nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2007‒12‒08
six papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Notre-Dame de la Paix University

  1. Do Entrepreneurial attributes change during the Life Courses of Enterprises and Entrepreneurs? By Nandram, Sharda S.; Born, Maryse Ph.; Samsom, Karel J.
  2. Turning science into business: A case study of a major European research university. By Azèle Mathieu; Martin Meyer; Bruno Van Pottelsberghe
  3. Barriers to innovation and public policy in Catalonia By Agustí Segarra-Blasco; José García-Quevedo; Mercedes Teruel-Carrizosa
  4. Do innovation and human capital explain the productivity gap between small and large firms? By Laia Castany; Enrique Lopez-Bazo; Rosina Moreno
  5. Accelerated Development of Organizational Talent By Konstantin Korotov
  6. Schumpeter et la sociologie économique : le cas de l'entrepreneur By Abdelaziz Berkane

  1. By: Nandram, Sharda S.; Born, Maryse Ph.; Samsom, Karel J. (Nyenrode Business Universiteit)
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between entrepreneurial attributes and life stages of entrepreneurs and enterprises in a sample of 276 entrepreneurs. Findings revealed that most attributes remained constant across the life stages of the enterprises. Yet, as was expected, flexibility and awareness of opportunities became less characteristic as the enterprise moved from the start-up stage through its entrepreneurial and maturity stage. The attributes achievement orientation, assertiveness, awareness of opportunity and integrity became less characteristic across the life stages of the entrepreneur. The results are in contrast with the findings of the maturity model of personality development (Roberts, Robin 2004) but confirm organizational and vocational choice models (Schneider, Goldstein, and Smith 1995). A self-selection principle is probably at work: individuals who score very high on entrepreneurial attributes are attracted to this vocation but over their lifetime the scores on these attributes converge to more average levels
    Keywords: personality, behavioral attributes, entrepreneurs, life courses, life span
    Date: 2007
  2. By: Azèle Mathieu (Centre Emile Bernheim, Solvay Business School, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels.); Martin Meyer (SPRU - Science & Technology Policy Research Freeman Centre University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.); Bruno Van Pottelsberghe (Centre Emile Bernheim, Solvay Business School, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels and DULBEA, Université Libre de Bruxelles and ECARES, Université Libre de Bruxelles.)
    Abstract: The ‘entrepreneurial university’ is an increasingly frequent notion in debates about new ways of knowledge production and the changing relationships between university, industry and government. A rich literature has developed exploring outputs of such activity, most notably ‘patenting’, ‘licensing’, and ‘spin-outs’. There is also a literature exploring the organisational process in institutes of higher education (HEI’s). All too often these two streams of literature ignore each other. The objective of this paper is to make a bridging contribution by exploring the case of Université Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.). The main research question is: Does it pay to make the entire university entrepreneurial? Our observations suggest that this would be an effort that could possibly overstretch an institution’s resources. The U.L.B. case illustrates the potential for nurturing entrepreneurial activities locally as well as the possibilities and limitations of top-down actions instilling entrepreneurial culture mongst academic rank and file.
    Keywords: technology transfer, entrepreneurial university, patent, licenses, spin-off
    JEL: D23 M13 O31 O32 O34
    Date: 2007–12
  3. By: Agustí Segarra-Blasco (Research Group of Industry and Territory (GRIT); Rovira i Virgili University (URV)); José García-Quevedo (Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB); Universitat de Barcelona (UB)); Mercedes Teruel-Carrizosa (Research Group of Industry and Territory (GRIT); Rovira i Virgili University (URV))
    Abstract: The present paper analyses the link between firms’ decisions to innovate and the barriers that prevent them from being innovative. The aim is twofold. First, it analyses three groups of barriers to innovation: the cost of innovation projects, lack of knowledge and market conditions. Second, it presents the main steps taken by Catalan Government to promote the creation of new firms and to reduce barriers to innovation. The data set used is based on the 2004 official innovation survey of Catalonia which was taken from the Spanish CIS-4 sample. This sample includes individual information on 2,954 Catalan firms in manufacturing industries and knowledge-intensive services (KIS). The empirical analysis reveals pronounced differences regarding a firm’s propensity to innovate and its perception of barriers. Moreover, the results show that cost and knowledge barriers seem to be the most important and that there are substantial sectoral differences in the way that firms react to barriers. The results of this paper have important implications for the design of future public policy to promote entrepreneurship and innovation together.
    Keywords: Obstacles to innovation, industrial policy, innovation system.
    JEL: O31 O38 D21
    Date: 2007
  4. By: Laia Castany (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona); Enrique Lopez-Bazo (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona); Rosina Moreno (Faculty of Economics, University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: Empirical evidence is compelling that large firms are more productive than small firms. The hypothesis in this paper is that the productivity differences between small and large firms are associated with two of the main determinants of a firm’s performance: the human and technological capital that firms incorporate. We suggest that the contribution of these factors in explaining the size of the productivity gap might not only be due to the fact that large firms make a more extensive use of them, but also because large firms obtain higher returns from their investment in human and technological capital. The evidence we obtain for a comprehensive sample of Spanish manufacturing firms (1990-2002) supports this hypothesis, which has important implications for the effectiveness of policies designed to improve productivity in SMEs by stimulating innovation and the use of more skilled workers.
    Keywords: total factor productivity; innovation; skilled labour; firm size.
    JEL: D24 J24 L25
    Date: 2007–11
  5. By: Konstantin Korotov (ESMT European School of Management and Technology)
    Abstract: This working paper explores the challenges of accelerated development of organizational talent. The meaning of the word "accelerated" is that such development takes place at a pace that is significantly higher than that of "traditional" development that allows an individual to learn the intricacies of the current job, observe incumbents in a higher level position (usually, one level up), practice elements of the boss' job when being delegated tasks, undergoing formal training, or benefiting from the knowledge accumulated by others and codified in the knowledge management systems. Accelerated development means, contrary to the usual, more traditional developmental path, bypassing traditionally expected career steps, stretched over a longer period of time learning opportunities, and/or age-related developmental progression. Accelerated development is a necessity for organizati of qualified individuals in the internal or external labor markets, and significant pressures from other organizations that are ready to "poach" talented executives and employees and offer them even higher levels of responsibility and remuneration. Organizations also respond with accelerated development initiatives to the individuals engaged in career entrepreneurship, i.e., those who make alternative career investments in order to enjoy quicker returns in terms of career growth and progression. This paper discusses the challenges of accelerated development programs, such as not only learning the competencies required in the new position, but also developing a new identity. The paper discusses the process of going through an accelerated development program and identifies its important elements: preentry experience, initial surprise of getting into the accelerated program's environment and learning to use it, engaging in identity exploration through examining past and present identities, staging identity experiments, and, finally, stepping out of the program into the real world.
    Keywords: organizational behavior, human resource management, executive education, identity, accelerated development
    Date: 2007–09–27
  6. By: Abdelaziz Berkane (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR6227 - Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis)
    Abstract: Les écrits sociologiques mais également économiques de Schumpeter sont traversés par l’idée d’une science sociale unifiée, basée sur un élargissement d’analyse du phénomène de développement économique à un processus plus global de changement social. La sociologie économique, définie comme théorie des institutions, est selon Schumpeter la méthode pour appréhender un tel processus. Cette perspective plus large participe, selon l’auteur, au développement de la théorie économique. Cet article montre comment une telle perspective permet l’approfondissement de la théorie de l’innovation, en inscrivant en particulier l’analyse de l’entrepreneur dans une analyse plus générale du leadership social.
    Keywords: entrepreneur ; innovation ; sociologie économique
    Date: 2007–05–14

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