nep-ent New Economics Papers
on Entrepreneurship
Issue of 2007‒09‒02
five papers chosen by
Marcus Dejardin
Notre-Dame de la Paix University

  1. A Study of Academic Entrepreneurs Using Venture Capital Data By Junfu Zhang
  2. The Advantage of Experienced Start-Up Founders in Venture Capital Acquisition: Evidence from Serial Entrepreneurs By Junfu Zhang
  3. Prior knowledge and entrepreneurial innovative success By Uwe Cantner; Maximilian Goethner; Andreas Meder
  4. Exploring the Boundary between Entrepreneurship and Corporate Venturing: From Assisted Spin-outs to Entrepreneurial Spin-offs By E. VAN DE VELDE; B. CLARYSSE; M. WRIGHT; G. RAYP; J. BRUNEEL
  5. Informality as a Stepping Stone: Entrepreneurial Entry in a Developing Economy By John Bennett; Saul Estrin

  1. By: Junfu Zhang (Clark University and IZA)
    Abstract: Academic entrepreneurship has become an increasingly important channel through which universities contribute to economic development. This paper studies academic entrepreneurs using a comprehensive venture capital database. I find that about two-thirds of the academic entrepreneurs locate their businesses in the same state as their universities. National academy membership and number of faculty awards, measures of a university’s research quality, are the most significant variables in explaining the number of academic entrepreneurs from a university. In contrast, the abundance of venture capital near the university has no significant effect on academic entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: academic entrepreneur, university spin-off, venture capital
    JEL: M13
    Date: 2007–08
  2. By: Junfu Zhang (Clark University and IZA)
    Abstract: Existing literature suggests that entrepreneurs with prior firm-founding experience have more skills and social connections than novice entrepreneurs. Such skills and social connections could give experienced founders some advantage in the process of raising venture capital. This paper uses a large database of venture-backed companies and their founders to examine experienced founders' access to venture capital. Compared to novice entrepreneurs, entrepreneurs with venture-backed founding experience tend to raise more venture capital at an early round of financing and tend to complete the early round much more quickly. In contrast, experienced founders whose earlier firms were not venture-backed do not show a similar advantage over novice entrepreneurs, suggesting the importance of connections with venture capitalists in the early stage of venture capital financing. However, when the analysis also takes into account later rounds of financing, all entrepreneurs with prior founding experience appear to raise more venture capital. This implies that skills acquired from any previous founding experience can make an entrepreneur perform better and in turn attract more venture capital.
    Keywords: firm-founding experience, serial entrepreneur, venture capital
    JEL: M13 G24
    Date: 2007–07
  3. By: Uwe Cantner (School of Business and Economics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Germany); Maximilian Goethner (School of Business and Economics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Germany); Andreas Meder (School of Business and Economics, Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Germany)
    Abstract: This paper is concerned with the relationship between innovative success of entrepreneurs and their prior knowledge at the stage of firm formation. We distinguish between different kinds of experience an entrepreneur can possess and find evidence that the innovative success subsequent to firm formation is enhanced by entrepreneur's prior technological knowledge but not by prior market and organizational knowledge. Moreover we find that prior technological knowledge gathered through embeddedness within a research community has an additionally positive influence on post start-up innovative success. This is a first hint towards the importance of collective innovation activities.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Networks, Prior knowledge
    JEL: L25 O31 Z13
    Date: 2007–08–27
    Abstract: Corporate entrepreneurship and corporate spin-offs have gained importance over the last decades. Corporate spin-offs play an increasingly important role in the development and growth of emerging, high-technology industries, thereby contributing to economic growth. While previous studies on corporate spin-offs have taken the established firm as a point of departure, a central issue concerns the locus of entrepreneurs. We adopt a bottom-up approach by considering those spin-offs that are created by employees, based upon an opportunity spotted while working for the parent company. Based upon the knowledge-based theory of the firm and the literature on opportunity identification, we develop a typology of corporate spin-offs. We identified three types of corporate spin-offs: Assisted spin-outs, Restructuring-driven spin-outs and Entrepreneurial Spin-offs. These types of corporate spin-offs differ from each other in terms of nature and formality of knowledge transfer; detection and implementation of opportunity identification; and performance. Based upon an in-depth analysis of 41 corporate spin-offs in Flanders, we found that Entrepreneurial Spin-offs outperform both Assisted and Restructuring-driven spin-outs on all four performance indicators. Our findings imply that parent companies often miss possibilities to capture value from opportunities that were originally developed in the parent company.
    Date: 2007–06
  5. By: John Bennett (Brunel University and IZA); Saul Estrin (London School of Economics and IZA)
    Abstract: We model decisions with respect to formality or informality for entrepreneurs in a new industry for a developing economy. We show that informality allows a leader to explore, without significant sunk costs, the potential profitability of the industry; that is, informality may be a stepping stone, enabling an entrepreneur to experiment cheaply in an uncertain environment. There are circumstances under which, without this option, the industry would not become established. We analyse the roles of parameters such as a minimum wage rate and we show that the existence of finance constraints can actually encourage entry in this context.
    Keywords: informal sector, entry, developing economy
    JEL: O17 L10
    Date: 2007–07

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