer unemployment spells are found to speed up the rate of transition to non-employment and to reduce that to paid employment. Finally, the probability of exiting decreases with duration in self-employment.
    Keywords: Self-employment, Duration analysis
    JEL: J23
    Date: 2008–06
  4. By: Spyros Arvanitis (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich); Tobias Stucki (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich)
    Abstract: This study is based on data a cohort of Swiss firms that were founded in 1996/97. In the year 2000 data were collected by means of a postal survey among those firms, which still existed by that time. In 2003 and 2006 two further surveys were conducted among the participants of the respective last study. In this study we analyzed, firstly, the determinants of the propensity to train apprentices of new firms and how they change with increasing firm age. Secondly, we investigated how a firm’s training propensity correlated with its labour productivity. To this end, we specified an equation for training propensity and an equation for labour productivity, which included as an additional production factor the endogenized propensity to train apprentices.
    Keywords: start-ups, training, innovation, firm age
    JEL: J24 O30
    Date: 2008–05
  5. By: Matthias Deschryvere
    Abstract: ABSTRACT : The goal of this descriptive paper is to identify which firms add the most employment in Finland. The analysis is based on firm and establishment data from the Finnish Business Register (period 2003–2006). It is found that in 2006 Finland had 750 High Growth Firms (according to the OECD-definition). This represents roughly 5% of the firms with at least 10 employees. As growth has a multi-facetted nature it is crucial to not only focus on how much a firm grows but also how it grows. Not all of those 750 HGF’s grew organically. In fact, of all the jobs they created 65% turned out to be organic employment. There seems to be a positive relationship between the initial size of a HGF and what proportion of the employment is acquired. Correcting for acquisition growth leaves us with 642 organic HGF’s. The share of HGF’s was the highest in the sectors “other business activities”, “computer and related activities” and “health and social work”. It does look like a substantial number of HGF’s have been expanding due to trends in domestic outsourcing. Future research should focus on the causes and consequences of the expansion of those firms. Firm group information should be used as to be able to better capture shifts of employment between firms of the same group.
    Keywords: firm growth, high growth firms, job creation, growth patterns
    JEL: D21 L25 M13 O12 O40
    Date: 2008–06–30
  6. By: Nuno Barrau, Galo
    Abstract: In this paper I propose a dynamic stochastic general quilibrium model that includes many of Schumpeter’s ideas about growth and business cycles. In this model, technology advances are due to the introduction of vertical innovations by entrepreneurs who are funded by banks. The model is solved and estimated by bayesian methods for the U.S. economy to compute the value of some of its structural parameters. Results show that the presented innovation mechanism is roughly equivalent in terms of volatilies, correlations and impulse responses to the technology shocks in real business cycle models. Notwithstanding, the model differs from traditional RBC models as it incorporates technology catch-up features that affect the convergence to the steady-state.
    JEL: E27 C50 O40
    Date: 2008–06–20
  7. By: Block, Jörn; Brockmann, Heiner; Klandt, Heinz; Kohn, Karsten
    Abstract: Vor dem Hintergrund von Markt- und Staatsversagenstatbeständen leitet die wirtschaftstheoretische Literatur mögliche Hemmnisse für Existenzgründungen ab. Die vorliegende Studie unternimmt eine Systematisierung unterschiedlicher Facetten entsprechender empirischer Evidenz. Hierbei liegt ein Schwerpunkt auf Studien für Deutschland. Diese Studien identifizieren verschiedene Hemmnisse auf Faktor- und Absatzmärkten, wobei besonderes Augenmerk auf die Existenz von Finanzierungsschwierigkeiten gerichtet wird. So zeigen Gründer- und Unternehmensbefragungen, dass sich insbesondere innovative Gründer und kleine, junge Unternehmen auf Finanzmärkten Schwierigkeiten bei der Mittelbeschaffung gegenübersehen; auf Arbeitsmärkten fällt es Gründungen im Vergleich zu etablierten Unternehmen schwerer qualifiziertes Personal zu gewinnen; und beim Eintritt in einen Absatzmarkt werden Kundensuche und Auftragsakquisition als schwierig empfunden, während auf der Lieferantenseite kaum Hindernisse gesehen werden. Hinsichtlich staatlicher Rahmenbedingungen deuten Umfragestudien und internationale Institutionenvergleiche darauf hin, dass bürokratische Hürden und Regelungen des Arbeits- und des Insolvenzrechts gründungshemmend wirken können. Steht schließlich die Gründerperson im Blickfeld, so zeigen individualpsychologische Studien, dass in Deutschland gründungshemmende Defizite im Bereich der persönlichen Risikotoleranz sowie beim Vertrauen in eigene unternehmerische Fähigkeiten bestehen. Andererseits sind einige gründungsförderliche Eigenschaften wie z. B. Leistungsbereitschaft im Ländervergleich stark ausgeprägt. Insgesamt legt unsere Synopsis eine Vielzahl von Gründungshemmnissen offen, deren Existenz durch eine breite Palette empirischer Evidenz untermauert ist. Wie allerdings diese Hemmnisse, die beispielsweise aus internationalen Vergleichen institutioneller Rahmenbedingungen herauszulesen sind oder die im Zuge von Umfragestudien artikuliert werden, letztendlich einzuordnen sind und ob sie tatsächlich auf Marktversagen (bspw. bei der Gründungsfinanzierung) oder Staatsversagen (bspw. im Zusammenhang mit rechtlichen Rahmensetzungen) zurückzuführen sind, bleibt trotz der Fülle empirischer Studien offen – zu defizitär sind häufig die Datengrundlagen und verwendeten Methoden, die hinreichend abgesicherte Aussagen diesbezüglich ermöglichen würden.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Existenzgründung; Gründungshemmnis; Empirie; Deutschland
    JEL: L26 D78 M13
    Date: 2008–06–28

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